Location of Repository

Electron and X-ray Microanalysis of Planetary Materials: from Comet 81P/Wild2 to the Surface of Mars

By Hitesh Gunvant Changela


This thesis concerns the electron and X-ray microanalysis of planetary materials: from Comet 81P/Wild2 to the surface of Mars. Advanced techniques in electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy have been developed for the microanalysis of the nakhlite martian meteorites and Comet 81P/Wild2 samples from the Stardust Mission. \ud Electron microprobe analysis and a Focussed Ion Beam - Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) technique for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to analyse the secondary mineral assemblages in the nakhlites. Fracture-filling assemblages in the nakhlites are found to be dominated by an amorphous, hydrated Fe-silicate - a ‘gel’. The gel decreases in Mgat/Mgat+Feat ratio going up the expected depth profile of the nakhlites. Other phases, especially 2:1 smectites - 1:1 phyllosilicate and carbonate are associated with the gel. Newly discovered 1:1 phyllosilicate, suggested to be serpentine, is also found in the mesostasis of Lafayette. A model is proposed describing the formation of the nakhlites’ secondary assemblages by an impact-induced hydrothermal system based on the mineralogical and geochemical differences between different samples. \ud A suite of Stardust cometary samples have also been analysed using FIB-TEM and microfocus X-ray spectroscopy that includes: X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) and Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) at the Diamond synchrotron. Attempts have been made to distinguish the cometary material from that formed by capture heating in aerogel via the identification of ferric-oxides at track entrances. \ud Finally, the mineralogy and morphology of a terminal particle from Stardust track #154 was studied by analytical TEM. The results show that Comet Wild2 contains a unique Al-diopside-bearing grain, having affinities with the minerals found in refractory objects from the inner Solar System. Upon comparison with different early Solar System materials, the grain’s mineral assemblage most closely resembles Al-rich chondrules. This adds to the refractory inventory identified in Comet 81P/Wild2

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2011
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9378

Suggested articles



  1. (1950). A comet model. I. The acceleration of Comet Enke.
  2. (1986). A discussion of isotopic systematics and mineral zoning in the shergottites: Evidence for a 180 M.y. igneous crystallization age.
  3. (2006). A model for planetesimal meltdown by Al-26 and its implications for meteorite parent bodies.
  4. (2002). A model of the termal processing of particles in solar nebula shocks: application to the cooling rates of chondrules.
  5. (2000). A precise new method of microsampling chondritic material for transmission electron microscope analysis: preliminary application to calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions and associated matrix material
  6. (1984). A rapid curved-wave theory of EXAFS.
  7. (2008). A refractory inclusion returned by Stardust from comet 81P/Wild 2. Meteoritics and Planetary Science
  8. (2004). A Survey of alteration products and other secondary minerals recovered from
  9. (2008). A TEM study of thermally modified comet 81P/Wild 2 dust particles by interaction with the aerogel matrix during the Stardust capture process. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 43:97–120.
  10. (2010). A Younger Age for ALH84001 and Its Geochemical Link to Shergottite Sources in Mars.
  11. (1988). Abundances of the elements: Meteoritic and solar.
  12. (2006). Acrylic embedding of Stardust particles encased in aerogel.
  13. (2001). Ages and geologic histories of martian meteorites.
  14. (2001). Alteration assemblages in the martian meteorites: implications for near-surface processes.
  15. (2004). Amoeboid olivine aggregates and realated objects in carbonaceous chondrites: records of nebula and asteroid processes. Chemie der Erde
  16. (2007). An experimental approach to understanding the optical effects of space weathering.
  17. (2000). An experimental study on kinetically-driven precipitation of calcium, magnesium, and iron carbonates from solution: Implications for the low-temperature formation of carbonates in martian meteorite Allan Hills 84001.
  18. (1992). An interplanetary dust particle with links to CI chondrites.
  19. (1966). An Introduction to the Rock Forming Minerals. Longmans,
  20. (1991). Analytical studies of impact experiments simulating capture of cosmic dust
  21. (2001). Application of Electron Probe Microanalysis to the study of geoplogical and planetary materials.
  22. (2008). Applied focused ion beam techniques for sample preparation of astromaterials for integrated nanoanalysis.
  23. (1991). Aqueous alteration of the Nakhla meteorite.
  24. (2009). Ar – 40Ar ages of the martian nakhlites.
  25. (1988). Aspects of the major element composition of Halley‟s dust.
  26. (2006). Brecciation and chemical heterogeneities of CI chondrites.
  27. (2008). Bulbous Tracks Arising From Hypervelocity Capture
  28. (1970). Ca-Al rich phases in the Allende meteorite.
  29. (1983). Ca-Al-rich chondrules and inclusions in ordinary chondrites.
  30. (2004). Ca, Al-rich inclusions, amnoeboid olivine aggregates and Al-rich chondrules from the unique carbonaceous chodrite Acfer 094: I. Mineralogy and petrology.
  31. (1988). Calcium carbonate and sulfate of possible extraterrestrial origin in the EETA 79001 meteorite.
  32. (2008). Camparing Wild2 paricles to chondrites and IDPs.
  33. (2010). Carbonates and martian climate.
  34. (2007). Characterization of mineral surfaces using FIB and TEM: A case study of naturally weathered alkali feldspars.
  35. (2008). Chemical analysis of a large Stardust track associated with a presolar grain. (abstract #2363)
  36. (2006). Chemical Processes in Igneous Calcium-Aluminum-rich Inclusions: a Mostly CMAS View of Melting and Crystallization.
  37. (1994). Chemically Anomalous, Preaccretionally Irradiated Grains in Interplanetary Dust from Comets.
  38. (2004). Chemistry of Rocks and Soils in Gusev Crater from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer.
  39. (1992). CHON as a component of dust from comet Halley.
  40. (2007). Chondrites and their components.
  41. (1986). Clay-mineraloid weathering products in Antarctic meteorites.
  42. (2006). Comet 81P/Wild 2 under a microscope.
  43. (2002). Comet grains: their IR emission and their relation to ISM grains.
  44. (2008). Comparison of comet 81P/Wild 2 dust with interplanetary dust from comets.
  45. (2010). Comparison of the oxidation state of Fe in comet 81P/Wild 2 and chondritic-porous interplanetary dust particles.
  46. (1994). Compositional variations of olivines and pyroxenes in chondratic interplanetary dust particles. Meteoritics 29:616-620. Changela
  47. (1905). Concerning an Heuristic Point of View Toward the Emission and Transformation of Light.
  48. (2007). Coordinated isotopic and mineralogic analyses of planetary materials enabled by in situ lift-out with a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope.
  49. (1998). Correlated mineralogy, chemical compositions, oxygen isotopic compositions and size of chondrules.
  50. (2001). Cratering chronology and the cvolution of Mars.,
  51. Crystal chemistry of the magnetiteulvoespinel series.
  52. (1974). Crystalline Solids.
  53. (1980). Deformation mechanisms in mildly shocked chondritic diopside.
  54. (1987). Densities of Na2O-K2O-CaO-MgO-FeOFe2O3-Al2O3-TiO2-SiO2 liquids - new measurements and derived partial molar properties.
  55. (1989). Determination of experimental and theoretical KAsi factors for a 200-kV analytical electron microscope.
  56. (2006). Dissociation of Liquid Silica at High Pressures and Temperatures. Physical Review Letters 97(025502):1-4.
  57. (1999). Diversity of comets: formation zones and dynamical paths. Space Science Reviews 90:301–311.
  58. (2008). Dust from comet Wild 2: interpreting particle size, shape, structure and composition from impact features on the Stardust aluminium foils.
  59. (2007). Early geochemical environment of Mars as determined from thermodynamics of phyllosilicates.
  60. (1990). Effects of pressure and isotopic substitution on the Raman spectrum of α-Fe2O3: identification of two-magnon scattering.
  61. (1997). Effects of pressure on the crystal structure of olivine in harzburgite xenolith of basalt.
  62. (2005). Ejection of martian meteorites.
  63. (2001). Electron Diffraction in the Transmission Electron Microscope.
  64. (2005). Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology.
  65. (1965). Electron Microscopy of Thin Crystals.
  66. (2005). Electron-beam assisted platinum deposition as a protective layer for FIB and TEM applications.
  67. (2006). Elemental compositions of comet 81P/Wild 2 samples collected by Stardust.
  68. (1968). Empirical correction factors for the electron microanalysis of silicates and oxides.
  69. (2000). enrichments in aluminium-rich chondrules from ordinary chondrites.
  70. (1992). Evidence by transmission electron microscopy of weathering microsystems in soils developed from crystalline rocks.
  71. (1999). Examining martian alteration products using in Changela
  72. (2000). Experimental hydrothermal alteration of a martian analogue basalt implications for martian meteorites.
  73. (2006). Extraterrestrial chromite in the resurge deposits of the early Late Ordovician Lockne crater,
  74. (2009). Fabrication and characterization of aspherical lens manipulated by an electrostatic field.
  75. (1998). Ferrian saponite in a gabbro saprolite at Mont Mégantic, Quebec. Clays and Clay Minerals
  76. (2004). First report of taenite in an asteroidal interplanetary dust particle: Flash-heating simulates nebula dust evolution (abstract #1060).
  77. (2008). Focused ion beam techniques in TEM sample preparation of planetary materials -application to Stardust & SNC Meteorites. UK Planetary Forum
  78. (2007). Formation conditions of aluminium-rich chondrules.
  79. (1999). Formation of a martian pyroxenite: a comparative study of the nakhlites and Theo‟s Flow.
  80. (1948). Formation of Optical Images by X-Rays.
  81. (2004). Fundamentals of XAFS. Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources
  82. (2002). High molecular weight organic matter in martian meteorites.
  83. (2002). High Resolution Focused Ion Beams.
  84. (1986). High resolution imaging of ordered mixed layer clays. Clay and clay minerals
  85. (1987). High-temperature stability of San Carlos olivine.
  86. (1975). Hisingerite occurring as a weathering product of ironrich saponite.
  87. (1985). Hydrated interplanetary dust particle linked with carbonaceous chondrites?
  88. (2008). Hydrated silicate minerals on Mars observed by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM instrument.
  89. (2003). Hydrothermal alteration at the Lonar Lake. impact structure, India: Implications for impact cratering on Mars.
  90. (2009). I18 - the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source.
  91. (2010). Identification of Carbonate-Rich Outcrops on Mars by the Spirit Rover.
  92. (2009). Igneous Ca-rich pyroxene in comet 81P/Wild 2. American Mineralogist 93:1933–1936.
  93. (2006). Impact features on Stardust: Implications for Comet 81P/Wild 2 dust.
  94. (2008). Impact of structural features on pigment properties of alpha - Fe2O3 haematite.
  95. (2009). Impact-generated hydrothermal systems capable of forming phyllosilicates on Noachian Mars.
  96. (2005). Impact-induced hydrothermal activity on early Mars.
  97. (2001). Impact-induced hydrothermal systems: heat sources and lifetimes (abstract #1727).
  98. (2008). In-situ Fe XANES of extraterrestrial grains trapped in aerogel collectors: An analytical test for the interpretation of Stardust samples analyses.
  99. (1988). Intact capture of hypervelocity micrometeoroid analogs.
  100. (1998). Interplanetary Dust Particles in Planetary Materials
  101. (1986). Ion composition and dynamics at Comet Halley.
  102. (2007). Iron speciation in soils and soil aggregates by synchrotron-based X-ray microspectroscopy (XANES,
  103. (1999). Iron-rich saponite: dissolution reactions and Cr uptake.
  104. (2004). Jarosite and Hematite at Meridiani Planum from Opportunity's Mössbauer Spectrometer.
  105. (2009). Kosmochloric Ca-rich pyroxenes and FeO-rich olivines (Kool grains) and associated phases in Stardust tracks and chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles: Possible precursors to FeO-rich type II chondrules in ordinary chondrites.
  106. (2009). Laihunite and jarosite in the Yamato 00 nakhlites: alteration products on Mars?
  107. (2002). Lead isotopic ages of chondrules and calcium– aluminum-rich inclusions.
  108. (2006). Mars Meteorite Compendium. Accessed
  109. (2005). Mars Surface Diversity as revealed by the OMEGA/Mars Express Observations.
  110. (2004). Mechanism of formation of glass with embedded metal and sulfides.
  111. (1999). Metastable non-stoichiometric diopside and Mg-wollastonite: An occurrence in an interplanetary dust particle.
  112. (1999). Meteorites: A petrologic, chemical and osotopic synthesis.. Cambridge:
  113. (1994). Microanalysis by Means of Electrons.
  114. (2003). Microscale oxygen isotopic exchange and formation of magnetite in the Ningqiang anomalous carbonaceous chondrite.
  115. (2008). Microstructural indications for protoenstatite precursor of cometary mgsio3 pyroxene:a further high-temperature component of Comet Wild-2.
  116. (2001). Microstructural shock signatures of major minerals in meteorites.
  117. (1999). Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of five nontronites and Fe-rich smectites.
  118. (2003). Mineralogical comparison of Y000593 with other nakhlites: implications for relative burial depths of nakhlites (abstract #1944). 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
  119. (2006). Mineralogy and petrology of comet 81P/Wild 2 nucleus samples.
  120. (2003). Mineralogy and petrology of Yamato 000593: Comparison with other Martian nakhlite meteorites. Antarctic Meteorite Research (NIPR)
  121. (2003). Mineralogy of „„iddingsite‟‟ and symplectite in Y000593 and 000749: implication for their postcrystallization and aqueous alteration. NIPR Symposium
  122. (2010). Mineralogy of Stardust track 80: evidences for aqueous alteration and igneous process. (abstract #1657) 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
  123. (1999). Mixed hydrothermal fluids and the origin of the Martian soil,
  124. (2009). Mixing fraction of inner solar system material in Comet 81P/Wild2.
  125. (1995). Morphology of kaolinite crystals synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. Clays and Clay Minerals
  126. (1991). Mossbauer spectra of olivine rich achondrites: Evidence of preterrestrial redox reactions.
  127. (2000). Multiple Martian Fluids: The alteration sequence
  128. (1994). Nanometre scale mineralogy and petrography of fine-grained aggregates in anhydrous interplanetary dust particles.
  129. (1971). New technique for investigating Noncrystalline Structures: Fourier Analysis of the Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure. Physical Review Letters
  130. (1984). Noble gas contents of shergottites and implications for the Martian origin of SNC meteorites.
  131. (2000). Noble gases in iddingsite from the Lafayette meteorite: Evidence of liquid water on Mars in the last few hundred million years.
  132. (2008). Observation and analysis of martian meteorite Y000593: evidence for biosignatures (abstract #1680) 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
  133. (2002). Observations of Comet 19P/Borrelly by the Miniature Integrated Camera and Spectrometer Aboard Deep Space 1. Science 296(5570):1087-1091.
  134. (1901). On the negative radiation from hot platinum,
  135. (1974). On the origin of the solar system.
  136. (1999). Optical design of electron microscope lenses and energy filters.
  137. (1986). Optical systems for soft x rays.
  138. (2008). Orbital Identification of Carbonate-Bearing Rocks on Mars.
  139. (2000). Oxidation-reduction mechanism of iron in dioctahedral smectites:II. Crystal chemistry of reduced Garfield nontronite.
  140. (1998). Oxygen isotopic composition and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometer imaging of martian carbonate
  141. (2000). Oxygen isotopic composition of carbonate in the Nakhla meteorite: Implications for the hydrosphere and atmosphere of Mars.
  142. (1998). Oxygen isotopic record of silicate alteration
  143. (2007). Petrology of the Miller Range 03346 nakhlite
  144. (2008). Petrology of the nakhlite (martian) meteorite Norwthwest Africa
  145. (2004). Phyllosilicate minerals in the hydrothermal mafic–ultramafic-hosted massive-sulfide deposit of Ivanovka (southern Urals): comparison with modern ocean seafloor analogues. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 147:363–383.
  146. (2005). Phyllosilicates on Mars and implications for early martian climate
  147. (2005). Physical and compositional studies of Comet 81P/ Wild 2 at multiple apparitions.
  148. (2008). Physical, Chemical,
  149. (2001). Planetary Scienes. Cambirdge:
  150. (2003). Preparation of TEM samples by focused ion beam (FIB) techniques: applications to the study of clays and phyllosilicates in meteorites.
  151. (1993). Preterrestrial aqueous alteration of the Lafayette (SNC) meteorite.
  152. (2005). Principal features of impact-generated hydrothermal circulation systems: mineralogical and geochemical evidence.
  153. (2008). Principles and Practise of Variable Pressure/Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (VP-ESEM).
  154. (2007). PySpline: A Modern, CrossPlatform Program for the Processing of Raw Averaged
  155. (1963). Quantitative Analysis with the Electron Microanalyzer.
  156. (1998). Quantitative X-ray microanalysis in analytical Electron Microscopy.
  157. (2000). Quantitative Zn speciation in smeltercontaminated soils by EXAFS spectroscopy.
  158. (1997). Raman microspectroscopy of some iron oxides and oxyhydroxides.
  159. (2008). Raman spectrum of vanadium pentoxide from densityfunctional perturbation theory.
  160. (2003). Raman study of magnetite (Fe3O4): laser induced thermal effects and oxidation.
  161. (2008). Record of low-temperature alteration in asteroids.
  162. (2000). Reduction of Fe(III) in griffithite. Clay Minerals 35:625–634. )SiO4), an oxidation-product of olivine.
  163. (1996). Reflectance spectroscopy of interplanetary dust particles.
  164. (2010). Refractory chondrule fragments with carbonaceous chondrite affinities
  165. (2009). Refractory inclusions and aluminium-rich chondrules
  166. (1997). Refractory inclusions in the CR chondrite Acfer 059-El Djouf 001: petrology, chemical composition, and relationship to inclusion populations in other types of carbonaceous chondrites.
  167. (1983). Relationships between composition and structure in Fe-rich smectites.
  168. (2006). relative burial depths of nakhlites: an update (abstract #1865).
  169. (2007). Remelting of refractory inclusions in the chondrule – forming regions:
  170. (2007). Remelting of refractory inclusions in the chondrule-forming regions: Evidence from the chondrule-bearing Type C calciumaluminum-rich inclusions from Allende. Meteoritics and Planetary Science 42;1197-1219.
  171. (1977). Resonant two magnon Raman scattering in α-Fe2O3.
  172. (2003). Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis: A Text for Biologists, Materials Scientists, and Geologists.
  173. (1993). Short - Period Comets. In Near Earth Resources
  174. (2002). Site Occupancies By Iron In Nontronites.
  175. (2002). Small hypervelocity particles captured in aerogel collectors: Location, extraction, handling and storage.
  176. (2008). Smectite formation on early mars: experimental constraints (abstract #7030). LPI Workshop on Martian Phyllosilicates: Recorders of Aqueous Processes.
  177. (2008). Smelting of Fe-bearing glass during hypervelocity capture in aerogel.
  178. (1981). SNC meteorites: Igneous Rocks From Mars?
  179. (1999). Soft X-rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation: Principles and Applications. Cambridge:
  180. (1992). Soil mineralogy and Chemistry on Mars: Possible clues from salts and Clays in SNC Meteorites.
  181. (2004). Soils of Eagle Crater and Meridiani Planum at the Opportunity Rover Landing Site.
  182. (2000). Space weathering on airless bodies: Resolving a mystery with lunar samples.
  183. (1990). Spacecraft observations of the interaction of active comets with the solar wind.
  184. (1996). Stardust in the laboratory.
  185. (2007). Stardust microcrater residue compositional groups (abstract #2180).
  186. (2010). Stardust track 130 terminal partice: possible Al-rich condrule fragment or Altered Amoeboid Olivine Aggragte (abstract #2119). 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.
  187. (2003). Stardust: Comet and interstellar dust sample return mission.
  188. (1988). Subsolidus phase equilibria on the forsterite-saturated join Mg2Si2O6-CaMgSi2O6 at atmospheric pressure.
  189. (1992). Suitability of Silica Aerogel as a Capture Medium for Interplanetary Dust.
  190. (1986). Superparamagnetic component in the Orgueil meteorite and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies in applied magnetic fields.
  191. (1987). Systematics of the “CHON” and other light-element particle populations in comet P/Halley. Astronomy and Astrophysics 187:779-784 Clark III
  192. (2009). TEM Study of Alteration Assemblages
  193. (2009). Terrestrial Permafrost Models and Analogues of Martian Habitats and Inhabitants.
  194. (2005). The dust grains from 9P/Tempel 1 before and after the encounter with Deep Impact.
  195. (2003). The evolution of comets in the Oort cloud and Kuiper belt.
  196. (1999). The EXAFS family tree: a personal history of the development of extended X-ray absorption fine structure.
  197. (1969). The focal properties and aberrations of magnetic electron lenses.
  198. (2005). The Focused Ion Beam Instrument.
  199. (1961). The geochemistry of Co.
  200. (1981). The isotopic composition of uranium and lead in Allende inclusions and meteoritic phosphates.
  201. (2005). The nakhlite meteorites: Augite-rich igneous rocks from Mars. Chemie der Erde 65:203–270.
  202. (1994). The nontronite-saponite series : An experimental approach.
  203. (2001). The origin of chondrules and refractory inclusions in chondritic meteorites.
  204. (2009). The origin of refractory minerals in comet 81P/Wild 2. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 73:7150–7161.
  205. (2003). The populations of cometlike bodies in the Solar system.
  206. (2009). The preparation and characterization of vanadium-substituted goethite: the importance of temperature.
  207. (1975). The quantitative analysis of thin specimens.
  208. (1913). The reflection of X-rays by crystals.
  209. (1999). The silicate material in comets. Space Science Reviews 90:99–108.
  210. (2006). The SNC meteorites: basaltic igneous processes on Mars.
  211. (2000). The SNCs are meteorites from Mars.
  212. (1950). The structure of the cloud of comets surrounding the Solar System, and a hypothesis concenring its origin.
  213. (1975). The theory of X-ray absorption fine structure.
  214. (2003). The Yamato nakhlite consortium. Antarctic Meteorite Research (NIPR)
  215. (2007). Thermal alteration of hydrated minerals during hypervelocity capture to silica aerogel at the flyby speed of STARDUST.
  216. (1996). Thermal expansion of gypsum investigated by neutron powder diffraction.
  217. (1951). Thesis, University of Paris,
  218. (2006). Thick and thin models of the evolution of carbon dioxide on Mars.
  219. (1997). Trace element geochemistry of Martian iddingsite in the Lafayette meteorite.
  220. (2010). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of Earth and planetary materials: A review.
  221. (1996). Transmission Electron Microscopy.
  222. (1962). Types of occurrence of nontronite and nontronite-like minerals in soils.
  223. (1936). Über einige Fehler von Elektronenlinsen. Zeitschrift für Physik A Hadrons and
  224. (2007). Valence of titanium and vanadium in pyroxene in refractory inclusion interiors and rims.
  225. (2002). Valences of iron and copper in coral skeleton: X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis
  226. (2001). Water and the martian landscape.
  227. (1975). Water in non-carbonaceous stony meteorites.
  228. (2008). Weathering microenvironments on feldspar surfaces: implications for understanding fluid-mineral reactions in soils.
  229. (2004). Web-based Electron Microscopy Application Software:
  230. (2000). White Mars: A new Model for Mars‟ surface and atmosphere based on CO2.
  231. (2003). Wild 2 and interstellar sample collection and Earth return.
  232. (1988). X-ray Absorption: Principles, Applications,
  233. (2002). X-ray crystal spectrometers and monochromators in microanalysis.
  234. (1989). X-ray detectors in astronomy. Cambridge:
  235. (1984). X-ray microanalysis in the transmission electron microscope.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.