Location of Repository

School Culture, Leadership, Effectiveness and Improvement, and Student Success in Higher Education

By Mona Baroud-Nabhani


The purpose of this study was to identify school factors that promoted students' academic and personal development and enhanced their success in higher education. The underlying assumption was that effective decentralised private schools have strong positive cultures, visionary leadership and adequate resources to remain effective and open to improvement.\ud Five private secondary schools in Beirut were selected based on their reputation for decades of student success on national and university entrance examinations and achievement in private universities. Semi- structured interviews were conducted with principals, sample teachers, student groups, and alumni at a private university. Questionnaires were administered to the full-time teachers and simple frequency counts were used. School and classroom observations were conducted for two weeks in each school to examine daily manifestations of culture and effectiveness. School documents were analysed and data were crosschecked for triangulation. Criteria for university success were students' academic averages, years for graduation, participation in campus life, and interrelationships with faculty and friends (Koljatic and Kuh, 2001). Qualitative data analysis followed Cooper and McIntyre's (1996) method. Themes were reported using direct quotations in the narrative summary.\ud The five self-managed schools determined their missions, student intake, standards, and reform. They have positive cultures and authentic visionary leaders who are culture promoters, instructional leaders, and disciplinarians.\ud Leaders delegated responsibilities but ensured close coordination of programs and operations. A model of effective schools emerged. Two schools were identified as more effective than the others. Their practices reflected their missions, and their alumni were more involved in university life and interrelationships.\ud This study validated the assumption that private schools prepare their students rigorously for academic and social success in higher education. It can serve as a model for school effectiveness

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2003
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/9002

Suggested articles



  1. (1992), Social Research: Philosophy, Politics and Practice,
  2. (1994), Using performance indicators to Guide Strategic Decision making.
  3. (2000). A Case Study of Decisions Made by a School Management Team in the Initial Phase of Whole School Reform (New Jersey)', EdD Dissertation,
  4. (1997). A Comparison of Student Experiences with Good Practices
  5. (1989). A Guide to Action Research',
  6. (2001). A Longitudinal Assessment of College Student Engagement
  7. (1992). A Model for Managing an Excellent School',
  8. (1994). A New Reform Plan for Education,
  9. (1994). A Role for Parents, Students, and Teachers
  10. (1999). A School-Based Indicator Model for Quality Education in South Africa',
  11. (1995). A Study of Effective Departments in Secondary Schools',
  12. (2001). A Study of Site-Based Decision-Making Based on the Perspectives of the Participants', EdD Dissertation,
  13. (1997). A Study of Site-Based Management as It Relates to the Local Board of Education,
  14. (1990). A Study of the Effects of Academic Intervention on Performance, Satisfaction, and retention of Business Administration Students in a Public Comprehensive College',
  15. (1994). A Study of the Perceptions and Competencies of School Principals in Six Functions of Site-Based Management',
  16. (2001). A Study of the Perceptions of Central Florida First Year Secondary Teachers Regarding the Effectiveness of Selected Induction Activities',
  17. (1997). A Study of Three School Site Councils in One Urban School District', EdD Dissertation,
  18. (1987). A Time to Summarize : The Louisiana School Effectiveness Study',
  19. (2000). Academic Retention and Achievement of Postsecondary Students Requiring Remediation at a Four-Year Institution ,
  20. (1994). Achievement, Noncognitive Dimensions, and ProblemSolving Efficacy as Predictors of Academic success for Traditional and Nontraditional- Age College Students',
  21. (1997). Administrative Ritual and Ceremony',
  22. (2001). Administrators' Perceived Role Vulnerability',
  23. (1992). Agreement Initiatives: How leadership Behaviours of School Principals Generate Commitment to Goals and Objectives', EdD Dissertation,
  24. (1994). Al Taaleem fi Lubnan, Beirut, Dar El- Jadeed (Education in Lebanon).
  25. (1991). Al Tarbiya Bein Al Huruiyat Wal Tanakuthat',
  26. (2000). Al Tawajuhat Al Istratijiah Lil Tarbyah Wal Taaleem Fi Lubnan Lil Aam
  27. (1995). All the Hail the Brave Follower! ', Qantas Club Magazine,
  28. (1993). An Analysis of Grade Retention for Pupils in K- 3',
  29. (1994). An Analysis of the Knowledge, Preparedness and Perceptions of Superintendents Toward Site-Based Management',
  30. (1998). An Evaluation Study of Site- Based Managed Behaviours in a Rural Utah School, MS dissertation,
  31. (1987). An Evaluation Toolbox for Schools,
  32. (1997). An Exercise in Documentary Analysis', EdD
  33. (2001). An Exploratory Study of Cultural Leadership Behaviors of Principals that Build Effective School Cultures', EdD Dissertation,
  34. (1987). Assessing the Impact of Expenditure on Achievement: Some Methodological and Policy Consideration',
  35. (1984). Australia', ý
  36. (1991). Beirut 1975-1990: Demagraphic, Social and Economic Changes, Beirut, Geographic Institution.
  37. (2000). Beyond Access- Improving the Odds of College Success',
  38. (1995). Brains for Bucks? School Revenue and Student Achievement in Oklahoma',
  39. (2000). Building a New Structure for School Leadership,
  40. (1995). Building Capacity for Education Reform', CPRE Policy Briefs,
  41. (1994). Building Community in Schools,
  42. (1979). Building Community in Schools: An Analysis of Experiences,
  43. (1998). Building Leadership Capacity in Schools,
  44. (1991). Can Schools Change? Practice in Six London Secondary Schools',
  45. (1989). Carry- Over Effects of Small Classes',
  46. (2000). Case Situation Analysis',
  47. (1995). Case Studies and Organizational Innovation: Strengthening the Connection',
  48. (1994). Case Studies',
  49. (1988). Case Study Research in Education: A Qualitative Approach,
  50. (2000). Case Study Theory in Political Science',
  51. (2000). Caught in the Middle: Surveying School Principals' Beliefs, Stakeholder Support and Their Actions in School Management',
  52. (2001). Change Leadership: Planning, Conceptualisation and Perception',
  53. (1979). Changes in School Characteristics Coincident With Changes in Student Achievement,
  54. (1996). Changing Our Schools: Linking Effectiveness and School Improvement,
  55. (1975). Changing Schools: The Magic Feather Principle,
  56. (1994). Changing Teachers, Changing Times: Teachers'
  57. (2001). Character Education in Action: A Case Study of the Effectiveness of One Common-Based Rites of Passage Process in Austin, Texas', EdD Dissertation, Texas A and
  58. (1998). Charting Chicago School Reform,
  59. (1986). Childwatching at Playgroup and Nursery School,
  60. (1993). Choice Empowerment and Involvement: What Satisfies Parents', Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
  61. (2001). Collaboration and the Need for Trust',
  62. (1997). Collaborative Mainstream Integration of Social Skills with Academic Instruction', Preventing School Failure,
  63. (1990). College Student Experiences Questionnaire
  64. (1983). Concepts of Cultural and Organizational Analysis',
  65. (2001). Confronting Assumptions about the Benefits of Small Schools',
  66. (1994). Consideration of Context and Circumstance of Secondary School Teaching',
  67. (1981). Contrastive Rhetoric and Extremist Talk: Teachers, Hegemony and the Educationist Context',
  68. (1994). Coordination in Secondary Schools and Its Implications for Student Achievement', paper presented at
  69. (1992). Coordination Within Secondary Schools (Student Achievement)', Doctorate Dissertation, Universiteit Twente, The Netherlands.
  70. (1992). Corporate Culture and Performance,
  71. (1993). Corporate Culture, Customer Orientation and Innovativeness in Japanese Firms: A Quadrad Analysis',
  72. (2001). Countering the Critics: Responses to Recent Criticisms of School Effectiveness Research',
  73. (1998). Creating a Culture for Working Collaboratively: Becoming a Learning Organisation', EdD in Educational Management,
  74. (1994). Creating an Excellent School (2"a
  75. (1989). Creating an Excellent School,
  76. (1996). Creating the Climate and Culture of Success', Organizational Dynamics,
  77. (1993). Creativity in Project Work: A Longitudinal Study of a Product Development Project', Creativity and Innovation Management,
  78. (1998). Culture and Climate for Innovation',
  79. (1991). Cultures and Organizations,
  80. (1994). Data, Indicators and the National Centre for Higher Education Management Systems',
  81. (2001). Delivering Physical Education: The Expectations and Experiences of Newly Qualified Teachers',
  82. (2001). Delving Deeper into Morale, Job Satisfaction and Motivation Among Education Professionals: Re-examining the Leadership Dimension',
  83. (1903). Democracy for the Teacher' Elementary School Journal (quoted in Department for Education and Employment
  84. (1999). Democratic Personnel Management: A Case for Teacher Participation',
  85. (1998). Detracking for High Student Achievement', Educational Leadership,
  86. (1996). Developing a Sense of Community in Secondary Schools',
  87. (2001). Developing Principals as instructional Leaders',
  88. (1989). Discipline in Schools', Report of the Committee of Enquiry chaired by Lord Elton,
  89. (1996). Discourse Analysis: Practical Implementation',
  90. (2000). Dissertation Skills for Business and Management Students,
  91. (2001). Does Class Size Matter? ',
  92. (1993). Doing Your Research Project
  93. (1976). Education and Adaptive Modernization',
  94. Education Management Systems (NCHEMS)(1994), A Preliminary Study of the Feasibility and Utility for National Policy of Instructional "Good Practice"
  95. (1988). Educational Organizations as Loosely Coupled Systems',
  96. (1989). Educational Research: An Introduction (5t'
  97. (1999). Educational Restructuring and the Changing Role of the School Principal in Alberta', EdD Dissertation,
  98. (1992). Educative Leadership: A Practical Theory for New Administrators and Managers,
  99. (1983). Effective Schools: A Review',
  100. (1985). Effective Schools: Interpreting the Evidence',
  101. (1983). Effective Schools: Knowledge, Dissemination, Inquiry',
  102. (1996). Effective Teaching and Learning: Teachers' and Students' Perspectives, London,
  103. (1996). Effective Teaching Methods (3`d
  104. (1994). Effects of Using School- Based Participatory Decision- Making to Improve Services for Low-Performing Students',
  105. (1983). Efficient Cultures: Exploring the Relationship between Culture and Organizational Performance',
  106. (2000). Enhancing the Transition to University by Facilitating Social and Study Networks: Results of a One-day Workshop',
  107. (1995). Ethical -Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants,
  108. (1995). Ethnography: Principles in Practice,
  109. (1965). Eupsychian Management: A Journal (quoted in Conway
  110. (2000). Evaluation of Non-Cognitive Areas in Education', paper presented at
  111. (1999). Evaluation Results of the Student Achievement Guarantee
  112. (1996). Every Child Every School: Success for All,
  113. (1990). Evidence Says Site- Based Management Hindered by Many Factors',
  114. (1996). Evolving Issues for Qualitative Psychology', in
  115. (1997). Excellence in Schools', paper presented to Parliament by the Secretary of State for Educational Employment by Command of Her Majesty.
  116. (1983). Experiencing Comprehensive Education: A Study of Bishop McGregor School,
  117. (1995). Expert Problem Solving: Evidence from Schools and District Leaders,
  118. (1997). Explaining Variation in Teachers'Perceptions of Principals' Leadership: A Replication',
  119. (1981). Extended Summary and Conclusions: Institutional and Organizational Arrangements and Processes for Improving Academic Achievement of Inner City Schools, Kansas City, Centre for the Study of Metropolitan Problems in Education,
  120. (1999). Extracurricular Activities in Children's Lives',
  121. (1993). Factors that Enhance or Impede Graduation Rates: An Exploratory Study of the 1983 Entering Cohort at the
  122. (1977). Federal Programs Supporting Change, vol. VII, Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation,
  123. (1979). Fifteen Thousand Hours: Secondary Schools and Their Effects on Children,
  124. (1995). Finessing SBM with Balancing Acts',
  125. (1997). First Generation College Students: The Major Factors the Influence Their Recruitment and Retention',
  126. (1997). Focus Groups: A Useful Qualitative Method for Educational Research? ',
  127. (1997). Foolishness, Dangerous Nonsense, and Real Correlates of State Differences in Achievement',
  128. (1997). Forging Links: Effective Schools and Effective Departments,
  129. (1971). Foundations of Educational Administration: A Behavioural Analysis,
  130. (1984). France',
  131. (1996). From Tourists to Citizens in the Classroom',
  132. (2001). Good to Great, Why Some Companies Make the Leap and Others Don't,
  133. (1982). Government Finance of Private Education In Austrailia: Implications for American Policy',
  134. (1996). Grounded Theory: Practical Implementations'
  135. (1998). Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods,
  136. (1999). Helping Practitioners Explore Their School's Culture',
  137. (1983). High Output : Management,
  138. (1990). High School Courses and College Performance: A Study of State-Mandated College Preparatory Curriculum Requirements for College Admission,
  139. (1998). High School Courses and Scores as Predictors of College Success,
  140. (1996). High School Size: Which Works Best and for Whom? ', paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association,
  141. (1987). High Schools as Communities: The Small School Reconsidered,
  142. (1996). How and Why Money Matters: An Analysis of Alabama Schools',
  143. (1999). How Educational Expenditure Relate to Student Achievement: Insights from Texas Elementary Schools',
  144. (1997). How Money Matters: The Effect of School District Spending on Academic Achievement',
  145. (2001). Illustrating Issues of Power and Control',
  146. (1986). Images of Organizations,
  147. (1994). Improving School Effectiveness: A Scottish Approach',
  148. (1994). Improving School Effectiveness: Policy and Research in Scotland',
  149. (1993). Improving School Effectiveness', proposal for a research project for the Scottish Office Education Department,
  150. (1999). Improving School Performance and Potential, Buckinghm,
  151. (2001). Improving the Quality of Education for All,
  152. (1996). Improving the Suburban High School: Four Case Studies', EdD Dissertation,
  153. (1998). In the Field Research Team Settles in for the Long Haul',
  154. (1994). Inaugural Lecture',
  155. (2000). Increasing the Generalizability of Qualitative Research',
  156. (2000). Inequality in Teaching and Schooling: Supporting High- Quality Teaching and Leadership in LowIncome Schools',
  157. (1994). Influence of Personality Factors on the Progress, Performance, and Persistence of Non-Traditional College Students',
  158. (1971). Inner City Children Can Be Taught To Read : Four Successful Schools,
  159. (1981). Interviewing Women: A Contradiction in Terms',
  160. (1999). Interviews with Former Ministers and Officials of Education',
  161. (2000). Introduction',
  162. (1985). Issues and Problems in Educational Research',
  163. (1996). Kentucky's School-Based Decision-Making Process',
  164. (1994). Key Characteristics of Effective Schools: A Review of School Effectiveness Research,
  165. (1995). Key Characteristics of Effective Schools: A Review of School Effectiveness Research, Report by the Institute of Education for the Office for Standards in Education,
  166. (1996). Language in Educational Policy and Planning: The Case of Lebanon',
  167. (1999). Large Scale Reform: What Works? ', submitted as part of the
  168. (1992). Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organizations from an Orderly Universe,
  169. (1998). Leadership and Work Context of Public and Private Schools in the Republic of Lebanon', paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
  170. (1994). Leadership by Design,
  171. (1997). Leadership for a New Century',
  172. (1990). Leadership for Curriculum Improvement',
  173. (1996). Leadership for the School House,
  174. (1992). Leadership Styles of Principals in School Management: A Case Study of Kangwane Secondary Schools (South Africa)',
  175. (1992). Leadership When the Heat's On,
  176. (2001). Leading in a Culture of Change,
  177. (1992). Leading the Self Managing School, Lewes,
  178. (1995). Leading with Soul: An Uncommon Journey of Spirit,
  179. (1971). Lebanon',
  180. (1990). Linking Classroom and School Improvement',
  181. (1996). Linking School Effectiveness and School Improvement: Issues and Possibilities',
  182. (1993). Linking School Effectiveness Knowledge and School Improvement Practice: Towards a Synergy',
  183. (1999). Making It Happen Through Staff Development', EdD Dissertation,
  184. (1992). Making Schools More Effective,
  185. (1993). Managing Adolescent Behaviour: A Multiyear, Multi-school Study',
  186. (1993). Managing Autonomous Schools: The Grant- Maintained Experience,
  187. (1999). Managing Relationships Between Schools and Parents',
  188. (1995). Managing staff professionally',
  189. (1994). Managing with Teams',
  190. Merging Traditions:
  191. (1995). Middle Management in the Primary School: A Development Guide for Curriculum Leaders Subject Managers and Senior Staff,
  192. (1992). Moral Leadership: Getting to the Heart of School Improvement,
  193. (2000). More Committed Teachers: The Relationship Among Commitment, Perceived Effectiveness and Measured Achievement', EdD Dissertation,
  194. (1984). Multimethod Policy Research: A Case Study of Structure and Flexibility',
  195. (1984). Multisite Qualitative Policy Research: Some Design and Implementation Issues',
  196. (1983). National Commission on Excellence in Education
  197. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry,
  198. (1994). NCREL Monogram: Building Collaborative Cultures Seeking Ways to Reshape Urban Schools',
  199. (1997). New Boundaries for SchoolBased Management: The High Involvement Model', Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis,
  200. (1982). Norms of Collegiality and Experimentation: Workplace Conditions of School Success',
  201. (1995). Notes on the American Fascination with the English Tradition of School Inspection',
  202. (1996). Observing Schools: A Methodological Guide,
  203. (1999). On the Nature of the State and Its Responsibilities',
  204. (1999). One Size Fits Few: The Folly of Educational Standards,
  205. (1985). Opportunities and Difficulties of a Teacher Ethnographer: A Personal Account',
  206. (1985). Organizational Culture and Leadership,
  207. (1999). Organizational Empowerment: A Historical Perspective and Conceptual Framework',
  208. (1999). Organizational Socialization and Induction in Universities: Reconceptualizing theory and Practice',
  209. (1980). Paradigms, Metaphors, and Puzzle Solving in Organizational Theory',
  210. (1993). Parents as Partners: Genuine Progress or Empty Rhetoric? ',
  211. (1991). Paying for Public Education: New Evidence on How and Why Money Matters',
  212. (1994). Perception of Arabic as Language Learning Native Language and the Learning of English',
  213. (1997). Persistence and Change: Standards-Based Systematic Reform in Nine States',
  214. (1999). Planning in Hong Kong Secondary Self-Managing Schools',
  215. (1996). Possibilities and Problems of Small-Scale Studies to Unpack the Findings of Large-Scale Studies of School Effectiveness',
  216. (1997). Power of the Purse',
  217. (1986). Practical Strategies for Improving School Effectiveness',
  218. (1999). Predicting School Success in College',
  219. (1989). Predicting Student Success in College', EdD Dissertation,
  220. (1996). Preliminary Statistics for Education from
  221. (1998). Preparing Teachers to Be Leaders', Educational Leadership,
  222. (1989). Primary Teachers Talking: A Study of Teaching as Work,
  223. (1989). Principal Instructional Leadership',
  224. (2001). Principal Selection Decisions Made by Teachers on School Councils: The influence of Person Characteristics, Job Candidate Experience, and Teacher Job Assignment', EdD Dissertation,
  225. (2001). Private and Public Schools in Latin America: Students, Teachers, and School Management', EdD Dissertation,
  226. (2002). Private School Students Achieve Better', Education Week,
  227. (1987). Private Schools and State Education: Two Systems or One,
  228. (1958). Problems of Influence and Proof in Participant Observation',
  229. (2000). Professional Development that Addresses School Capacity', paper presented at
  230. (1998). Professional Learning Communities at Work: Best Practices for Enhancing Student Achievement,
  231. (1992). Profile for SAT and Achievement Test Takers: National Report,
  232. (1993). Protocol Analyses: Verbal Reports as Data, revised edition,
  233. (1996). Protocol Analysis: Practical Implementation',
  234. (1988). Public Policy and Private Education in Japan,
  235. (1994). Public Versus Private Education: A Comparative Case Study of a Public and a Private School in Nepal (Public Education)', EdD Dissertation,
  236. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists,
  237. (1993). Qualitative Data Analysis,
  238. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook
  239. (1980). Qualitative Evaluation Methods,
  240. (1995). Qualitative Methods in Health Promotion Research: Some Criteria for Quality',
  241. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Methods
  242. (1981). Qualitative Research for Education: Introduction to Theory and Methods,
  243. (2000). Quality Counts 2000: Who Should Teach?,
  244. (1993). Real World Research: A Resource for Social Scientists and Practitioner-Researcher,
  245. (1994). Realms of Knowledge: Academic Departments in Secondary Schools,
  246. (1994). Reform at the Grass Roots',
  247. (1997). Reframing Organizations,
  248. (1981). Regulations and Schools: The Implementation of Equal Education for Handicapped Children,
  249. (1990). Reinforcing school structures to collaboration and Chapter 6: Summary, Limitations and Suggestions Bibliography Abu Ghazaleh,
  250. (1991). Relationship of Academic and Nonacademic Admission Criteria to College Success for Educational Opportunity Program Students', MS Thesis,
  251. (1993). Relationships Among External Environment, School System Variables, and Student Achievement', MA Thesis,
  252. (1984). Remedial Education Programs in Higher Education: A Case Study (Developmental)',
  253. (1993). Renewing America's Schools: A Guide for SchoolBased Action,
  254. (1994). Report on the
  255. (1993). Research methods,
  256. (1998). Restructuring Schools for Collaboration: Promises and Pitfalls,
  257. (1991). Rethinking Effective Schools,
  258. (1994). Sampling Methods- An Overview and Review', paper for the first Annual Cathie Marsh Memorial Seminar held on November 8,1994, Quota Versus Probability Sampling,
  259. (2001). School Administrators' Perceptions of Effective Selection
  260. (2000). School Based Management: One School's Experience', EdD Dissertation,
  261. (1995). School Culture, School Effectiveness and School Improvement',
  262. (2001). School Culture, Teacher Efficacy, and Decision Making in Demonstrably Effective and Ineffective Schools',
  263. (1999). School Culture: Black Hole or Fertile Garden for School Improvement',
  264. (1991). School Effectiveness and Smallness', The School Trustee,
  265. (1995). School Effectiveness Research: The Policy Makers' Tools for School Improvement',
  266. (1991). School Effectiveness Research: Which Way at the Crossroads? ',
  267. (1999). School Effectiveness, School Improvement and Contemporary Educational Practices',
  268. (1985). School Effectiveness: A Conceptual Framework',
  269. (1998). School Finance and Opportunity to Learn: Does Money Well Spent Enhance Students' Achievement? ',
  270. (1996). School Improvement in Practice,
  271. (1989). School Matters, Open Books,
  272. (1999). School Personnel's Knowledge of and Opinions about OnCampus Psychosocial Services Available to Students and Their Families',
  273. (1998). School Structure and Student Success: The Effects of School Organization on Instruction and Learning',
  274. (1994). School- Based Management: An Overview',
  275. (1995). School, Family, Community Relationships',
  276. (1996). Schooling and National Development',
  277. (1999). Schools and the State',
  278. (1996). Schools as Collaborative Cultures, New York, The Falmer Press.
  279. (1993). Schools as Implementers of Externally Proposed Improvement Programme',
  280. (1990). Schools For the Twenty-first Century: The Conditions for Invention',
  281. (1993). Schools Make a Difference: Lessons Learned From a Ten-Year Survey of School Effects,
  282. (1999). Schools Must Speak for Themselves,
  283. Scottish Office Education Department (SOED)(1990), The Role of School Development Planning in School Effectiveness,
  284. (1996). Self Concept of Ability',
  285. (1977). Servant Leadership,
  286. (1987). Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education,
  287. (1993). Shared Decision-Making About What? A Comparison of Schools with and Without Teacher Participation',
  288. (1994). Site- Based Management, Teacher Empowerment and Unionism: Beliefs of Suburban School Principals',
  289. (1998). Site- Based Management: Is It Working? ', Educational Leadership,
  290. (1996). Site-Based Management: Making It Work', Educational Leadership,
  291. (2002). Small Class Size and Its Effects',
  292. (2002). Small Classes in American Schools: Research, Practice and Politics',
  293. (1994). Small Scale and School Culture: the Experience of Private Schools', Eric Digest,
  294. (1994). Small Schools and Great Ideas: New Directions in Teacher training',
  295. (1986). Social Foundation of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive View,
  296. (1972). Socialization and Political Development of Lebanese Schools: a Case Study, Beirut, Institute of Middle Eastern and North Affairs,
  297. (1994). SOED Ready to Refine Raw Tables of Results',
  298. (1998). Solving Problems in Math and Science Education',
  299. (1994). Stability of School Effects in Secondary Education', paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association,
  300. (1996). Standards for Schools Leaders, Washington DC,
  301. State Department of Education (1974a), Reading Achievement Related to Educational and Environmental Conditions in Twelve
  302. State Department of Education (1974b), School Factors Influencing Achievement: A Case Study of Two Inner City Schools,
  303. (1999). State Expenditure on Education in Lebanon',
  304. (1991). Statistical Yearbook;
  305. (2002). Statistics for the Official Examination Results by Mohafazat and Type of Education for 2000-2002,
  306. (2002). Staying Ahead of the Game',
  307. (1993). Stewardship: Choosing Service Over Self Interest,
  308. (1998). Strategic Management: The Role of the Chief Executive Officer',
  309. (2001). Strategies for Building and Maintaining a Positive School Culture', EdD Dissertation,
  310. (1981). Strategies for School Improvement: Cooperative Planning and Organisation Development,
  311. (1996). Study of Values, Concerns, and Perceptions of Students Graduating from Public and Private High Schools in Lebanon', MA Thesis,
  312. (1992). Success and Retention Predictors for Community College Students',
  313. (1984). Sweden',
  314. (1976). Symbol and Theory: A Philosophical Study of Theories of Relations in Social Anthropology, London,
  315. (1990). Symbolic Leadership and the Local School Principal: Shaping School Cultures in Different Contexts,
  316. (1980). Systeme d'enseignement et Division Sociale au Liban,
  317. (2001). Target Setting',
  318. (2000). Teacher Appraisal in Hong Kong Secondary Schools: Factors for Effective Practices (China)',
  319. (1996). Teacher Perceptions of Principal Behavior Related to Student Achievement', EdD Dissertation, Las Vegas,
  320. (2001). Teacher Personal and School Culture Characteristics in Effective Schools',
  321. (2001). Teacher Quality and Organizational Effectiveness: Classroom-Focused and System-Involved Teachers', Ph D Thesis,
  322. (1990). Teachers as Colleagues',
  323. (1993). Teachers' Attitude About Shared Decision Making (Educational Reform)',
  324. (1983). Teachers' Influence of the Self- Concept of Pupils of Different Ethnic Origins', unpublished Ph D Thesis,
  325. (2000). Teachers' Perceptions of Effective School Correlates: Implications for Educational Leaders (North Carolina), Ed D Thesis,
  326. (1996). Teachers' Professional Community in Restructuring Schools',
  327. (1989). Teachers' Workplace: The Social Organization of Schools,
  328. (1993). Ten Steps to a Learning Organisation,
  329. (2000). The Case Study Method in Social Inquiry',
  330. (1992). The Challenge to Care in Schools,
  331. (2002). The Change Leader',
  332. (2002). The Changing Shape of Leadership',
  333. (1978). The Conduct of Educational Case Studies: Ethics, Theory, and Procedures',
  334. (2002). The Culture Builder',
  335. (1996). The Dark Side of Shared Decision-Making',
  336. (1999). The Darker Side of Pupil Culture: Discipline and Bullying in Schools',
  337. (1984). The Demand for a Public School Education: A Crisis of Confidence in Comprehensive Schooling',
  338. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
  339. (1979). The Divided School,
  340. (1993). The Drama of Leadership, London,
  341. (1975). The Dynamics of Educational Change,
  342. (1999). The Effect of First Generation Status Upon the First Year College Success Patterns of Students Attending an Urban Multi-Campus Community College', EdD Dissertation,
  343. (1996). The Effect of School Resources on School Achievement',
  344. (2001). The Effectiveness of the Formalized School Improvement Plan on Secondary School Standardized Test Scores',
  345. (1995). The Effects of Decisional Participation, Instructional Relevance, and School- Based Management on Teacher Job Satisfaction',
  346. (1995). The Effects of School Context, Structure, and Experience on African American Males in Middle and High School',
  347. (2000). The Efficacy of In-Service Teachers Training for Internationalizing Teacher Education and Practicum',
  348. (1991). The Empowered School: The Management and Practice of Development Planning,
  349. (1967). The Extended Case Method and Situational Analysis',
  350. (1996). The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization,
  351. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization,
  352. (1996). The Graduates of 1989: A Study of Intended and Actual Career Plans and Students Perceptions of Their High School Years', EdD Dissertation,
  353. (2000). The Hong Kong Secondary School System: A Critical Analysis of Its Operations with Special Reference to the Perspectives of Principals in Relation to the Launch of the School Management Initiative',
  354. (1989). The Identification of Pertinent Factors Contributing to Freshman Success in College', EdD Dissertation,
  355. (1989). The Impact of Differential Expenditures on School Performance',
  356. (1996). The Impact of High School Culture on School Reform',
  357. (1990). The Impact of National Commission on Excellence in Education's `New Basics' on Student Performance in Midwestern Colleges and Universities (Core Curriculum)', EdD Dissertation,
  358. (2001). The Importance of Professional Development for Principals and Staff as a Way to Transform School Work Cultures', EdD Dissertation,
  359. (1998). The In-School Factors that Influence Academic Achievement in Indonesian Junior High Schools',
  360. (1994). The In-Service Training of Principals in Management Competencies',
  361. (1987). The International School Improvement Project',
  362. (1987). The Leadership Challenge,
  363. (1997). The Learning School: A Guide to Vision-Based Leadership, Thousand Oaks,
  364. (2002). The Learning- Centred Principal',
  365. (2002). The Lessons of Leadership,
  366. (1999). The Lowdown on Lessons',
  367. (1991). The Meaning and Measure of School Effectiveness',
  368. (1991). The Nature of Findings of School Effectiveness Research in the Primary Sector',
  369. (1999). The New Accountability',
  370. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change,
  371. (2001). The Past, Present and Future of School Improvement: Towards the Third Age',
  372. (1983). The Philosophy of Leadership,
  373. (1992). The Politics of Working in Secondary Schools: Some Teachers Perspectives on their Schools as Organizations', unpublished PhD,
  374. (1991). The Primary Head: Roles,
  375. (1993). The Principal's Role in Instructional Leadership', EdD Dissertation,
  376. (1982). The Principal's Role in Instructional Management: Five Participant Observation Studies of Principals in Action',
  377. (1990). The Principal's Role in Shaping School Culture,
  378. (1981). The Principal's Situational Control as a Predictor of School Effectiveness
  379. (1995). The Principalship: A Reflective Perspective
  380. (1991). The Principalship: A Reflective Practice Perspective,
  381. (1988). The Public/ Private Division of Responsibility for Education: An International Comparison',
  382. (1991). The Quality of Education in Developing Countries,
  383. (1990). The Quality of Schooling: Frameworks for Judgements',
  384. (1985). The Relationship between Corporate Culture to Industry Sector and Corporate Performance',
  385. (2001). The Relationship of High School Size, School Achievement and Per-Pupil Expenditures in South Carolina',
  386. (1985). The Relationship of Secondary School Achievement to International Student Success at a Private United States University', EdD Dissertation,
  387. (2001). The Responsible Classroom Management Model: A Case Study of the Program's Impact on Overall School Culture', EdD Dissertation,
  388. (2000). The Return of Large- Scale Reform',
  389. (2001). The Role of A Middle School Assistant Principal in Establishing and Maintaining Positive School Climate', EdD Dissertation,
  390. (1984). The Role of Education in the Fragmentation of the Lebanese Society', paper presented at the Ninth Annual Symposium: Toward a Viable Lebanon,
  391. (1964). The Role of Two Western Institutions
  392. (1981). The Schoolwide Projects Provisions of ESEA Title I: An Analysis of the First Year of Implementation,
  393. (1998). The Self Managing School, London,
  394. (1984). The Swedish School System, Stockholm, The Swedish Institute.
  395. (1999). The Teaching Gap Glencoe, IL.,
  396. (1995). The Theory of Learners: An Introduction,
  397. (1983). The Work Activity of Six Secondary School Principals',
  398. (1988). The Work Environment and School Reform',
  399. (1996). Theories, Models and Simulations: School Effectiveness at an Impasse',
  400. (2001). This Is How We Do It: A Longitudinal View of a School in the Midst of Organizational Change',
  401. (1995). Toward a Theory of Organizational Culture and Effectiveness',
  402. (1978). Towards a Philosophy of Administration,
  403. (2001). Transformational Leadership In Schools: Panacea, Placebo or Problem? ',
  404. (1992). Truancy and Attendance in Scottish Secondary Schools',
  405. (2001). Trying to Stay Ahead of the Game: Superintendents and Principals Talk About School Leadership,
  406. (1996). Turning Around Ineffective Schools: Some Evidence and Some Speculations',
  407. (1997). Understanding the School Capacity for Development: Growth States and Strategies',
  408. (2002). Unequal School Funding in the United States',
  409. (1990). Using Questionnaires
  410. (2001). Values and Leadership Practices in Secondary School Principals in the Kingdom of Tonga', MA Thesis,
  411. (1994). Views from the Field: Linking School Effectiveness and School Improvement',
  412. (1996). Vision and Leadership of Principals in Self-Managing Schools in Hong Kong',
  413. (1994). Vision as a Core Component in School Culture',
  414. (2001). Visionary Leader Behaviours and Their Congruency with Servant Leadership Characteristics', EdD Dissertation,
  415. (1992). Visionary Leadership,
  416. (1993). We're Back with Gobbo',
  417. (1990). What Are Teachers' Perceptions of Teaching in Different Classroom Contexts? ', paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
  418. (2002). What Research Says About Small Classes and Their Effects, Rockfeller Reports on Poverty and Education,
  419. (1981). What Works? An Examination of Effective Schools
  420. (1996). What's Worth Fighting for in Your School
  421. (1992). What's Worth Fighting for in Your School, Milton Keynes,
  422. (1998). What's Wrong with Ethnography?,
  423. (1997). When Money Matters: How Educational Expenditures Improve Student Performance and How They Don't,
  424. (1999). Why Students Lose When Tougher Standards Win',
  425. (1997). Why, how and When Should My Child Learn a Second Language? ',
  426. (1995). Working with Parents: A Whole School Approach,
  427. (1995). Would it work in theory? Arguments for practitioner research and theorizing in the special needs field',
  428. (2002). Writing the Qualitative Dissertation: Understanding by Doing

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.