Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Inter-Individual Variation in Saliva Antioxidant Status in Relation to Periodontal Disease

By Dean Vincent Sculley


Free radicals have been implicated in the aetiology of many human disease states, including periodontal disease (PD). Saliva contains an array of antioxidants that neutralise the harmful effects of free radical formation within the oral cavity. Increased salivary antioxidant capacity may limit oxidative tissue damage and improve the health of the gingival tissues. In this thesis, the antioxidant profile of saliva was assessed in relation to PD severity. Salivary protein carbonyl concentration was assessed as a biomarker of oxidative tissue damage.\ud Urate, ascorbate and albumin contributed 85% of the total scavenging antioxidant capacity (TAA) which followed a diurnal rhythm (peak 5.00pm, nadir 3.00am). Salivary antioxidant flow rate was significantly lower in individuals with severe PD (TAA 0.210 f 0.02 μM/ml/min) than those with healthy gingivae (TAA 0.270 ± 0.02 PM/ml/min) (p<0.05). Oxidative injury was greater in the group with severe PD (protein carbonyls = 25.43 ± 11.09 fmoles/g protein) compared to the healthy group (7.77 ± 2.38 fmoles/g protein) (p<0.05). Individuals with low salivary TAA were 4.5 times more likely to suffer severe PD. TAA in males (654 ± 25 gWral/min) was significantly higher than in females (545 ± 23 pWml/min) (p=0.002), but no relationship was noted between sex and periodontal health. TAA and urate flow rates followed the same monthly cyclical pattern as progesterone and ß-estradiol in women. Nutritional antioxidant supplementation was found to have little effect on salivary antioxidant status with only a transient increase in ascorbate evident.\ud These data suggest that severe PD is associated with a decreased salivary antioxidant flow rate and increased oxidative injury. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation does not appear to increase salivary antioxidant status as it does in plasma. Toothpastes and mouthrinses containing antioxidants may reduce the extent of oxidative injury in vivo, with more research required in this area

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2004
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2000). A comparative pilot study of the effects of a dentifrice containing green tea bioflavonoids, sanguinarine or triclosan on oral bacterial biofilm formation.
  2. (1993). A novel method for measuring antioxidant capacity and its application to monitoring the antioxidant status in premature neonates.
  3. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgramme quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding.
  4. (1995). Ability of bacteria associated with chronic inflammatory disease to stimulate E-selectin expression and promote neutrophil adhesion.
  5. (2003). Age-related increases in plasma malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels and lymphocyte DNA damage in elderly subjects.
  6. (1992). Ageing and free radicals.
  7. (1996). Aging of the liver: age-associated mitochondrial damage in intact hepatocytes.
  8. (1988). Albumin - An important extracellular antioxidant?
  9. (1997). Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green.
  10. (1982). An altered response by peripheral leukocytes to synthesize or release leukocyte endogenous mediator in critically ill, protein-malnourished patients.
  11. (2002). Analysis of expired air for oxidation products.
  12. (2000). Analysis of saliva for periodontal diagnosis.
  13. (1994). Antioxidant activity of saliva and periodontal disease.
  14. (2001). Antioxidant and prooxidant properties of carotenoids.
  15. (1995). Antioxidant characterisation. Methodology and mechanism.
  16. (1991). Antioxidant effect of human saliva on lipid peroxidation.
  17. (1992). Antioxidant functions of vitamins. Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene and other carotenoids.
  18. (2003). Antioxidant nutrients and chronic disease: Use of biomarkers of exposure and oxidative stress status in epidemiologic research.
  19. (1993). Antioxidant protection against hypochlorous acid in human plasma.
  20. (2001). Antioxidants in health and disease.
  21. (1996). Antioxidants in human health and disease.
  22. (2003). Antioxidants in tears and plasma: Interrelationships and effect of vitamin C supplementation.
  23. (1992). Ascorbate status and xerostomia.
  24. (1991). Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low density lipoprotein against oxidative damage.
  25. (2002). Assay of total antioxidant capacity: comparison of four methods as applied to human blood plasma.
  26. (1991). Assessment of periodontal status with CPITN and conventional periodontal indices.
  27. (2002). Association between salivary antioxidant status and periodontal disease.
  28. (2001). Association of serum antioxidant capacity with coronary artery disease in middle-aged men.
  29. (1978). Bacterial bone resorption in advanced cases of human periodontitis.
  30. (1996). Bacterial modulins: a novel class of virulence factors which cause host tissue pathology by inducing cytokine synthesis.
  31. (1997). Bacterial transmission in periodontal diseases: a critical review.
  32. (2002). Bioactive compounds in foods: Their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer.
  33. (1994). Biological origin of free radicals, and mechanisms of antioxidant protection.
  34. (1982). Biology of disease - Free radicals and tissue injury.
  35. (1999). Biomarkers of free radical damage applications in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,
  36. (1997). Blockade of CD49d (alpha(4) integrin) on intrapulmonary but not circulating leukocytes inhibits airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a mouse model of asthma.
  37. (1986). Cachetin/tumor necrosis factor regulates hepatic gene expression.
  38. (1998). Carbon dioxide stimulates peroxynitrite-mediated nitration on tyrosine residues and inhibits oxidation of methionine residue glutamine synthetase: both modifications mimic effects of adenylylation.
  39. (1984). Catalase: in vitro.
  40. (1975). Centrifugal analyzer determination of ascorbate in serum or urine with Fe3+/Ferrozine.
  41. Characterisation of Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced degradation of epithelial juction complexes.
  42. (2002). Characterization of the differentiated antioxidant profile of human saliva.
  43. (1997). Chronic infections and coronary heart disease: is there a link.
  44. (1995). Cigarette smoking influences cytokine production and antioxidant defences.
  45. (1995). Cigarette smoking, intracellular vitamin deficiency, and occurance of micronuclei in epithelial cells of the buccal mucosa.
  46. (2001). Coenzyme Q blocks biochemical but not receptor-mediated apoptosis by increasing mitochondrial antioxidant protection.
  47. (2002). Coenzyme Q10 and differences in coronary heart disease risk in asian Indians and Chinese. Free Radical Biology and Medicine,
  48. (1998). Comparison of different analytical methods for assessing total antioxidant capacity of human serum.
  49. (1995). Comparison of the modulatory influence of maize and olive oils and butter on metabolic responses to endotoxin in rats.
  50. (1974). Complement-dependant stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis and bone resorbtion.
  51. (1985). Conservation of vitamin C by uric acid in blood.
  52. (2000). Consumption of black tea elicits an increase in plasma antioxidant potential in humans.
  53. (1998). Contact-dependant protein secretion in Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  54. (1994). Cysteine and methionine supplementation modulate the effect of tumor necrosis factor a on protein synthesis, glutathione and zinc.
  55. (1991). Cytogenetic surveillance of tobacco-areca nut (mava) chewers, including patients with oral cancers and premalignant conditions.
  56. (1998). Cytokine expression in periodontal health and disease.
  57. (1976). Degradation of cartilage proteoglycans and collagen by superoxide radical.
  58. (2000). Dental caries and the microbial ecology of dental plaque: a review of recent advances.
  59. (1999). Dental infections and atherosclerosis.
  60. (1991). Depolarization of polymorphonulear leukocytes by Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis 381 in the absence of respiratory burst activation.
  61. (2001). Determination of the blood ascorbic acid level after administration of slow-release vitamin C.
  62. (2002). Determination of vitamin A palmitate in buccal mucosal cells: a pilot study.
  63. (1982). Development of the World Health Organization community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN).
  64. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study.
  65. (1992). Dietary manipulation of the inflammatory response.
  66. (1995). Differences in oxidative response of subpopulations of neutrophils from healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  67. (1995). Duodenal ulcer (DU) in Helicobacter pylori infected patients: Role of ethnicity, sex, smoking and neutrophil activation.
  68. (1998). Effect of coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol content of mitochondria on the production of superoxide anion radicals.
  69. (1996). Effect of hormone replacement therapy on salivary flow rate, buffer effect and ph in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
  70. (1990). Effect of vitamin C and E supplementation on the susceptibility of plasma lipoproteins to peroxidation induced by acute smoking.
  71. (1996). Effects of fluid dynamic forces on vascular cell adhesion.
  72. (1991). Effects of lowdose oral contraceptives on female whole saliva.
  73. (2003). Effects of topical Lselenomethionine with topical and oral vitamin E on pigmentation and skin cancer induced by ultraviolet irradiation in Skh: 2 hairless mice.
  74. (1988). Effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1 alpha and beta on human neutrophil migration, respiratory burst and degranulation.
  75. (2000). Electron transport-linked ubiquinone-dependant recycling of alpha-tocopherol inhibits autooxidation of mitochondrial membranes.
  76. (1997). Enhanced chemiluminescent assay for measuring the total antioxidant capacity of serum, saliva and crevicular fluid.
  77. (1991). Enhanced superoxide production with no change of the antioxidant activity in gingival fluid of patients with adult periodontitis.
  78. (1998). Enzymatic processing of radiation-induced free radical damage
  79. (2004). Estrogen receptor-beta is the predominant estrogen receptor subtype in human oral epithelium and salivary glands.
  80. (2000). Evidence of postprandial absorbtion of olive oil phenols in humans. Nutrition and Metabolism in Cardiovascular Disease,
  81. (1986). Exhudation primes human and guinea pig neutrophils for subsequent responsiveness to the chemotactic peptide Nformylmethionylleucylphenylalanine and increases complement component C3bi receptor expression.
  82. (2000). Expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in oral mucosa and salivary glands.
  83. (1988). Extracellular-superoxide dismutase association with cell surface-bound sulfated glucosaminoglycans.
  84. (1997). Factors affecting IL-1-mediated collagen metabolism by fibroblasts and the pathogenesis of periodontal disease: a review of the literature.
  85. (1990). Factors controlling the microflora of the healthy mouth,
  86. (1990). FAD and GSH participate in macrophage synthesis of nitric oxide.
  87. (1997). Fetal exposure to low protein maternal diet alters the susceptibility of young adult rats to sulphur dioxide-induced lung injury.
  88. (1988). Fever and malnutrition: endogenous pyrogen/interleukin 1 in malnourished patients.
  89. (1953). Field canceraization in oral stratified squamous epithelium; clinical implications of multicentric origin.
  90. (1994). Flow rate composition of whole saliva in rural and urban Tanzania with special reference to diet, age, and gender.
  91. (1994). Free and albumin-bound bilirubin are efficient cooxidants for a-tocopherol inhibiting plasma and low density lipoprotein lipid peroxidation.
  92. (2003). Free radical induced increase in protein carbonyl is attenuated by low dose of adenosine in hippocampus and mid brain: implication in neurodegenerative disorders.
  93. (2002). Free radicalinduced damage to DNA: mechanisms and measurement.
  94. (1989). Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine,
  95. (2002). Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function.
  96. (1992). Free radicals, antioxidants, and human disease: where are we now?
  97. (2000). Fruits and vegetables increase plasma carotenoids and vitamins and decrease homocysteine in humans.
  98. (1989). Gel electrophoresis method for quantification of gamma ray induced single-and double-strand breaks in DNA irradiated in vitro.
  99. (2003). Gender differences in seasonal variation of urine stone risk factors.
  100. (1996). Gender differences in the concentration of the antioxidant uric acid and in human nasal lavage.
  101. (2001). Gender differences in the relationships of serum uric acid with fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose in patients without diabetes.
  102. (2003). Genetic defects in copper metabolism.
  103. (1997). Gingival crevicular interleukin1 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist levels in periodontally healthy and diseased sites.
  104. (1999). Glucose and free radicals impair the antioxidant properties of serum albumin.
  105. (1985). Glutathione and glutathione disulphide. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis vol VIII
  106. (2002). Glutathione in ginl crevicular fluid and its relation to local antioxidant capacity in periodontal health and disease.
  107. (1979). Glutathione peroxidase. In: Red Cell Metabolism: A Manual of Biochemical Methods (2&quot;d
  108. (1992). Host mediators in gingival crevicular fluid: implications for the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
  109. (2000). How periodontal disease may contribute to cardiovascular disease.
  110. (1998). Hyper-reactive peripheral neutrophils in adult periodontitis: generation of chemiluminescence and intracellular hydrogen peroxide after in vitro priming and FcgammaR-stimulation.
  111. (1998). Identification of pathogens in atheromatous plaques (abstract).
  112. (1993). Immunologic effects of national cholesterol education panel step-2 diets with and without fish-derived N-3 fatty acid enrichment.
  113. (2002). In vitro antioxidant activities of mouthrinses and their components.
  114. (1991). Increase in tumor-necrosis -factor alpha-6-secreting and interleukin-6-secreting cells in peripheral-blood mononuclear-cells from subjects infected with mycobacteriumtuburculosis.
  115. (1995). Increased circulation cytokines, cytokine antagonist, and E-selecting after intravenous administration of endotoxin in humans.
  116. (1999). Increased Interleukin-10 Concentration in Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a Characteristic of Periodontitis.
  117. (1979). Inhibition of collagen gelation by action of the superoxide radical.
  118. (1991). Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by ubiquinol in submitochondrial particles in the absence of vitamin E.
  119. (1984). Inhibition of neutrophil activation by alpha l-acid glycoprotein. Clinical Experiments in Immunology,
  120. (2003). Inhibition of oral peroxidase activity by cigarette smoke: in vivo and in vitro studies.
  121. (1995). Inhibitory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors.
  122. (1996). Initiation of acute phase response and synthesis of cytokines.
  123. (1996). Interaction between nutrients, pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation.
  124. (1987). Interaction of ascorbate and alpha-tocopherol.
  125. (1996). Interaction of ascorbate and alphatocophcrol in resealed human erythrocyte ghosts - Transmembrane electron transfer and protection from lipid pcroxidation.
  126. (1987). Interleukin-1 and glucocorticoid hormones integrate an immunoregulatory feedback circuit.
  127. (1998). Interleukin-8 production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis: an amplifying loop of polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation.
  128. (2002). Involvement of integrins in fimbriaemediated binding and invasion by Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  129. (2001). Involvement of T-lymphocytes in periodontal disease and in direct and indirect induction of bone resorption.
  130. (1998). Life below the gum line: Pathogenic mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  131. (2003). Lipid peroxidation and urinary excretion of vitamin E in rats submitted to an immunological inflammatory process. Drug and Chemical Toxicology,
  132. (1984). Lipid peroxidation, oxygen radicals, cell damage and antioxidant therapy.
  133. (1997). Lipopolysaccharide dependant cellular activation.
  134. (1993). Lipoprotein oxidation: the &quot;fruit and vegetable gradient&quot; and heart disease.
  135. (1992). Localization of the human urate oxidase gene (UOX) to 1p22. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics,
  136. (1999). Lung glutathione and oxidative strass: implications in cigarette smoke-induced airway disease.
  137. (1994). Malnutrition and the immune response. 2. Impact of nutrients on cytokine biology in infection.
  138. (2002). Measuring mitochondrial reactive oxygen species.
  139. (1997). Mechanisms and dynamics of antioxidant action of ubiquinol.
  140. (1993). Methods for Collecting Saliva.
  141. (1994). Microbial etiological agents of destructive periodontal diseases.
  142. (1990). Microbiology of root surface caries in humans.
  143. (2003). Minor gland and whole saliva in postmenopausal women using a low potency oestrogen (oestriol).
  144. (1993). Missing teeth and iscaemic heart disease in men aged 45-64.
  145. (1995). Mobilization of granules and secretory vesicles during in vivo exhudation of human neutrophils.
  146. (1996). Modeling the caries-inhibitory effects of dental materials.
  147. (1992). Modification of plasma proteins by cigarette smoke as measured by protein carbonyl formation.
  148. (2002). Molecular aspects of oral cancer.
  149. (2003). Molecular based treatment of oral cancer.
  150. (1997). Molecular factors associated with compartmentalization of gingival immune responses and transepithelial neutrophil migration.
  151. (2003). Molecular interaction of Porphyromonas gingivalis with host cells: implication for the microbial pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
  152. (1991). N-acetylcysteine in experimental and clinical acute lung injury.
  153. (1999). Neutrophil dysfunctions, IL-8, and soluble Lselectin plasma levels in rapidly progressive versus adult and localized juvenile periodontitis: variations according to disease severity and microbial flora.
  154. (2002). Neutrophil priming in host defense: role of oxidants as priming agents. Antioxidants and Redox Signalling,
  155. (1995). Nitric oxide and oxygen radicals: a question of balance. FEBSLetters,
  156. (1998). Nutritional modulation of cytokine biology.
  157. (2001). On the association between hypercholesterolemia, cardiovascular disease and severe periodontal disease.
  158. (1996). Oncogenes and growth factor receptors as diagnostic and prognostic markers in precancers and cancers of the oral mucosa. Current Topics in
  159. (2000). Oral inflammation and reactive species: a missed opportunity? Oral Diseases,
  160. (1991). Oxidative changes in hypoxic rat-heart tissue.
  161. (1999). Oxidative injury and inflammatory periodontal diseases: the challenge of anti-oxidants to free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine,
  162. (2003). Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation.
  163. (1989). Oxygen free radicals, inflammation, and synovitis: the current status.
  164. (1985). P}Togallol autooxidation. In: Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research,
  165. (1996). Periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease.
  166. Periodontal disease and risk of cerebrovascular disease.
  167. (2003). Periodontal disease is associated with lower antioxidant capacity in saliva and evidence of increased protein oxidation.
  168. (2000). Periodontal disease: Diagnosis and management.
  169. (2001). Periodontal infection and preterm birth: results of a prospective study.
  170. (1987). Peripheral PMN cells in juvenile periodontitis.
  171. (1990). Physiologic levels of ascorbate inhibit the oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein.
  172. (2002). Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbriae bind to cytokeratin of epithelial cells.
  173. (2000). Porphyromonas gingivalis proteinases as virulence determinants in progression of periodontal disease.
  174. (1997). Porphyromonas gingivalis proteinases as virulence factors in the development of periodontitis.
  175. (2000). Postprandial increases in serum antioxidant capacity in older women.
  176. (1993). Pravalence, extent, severity and progression of periodontal disease.
  177. (2001). Production of inflammatory cytokines by human gingival fibroblasts stimulated by cell-surface preparations of Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  178. (1999). Prostaglandin E2 levels in blood plasma and in crevicular fluid in advanced periodontitis patients before and after surgical therapy.
  179. (1998). Protection and recycling of alphatocopherol in human crythrocytes by intracellular ascorbic acid.
  180. (2002). Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis gene expression in vivo.
  181. (1998). Rate constants for quenching singlet oxygen and activities for inhibiting lipid peroxidation of carotenoids and alpha-tocopherol in liposomes.
  182. (1991). Reactive oxygen intermediates as apparently widely used messengers in the activation of NFKB transcription factor and HIV1.
  183. (1997). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in inflammatory diseases.
  184. (2001). Reactive oxygen species in human health and disease.
  185. (1991). Reactive oxygen species in Living Systems: Source, Biochemistry, and Role in Human Disease.
  186. (1991). Reactive oxygen species, antioxidants and aquired immunodificiency syndrome. Sense or speculation.
  187. (2000). Reactive oxygen species: a potential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases.
  188. (1989). Recombinant interleukin-1 suppresses lipoprotein lipase activity in 3T3-Ll cells.
  189. (1993). Reduced free radical-trapping capacity and altered plasma antioxidant status in cystic fibrosis.
  190. (1998). Regulation of cytokine and chemokine production by transmitters and co-transmitters of the autonomic nervous system.
  191. (2003). Reproducibility of the circadian rhythms of serum cortisol and melatonin in healthy subjects: a study of three different 24-h cycles over six weeks.
  192. (2001). Role of areca nut in betel quid-associated chemical carcinogenesis: current awareness and future perspectives.
  193. (2003). Role of glutathione peroxidase 1 in breast cancer: loss of heterozygosity and alleic differences in the response to selenium.
  194. (2002). Saliva - the defender of the oral cavity.
  195. (1978). Saliva acid phosphatases and amylase in Senoi and aboriginal Malays and superoxide dismutase in various racial groups of Peninsular Malaysia.
  196. (2004). Saliva flow rate, total protein concentration and osmolality as potential markers of whole body hydration status during progressive acute dehydration in humans.
  197. (2000). Saliva in health and disease: and appraisal and update.
  198. (1992). Saliva: Its secretion, composition and functions.
  199. (2003). Salivary antioxidant status is independent of dietary intake.
  200. (2002). Salivary antioxidants and periodontal disease status.
  201. (1998). Serologic evidence of an association of a novel Chlamydia, TWAR, with chronic coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarction.
  202. (1994). Sister chromatid exchange frequencies in lymphocytes of oral cancer patients seem to be influenced by drinking habits.
  203. (1988). Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer.
  204. (1985). Stimulation of the adherence of neutrophils to umbilical vein endothelium by human recombinant tumor necrosis factor.
  205. (2001). Stress response to surgical procedures in the submandibular region and its influence on salivary secretion in mice.
  206. (1996). Structure-Antioxidant activity relationships of flavenoids and phenolic acids.
  207. (2000). Subgingival colonization by Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  208. (1985). Succinic acid, a metabolic by-product of Bacteroides species, inhibits polymorphonuclear leukocyte function.
  209. (1986). Superoxide dismutases.
  210. (2003). Tea catechins and polyphenols: health effects, metabolism, and antioxidant functions.
  211. (1989). The activity of antioxidant enzymes in the saliva of normal children.
  212. (1994). the breath of life or oxygen, the first toxic oxidizing air pollutant.
  213. (1984). The effect of oxygen-derived free radicals on gingival proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid.
  214. (2004). The effects of intra-amniotic administration of periodontopathic endotoxins in sheep.
  215. (1996). The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of &quot;Antioxidant Power&quot;: The FRAP Assay.
  216. (1995). The importance of vitamin-E in redicing cardiovascular risk.
  217. (1999). The microbiology of periodontal disease.
  218. (1993). The pecking order of free radicals and antioxidants: Lipid peroxidation, a-Tocopherol and ascorbate.
  219. (2000). The periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis harnesses the chemistry of the u-oxo bishaem of iron protoporphyrin IX to protect against hydrogen peroxide.
  220. (1998). The periodotpathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis binds iron proteoporphyin IX in the u-oxo dimeric form: an oxidative buffer and possible pathogenic mechanism.
  221. (2003). The postprandial effects of dietary antioxidants in humans.
  222. (1992). The relationship between polysaccharide antigen and interleukin-1 beta producing activity in Porphyromonas gingivalis.
  223. (1987). The relative contributions of vitamin E, urate, ascorbate and proteins to the total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant activity of human blood plasma.
  224. (2003). The systemic immune response is more prominent than the mucosal immune response in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.
  225. (2000). Thl and Th2 responses: what are they?
  226. (1999). Total reactive antioxidant potential in human saliva of smokers and non-smokers.
  227. (1993). Towards the physiological function of uric acid.
  228. (1991). Ubiquinol-10 protects human low density lipoprotein more efficiently against lipid peroxidation than does alpha-tocopherol.
  229. (2001). Unstimulated saliva flow rates of young children. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontics,
  230. (2003). Uptake of vitamin A in buccal mucosal cells after topical application of retinyl palmitate: a randomized, placebo-controlled and double-blind trial.
  231. (1984). Urate and ascorbate: their possible roles as antioxidants in determining longevity of mammalian species.
  232. (1980). Use of 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system in direct enzymic assay for uric acid in serum and urine.
  233. (2000). Use of pyrolysis-GC-MS to assess the thermal degradation behaviour of polymers containing chlorine II. Thermal stability characteristics of Neoprene/chlorobutyl rubber composites, before and after artificial ageing. Polymer Degradation and Stability,
  234. (1993). Vascular transcellular signaling.
  235. (2001). Vitamin C and genomic stability.
  236. (1999). Vitamin C: poison, prophylactic or panacea?

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.