Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Trading For Tea: A Study of the English East India Company's Tea Trade with China and the Related Financial Issues, 1760-1833

By Simon Yang-Chien Tsai


The East India Company played a vital role in British commercial expansion and European-Asian economic links in the early modem period, and its business activities covered many regions of the East, including China, the most populous nation on earth.\ud The general structure and development of EIC's Chinese trade had been studied, but, details of the Company's tea trade with China, the most important and profitable branch of the Company's commercial affairs after the late eighteenth century, remain to be explored. In particular, the issue of its management of tea procurement from China remains largely unstudied. This thesis thus examines the EIC's tea trade with China and the related financial issues in 1760-1833, the heyday of the Company's Chinese tea trade.\ud Because Canton was the only Chinese port open for the international maritime trade after 1760, the Company's trade in China was in effect a trade with Canton. The Canton Commercial System which shaped the Ch'ing Empire's foreign trade policy had another major feature, that is, only a handful of merchants, the Hong merchants, could deal with foreigners. Accordingly, transactions with the Hong merchants in order to procure tea for home demand became one of the Company's priorities in its Canton trade. This research thus investigates in detail the tea transactions between the EIC's supercargoes and the Hong merchants. In particular, the different tea-purchasing methods adopted by the Company are examined. Special attention is also paid to the system of quality control which presents a picture of how the Company developed an efficient system of tea purchases and struck a balance between organising an adequate supply for British consumption and maintaining quality.\ud While developing an efficient tea-purchasing system, the EIC was also struggling to obtain enough funds to finance its tea trade without the needs to continue shipment of a large amount of silver bullion from Britain. The Company finally succeeded in making use of its increasing bargaining power and adopted a trucking system through which British manufactures were exported to Canton in exchange for tea. Indian sources of revenue and the private intra-Asian trade also played a crucial role in the Company's funding of its enlarged tea trade at Canton. The creation of these different flows of fund and their importance are in turn discussed in this thesis.\ud This study also examines financial relationships between the EIC and the Hong merchants, and especially the strong position gained by the Company. Moreover, the condition of the EIC China trade after the beginning of the nineteenth century is highlighted because by then the dual-monopoly pattern of the Anglo-Chinese trade was facing a challenge. These different areas of discussion provide a comprehensive study of the Company's tea trade with China after the 1760 which helps us more fully to appreciate the EIC's position in the European-Asian commercial links in the early modem period

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2003
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1990). 1!~Jl O!,§'§=t!t): -{liffX.rjJ$]#bFoiA' (Chen, 'Puan Khequa II'), p. 245; & idem." 'MBm{-t9J~IJf*{JFoi*~~/fgl¥]®:l2Sl', ~~~ (Chen, 'Reasons as to the Perennial Insolvency of the Ch'ing Dynasty's Canton Hong Merchants',
  2. 101 It was not until the late 1820s that the total import of commodities into China by the Americans exceeded silver importation in value.
  3. (1831). 106 "East India Company - China Question",
  4. 121 This was based on the statement of Toone (see
  5. 144 For a full and detailed study of the domestic background to the end of the Company's monopoly, see Eyles, 'The Abolition of the EIC's Monopoly,
  6. 1824, para. 38 & sidenote of para. 42, ff. 13, 14. strongly press upon you [Canton supercargoes] the necessity of procuring enlarged 99 Phipps, A Practical Treatise on the China and Eastern Trade,
  7. (1917). 68 The Americans sent their first ships to China in 1784. For the beginning of American trade with
  8. 94 lOR: RlI OICLlXXIl,
  9. A Chinese Commercial Guide (Consisting of A Collection of Details Respecting Foreign Trade in China) (1834,
  10. A Compendium of the East India Affairs (1802, two volumes).
  11. A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical,
  12. A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical, and Historical, o/Commerce,
  13. (1966). A Documentary Chronicle of Sino-Western Relations (16-1-1-1820), The Association for Asian Studies: Monographs and Papers,
  14. (1996). A General Guide to the Indian Office Records
  15. (1797). A Historical Account of the Embassy to the Emperor of China from the King of Great
  16. A Journey to the Tea Countries of China; (Including Sung-Lo and the Bohea Hills) (1852, London:
  17. (1974). A Licence to Trade -
  18. A Practical Treatise on the China and
  19. (1660). A Taste for Empire and Glory - Studies in British Overseas Expansion,
  20. Account of Bullion and Merchandise Exported by the East India Company to India and China'
  21. (2003). Addition, Exploration and Empire
  22. Additional Manuscripts (Add. MSS) Add. MSS 38376: Crawfurd, J., 'Observations on the Tea Trade Conducted by the East India Company',
  23. (1972). Agricultural Change and the Peasant Economy of South
  24. America's Trade with Canton, 1784-1844',
  25. (1968). American Merchants and the China Opium Trade, 1800-1840',
  26. (1941). American Trade in Opium to China, 1821-39', The Pacific Historical Review,
  27. (1940). American Traders in Opium to China, prior to 1820',
  28. (1922). Americans in Eastern Asia - A Critical Study of the Policy of the United States with reference to
  29. (1935). An Abortive Attempt at Anglo-Spanish Commercial Cooperation in the Far East in 1793',
  30. An Abstract of the Orders and Regulations of the Honourable Court
  31. (1972). An Account of the Cultivation and Manufacture of Tea in China (1848,
  32. (1965). An Anglo-Spanish-Portuguese Clandestine Trade between the ports of British India and Manila, 1785-1790', Philippine Historical Review,
  33. An Authentic Account of An Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China (1797, two versions: two volumes or three volumes).
  34. (1962). An Embassy to China - Being the journal kept by Lord Macartney during his embassy to the Emperor Ch'ien-Iung
  35. An Outline of its Government, Laws,
  36. (1946). and America - The Story of Their Relations since 178-1
  37. (1918). and the Manila Galleon',
  38. (1967). Andrew Melrose: Tea Dealer and Grocer of Edinburgh 1812-1833',
  39. (1907). Anglo-Chinese Commerce and Diplomacy (Mainly in the Nineteenth Century)
  40. (1976). Anglo-Chinese trade and finance 1854-1914',
  41. (1975). Asian merchants and western trade: a comparison study of Calcutta and Canton 1800-1840',
  42. Bengal Commercial Reports (lOR: P1174) lOR:
  43. (1990). Bengal" The China Trade and the Unfrequented Extremities of Asia: The East IndIa Company s Settlements in New Guinea, 1793-95', The British Libran'
  44. (1966). Bits of Old China (1855, London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Co., reprinted by Ch'eng-wen Publishing Company. mG:xtfj~&ffr±,
  45. (1765). Bombay's "Country Trade" with
  46. (1750). British Commercial Policy and Trade Expansion
  47. (1975). British Expansion in India in the Eighteenth Century: A Historical Revision',
  48. (1976). British Informal Empire: The Case of China',
  49. (1934). British Opium Policy in China and India
  50. (1800). British Trade and the Opening of China,
  51. (1983). Bullion Flows and World Trade in the 16th - 18th Centuries', in Hong Kong'
  52. (1999). Catalogue of East India Company Ships'
  53. (1966). Ch'ing Commercial Policy', Ch 'ing-shi wen-t'i (m ~rp~m, a bulletin issued irregularly by the
  54. Changing the rules of the games
  55. (1969). Chartered Companies and their Role in the Development of Overseas Trade
  56. (2000). Chih-ch'un ~¥)j*j!~c Kuo-ch'ao jou-yuan chi (Records of the Ruling Dynasty's Graciousness to Strangers),
  57. (1895). Chih-ch'un, ~¥Jf*~~2 Kuo-ch 'ao jou-yuan chi (Records of the Ruling Dynasty's Graciousness to Strangers)
  58. (1975). China and the West: Culture and Commerce (Papers read at
  59. (1830). Chinese Monopoly Examined
  60. Chinese Monopoly Examined (1830,
  61. Chinese Official Documents and Contemporary Works 7.R&;Tt
  62. (1993). Chinese, Tartars and "Thea" or a Tale of Two Companies: The English East India Company and Taiwan in the Late Seventeenth Century',
  63. (1996). Chuan Han-sheng ~¥l~, cp~lli1i:*~~~ffifaii (Collected Essays on China's Modern Economic History)
  64. (1979). Civilization & Capitalism - the 15th-18th Century.
  65. Commercial Statistics. (A Digest of the Productive Resources, Commercial Legislation, Customs Tariffs, Navigation, Port, and Quarantine Laws, and Charges, Ships, Imports and Exports, and the Monies, Weights,
  66. Commercial, and Social; in an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government (two volumes, 1847,
  67. (1964). Commissioner Lin and the Opium War
  68. Company - China Question. Reports from, and Minutes of Evidence taken before,
  69. (1966). Country Trade" with the Philippines,
  70. Crops and Livestock',
  71. (1908). Currency in China',
  72. (1550). Dutch Enterprise in the World Bullion Trade
  73. (1831). East India Company - China Question',
  74. (1949). East India Company Records: India Fort William - India House Correspondence India Fort William - India House Correspondence and Other Contemporary Papers Relating Thereto
  75. (1927). Economic Annals of Bengal
  76. (1946). Economic Background of the Anglo-Spanish War of 1762'.
  77. (1833). Economic Transition in the Bengal Presidency
  78. (1933). Englands Quest of Eastern Trade
  79. Estimate of the Profit or Loss upon all Goods sold by the East IndIa Company from the Year 1793/94 to the Year 1811/12 inclusive;'
  80. (1982). Europe and the People without the History
  81. (1977). Evolution of the Chinese Monetary System',
  82. (1996). fijB)jmrs~~1fHB~NEfJi!iAtp~', ('A Third Study on the inflow of American Silver into China from the Late Ming to the Mid-Ch"ing Period"),
  83. (1990). fijm1i:cp~JJi*1=rm5*~:g::f~EfJl*lzl" ('Reasons as to the Perennial Insolvency of the Ch'ing Dynasty's Canton Hong Merchants")"
  84. (1984). Foreign Trade Finance in China, 1810-50',
  85. (1695). Foundation for Empire: English Private Trade in India
  86. (1660). Fruits of Empire - Exotic Produce and British Taste,
  87. (1976). Fukien's Tea Industry and Trade in Ch'ing and Republican China: The Developmental Consequences of a Traditional Commodity Export',
  88. (1994). Harvesting Mountains - Fujian and the China Tea Trade 1-5 ;-193 -
  89. Hl795: 'Memorandum Relative to Remittance to China' (1773-8) (pp. 30-3); 'Narrative of the Remittance from Bengal to China,
  90. Hong merchants in season 1829 again faced financial embarrassment because of the 126 Stelle, 'American Trade in Opium to China,
  91. (1997). Hong Merchants o/Canton -Chinese Merchants
  92. (1997). Hong Merchants of Canton - Chinese Merchants in Sino-Western Trade.
  93. Hongs. After the re-distribution of shares of woollens,
  94. (1983). i-I~1l (i-IJ@:'§ =ttt): -{}i~rjJEfJ#f=Jm5A" ("Puan Khequa II: A Successful Hong Merchant'),
  95. (1988). ian~s of a~ Earlier Capitalism": The Chartered Trading Compames as Modem MultmatIOnals ,
  96. III It usually took about half a year for tea to reach Britain from Canton. Also, according to the source from the Parliament Papers
  97. (1830). In August another edict was issued stipulating some new trade regulations (see lOR: G112/244, 10
  98. (1975). Incident Between Hong Merchants and the Supercargoes of the British East India Company in Canton, 1811',
  99. India Company - China Question',
  100. (1969). India Trade under the Danish Flag 1772-1808: European Enterprise and Anglo-Indian Remittance and Trade
  101. (1828). India's Fore,ign Trade and .the ~essation of the East India Company's Tradmg ActIvItIes,
  102. (1985). Indian opium and Sino-Indian trade relations 1801-1858',
  103. (1963). James Flint versus the Canton Interest (1755-1760)" Papers on China (From Seminars at
  104. (1986). Ji~E2, 'm1i:§rJM$J}j?l~I¥J~J&' (,The Development of Early Qing (Ch'ing) Overseas Trade',
  105. (1965). Kwae' At Canton: Before Treaty Days 1825-1844 (1882),
  106. (1719). La Chine Et L 'Occident - Le Commerce A Canton Au XVIII Siecle
  107. (1977). Law and Politics in China's Foreign Trade
  108. (1975). Les Marchands Hanistes De Canton', T'oung Pao Archives (Jm¥~),
  109. (1935). Letters from Missionaries at Peking Relation to the Macartney Embassy', T'oung Pao (ii¥~),
  110. (1937). Liang Chia-pin ~~;ff1, )J[:* + fr~ (A Study of the K wangtung Thirteen Hongs)
  111. (1957). Lord Macartney's Embassy to Peking in 1793 (From Official Chinese Documents)"
  112. (1600). Lords of the East - The East India Company and its Ships
  113. (1979). Mandarins and Merchants: Jardine Matheson & Co., a China agency of the early nineteenth century
  114. (1987). Maritime Trade and Politics in China and the South China Sea',
  115. (1967). Mercantilist Policies and the Pattern of World Trade, 1500-1750',
  116. (1958). Merchants and Mariners of the 18th Century (196 L London: Edward Arnold (Publishers)
  117. (1965). Money and Monetary Policy in China 1845-1895
  118. (1600). Monographs and Essays Collected in Books Attman,
  119. New World Silver, Castile and the Philippines 1590-1800'.
  120. (1972). Nineteenth Century China: Five Imperialist Perspectives (Michigan Papers in Chinese Studies)
  121. (2000). Notes of Proceedings and Occurrences During the British Embassy to Pekin in 1816 (first published in 1824, reprinted and collected
  122. Observations on Expediency of Opening a New Port in China', Royal Asiatic Society's Journal,
  123. Observations on the Trade with China',
  124. (1941). On the Ch'ing Tributary System',
  125. (1998). Opium -A History
  126. (1998). Opium and Imperial Expansion: The East India Company in EighteenthCentury Asia',
  127. (1993). Opium and War -
  128. (1987). Opium monopoly in India and Indonesia in the eighteenth century',
  129. (1975). Opium Smoking in Ch'ing China',
  130. Oriental Commerce (tow volumes,
  131. Oriental Commerce, Section II:
  132. (1908). Our First Ambassador to China: An Account of the Life of George, Earl of Macartney (with extracts from his letters, and the narrative of his experiences in China, as told by himself 1737-1806)
  133. Papers: Accounts and Papers,
  134. (1969). Patterns and Structure of Demand 1500-1750',
  135. Peaceful intentions: the first British trade commission in China, 1833-5',
  136. (1957). Peng Tse-I fI3&:~, 'm1i:JJf*1-¥1=rftU*I¥JJte~'" ~9:tiff~ (~J=j flj) ('The Origin oft~e Kwangtung Hong-Merchant System in the Ch"ing Dynasty"" Historical Stu(hc.\· (published in China),
  137. (1978). Philadelphia and the China Trade 1682-1846 - Commercial, Cultural, and Attitudinal Effects
  138. (1987). Private British Trade in the Indian Ocean Before 1800',
  139. (1958). Private trade between England and China in the eighteenth century (1680-1833)',
  140. (1961). Puan Khequa II: A Successful Hong Merchant; & ~~m, IJf*+ -=-1T~ (Liang, A Study of the Canton Thirteen Hongs).
  141. Records (lOR: RlI0): Factory Records: China II (RlI0IFRI): RlI0IFRl4 (1775-1760, Diary and Consultations),
  142. Records Office (PRO) Foreign Office Collections (FO): FO 1048 (Collected Letters between the Hong Merchants and the EIC or the Hong merchants' reports to the Canton Authorities)
  143. (1977). Rensselaer Cammann, China and the West: Culture and Commerce
  144. Report from the Select Committee on
  145. Report of the Select Committee appointed to take into consideration of the Export Trade from
  146. Reports from Committees on the Affairs of the East India Company, Appendix II, Papers Relating to
  147. Reports from Select Committee of the House of Lords appointed to inquire into the present
  148. Reports from the Select Committee of the House of Lords on the Affairs of the East India Company (646), pp. 367, 442 (Minutes of Evidence before Committee of the House of Lords, by
  149. returns relating to the Trade of India and China from 1814-1858'
  150. (1991). Revenue and Reform - The Indian problem
  151. (1600). Rival Empires of the Trade in the Orient
  152. RlI0IMISC/2 (1818-1826, Secret Consultations, Supercargoes); RlI0IMISC/2a (1816-1831, Duplicate Letters to Supercargoes), RlI0IMISC/7 (1656-1818, Memoir on intercourse with China),
  153. (1984). Science Front, quarterly, published in China), -nJ\[9m M
  154. (1935). Secondary Sources in Chinese Chang Te-ch'ang ~lH!§, 'm{i;!l~h~*§fJZCP~18$jjf§j' (,Maritime Trade between China and the West before the Opium War in the Ch'ing Dynasty'),
  155. (1796). Select Committee's Secret Consultations ((RlI0/SCI): RlI0/SCIl
  156. (1784). Series (lOR: HI) Hl399: 'Section 4: Imports from
  157. (1989). Shops and Shopkeepers in Eighteenth-Century England
  158. (1969). Silver into China from the late Ming to the Mid-Ch"ing Period").
  159. (1968). Smuggling and the British tea trade before 1784',
  160. (2002). So Alarming An Evil:" Smuggling, Pilfering and the English East India Company 1750-1810',
  161. (1760). Society, Economy and The Market: Commercialization in Rural Bengal
  162. (1962). Some aspect of British trade and finance in Canton with special reference to the role of Anglo-Spanish trade in the eastern seas 1784-1834',
  163. (1773). Some Aspects of British Revenue Policy in India
  164. Sources 1. British Parliamentary Papers (BPP)
  165. (1990). Structural changes in European long-distance trade, and particularly in the export trade from south to north, 1350-1750',
  166. (1973). Tea for the British - The Social and Economy History of a Famous Trade
  167. (1955). The Abolition of the East India Company's Monopoly, 1833',
  168. The Abolition of the East India Company's Monopoly',
  169. (1971). The Beginnings of Credit Finance on the China Coast: The Canton Financial Crisis of 1912-1815',
  170. (1790). The Bombay Country Ships
  171. (1974). The British-China-India Trade Triangle', The Indian Economic and S .
  172. The brokers knew nothing of the prices paid by the Board of Control for the teas, neither did they know whence they came, or for what object they were called upon to decide as to their qualities. '; McCulloch, A Dictionary, Practical, Theoretical,
  173. The Canton Trade and the Opium War',
  174. (1830). The China Station - War and Diplomacy
  175. (1938). The Chinese Security Merchants in China: and their debts
  176. The Chronicles of the East India Company trading to China 1635-183-/ (5 volumes, 1926-9, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, printed by Oxford
  177. (1963). The Commutation Act and the Tea Trade
  178. (1750). The Crucial Years of Early Anglo-Chinese Relations
  179. (1999). The Danish Asia Trade 1620-1807. Value and Volume', Scandinavian Economic History Review &
  180. (1979). The Dutch East India Company and the China Trade' Histo Tt.
  181. (1640). The Dutch Impact on
  182. (1296). The Early Chartered Companies
  183. (1965). The Early Trade of the English East India Company with Manila',
  184. (1956). The East India Company - A History
  185. (1975). The Economic and Monetary Problem of European Trade with Asia during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries'
  186. (1983). The Economic Organization of the English East India Company',
  187. (1991). The English Factory in Japan 1613-1623 (two volumes)
  188. (1909). The English in China (: Being an account of the intercourse and relations between England and China from the year 1600 to the year 1843 and a summary of later developments)
  189. (1971). The Financing of Investment
  190. (1997). The First Modern Economy.- Success, failure, perseverance of the Dutch economy,
  191. (1974). The Fontana Economic History of Europe,
  192. (1919). The Foreign Trade of China (Studies in History,
  193. (1990). The growth and composition of the long-distance trade of England and the Dutch Republic before 1750',
  194. The growth and composition of trade in the Iberian empires,
  195. (1757). The Growth of Commercial Agriculture in Bengal
  196. (1921). The Growth of English and
  197. (1963). The Growth of the Antwerp Market and the European Economy (three volumes)
  198. (1967). The Hong Merchants of Canton',
  199. (1981). The Hong Merchants of Canton', lecture delivered for the Hong KongDenmark
  200. (1991). The Honourable C~mpany -
  201. (1706). The House of Twining
  202. (1985). The Impact of Western Trade on the Hong Merchants',
  203. (1989). The Import of American silver into China during the 16th - 18th centuries', paper presented at
  204. (1994). The industrial revolution and British imperialism, 1750-1850', Economic History Review,
  205. (1979). The Industrial Revolution and British Ol'erseas Trade
  206. (1979). The Industrial Revolution and British Overseas Trade
  207. (1990). The insolvency of the Chinese Hong Merchants 1760-1. 84~' '.
  208. (1938). The Instructions of the East India Company to Lord Macartney on His Embassy to China and His Reports to the Company, 1792-4. Part I: Instructions from the Company',
  209. (1938). The Instructions of the East India Company to Lord Macartney on His Embassy to China and His Reports to the Company, 1792-4. Part II: Letter to the Viceroy and First Reports',
  210. (1938). The Instructions of the East India Company to Lord Macartney on His Embassy to China and His Reports to the Company, 1792-4. Part III: Later Reports and a Statement of the Cost of the Embassy',
  211. (1962). The International Payments Mechanism
  212. (1910). The International Relations of the Chinese Empire,
  213. (1943). The Kowtow in the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793',
  214. (1998). The Making and Unmaking of British India
  215. (1984). The Management of Monopoly -
  216. (1959). The Manila Trade (The romantic history of the Spanish galleons trading between Manila and Acapulco)
  217. (1993). The Middle. Kingdom r:p~~~1fa (A Survey of the Geography, GoveI?ment, LIterature, Social, Life, Arts,
  218. (1998). The New Cambridge History if India,
  219. (1740). The New Cambridge History of
  220. (1977). The Old Canton System of Foreign Trade',
  221. (1946). The Old China Trade
  222. (1933). The Opium Clippers
  223. (1840). The Opium War
  224. The Past and Present State of the Tea Trade of England,
  225. (1964). The personal fortune of Warren Hastings', The Economic History Review (2nd edn.),
  226. (1990). The Political economy of trade liberalization: the East India Company Charter Act of 1813',
  227. (1840). The Political History of China,
  228. The Present Position and Prospects of the British Trade with China; (together with An Outline of Some Leading Occurrences in its Past History)
  229. (1922). The provision of funds for the EIC trade at Canton during the 18th cent~ry',
  230. (1985). The Rise and Growth of the Colonial Port Cities in Asia (Monograph Series No. 25, Centre for South and Southeast Asia Studies,
  231. (1990). The Rise of Financial Capitalism
  232. The Rise of Modern China (2000, 6th edn.).
  233. (1920). The Royal Philippine Company',
  234. (1985). The Salt Industry of Bengal:
  235. (1982). The Silk Trade - Chinese Silks and the British East India Company', Winterthur Portfolio (published by
  236. (1934). The Struggle for Control of the China trade during the Eighteenth Century', Pacific Historical Review,
  237. (1921). The Supercargoes in the China Trade about the Year 1700',
  238. The Trade and the English East India Company in the Far East 1625-85'.
  239. (1912). The Trade of the East India Company from 1709 to 1813
  240. (1978). The Trading World of Asia and
  241. (2003). The West and China since 1500
  242. Three Years' Wandering in the Northern Provinces of China, (Including A Visit to the Tea, Silk, and Cotton Countries)
  243. (1928). Ti-Shan, ~~~ Ta Chung-chi (Collected Letters and Ordinances relating to Sino-British Diplomatic Negotiations before the Opium War)
  244. Tin-lang, _$jtuJ~ Yueh-hai-kuan Chih
  245. (1985). Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750
  246. (1842). Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast - An Opening of the Treaty Ports,
  247. (1806). Trade and Empire in
  248. Trade and Finance in China: 1784-1834'.
  249. (1979). Trade and Finance in the Bengal Presidency 1793-1833
  250. (1937). Trade in the Eastern Seas 1793-1813
  251. (2000). Trading Places - The East India Company and Asia
  252. (1989). Transactions Practices in China's Export Tea Trade, 1760-1833', paper presented at
  253. (1975). Trends in Eighteenth Century Smuggling Reconsidered', The Economic History Review (2nd series),
  254. (1957). Trends in Eighteenth Century Smuggling', The Economic History Re\'ieH',
  255. (1961). Trends in Eighteenth-Century Smuggling; Mui, Smuggling and the British Tea Trade before 1 78..f; The Commutation Act and the Tea Trade
  256. (1942). Tributary Trade and Ch'ing Relations with the West',
  257. Tribute and the East India Company c.1750-c.1775',
  258. (1982). Tsu-yu ~*~3S., lli1i:cp~**EfJ~J&WtttWrfH~ (The Development of Chinese Tea Trade
  259. (1999). Wealth of Nations, Books IV- V (1776, reprinted and published by Penguin Books in
  260. (1973). William Melrose in China 18-/5-1855
  261. (1961). William Pitt and the Enforcement of the Commutation Act',
  262. (1934). Wong Po-shang ii~~, 'm1-tJJ.f*W~&;tt:1£tp~*~~9::LZ~~ (,The Historical Significance of Kwangtung Trade Under the Ch'ing Dynasty'),
  263. (1990). World bullion flows 1450-1800',

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.