Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Genes regulated by R:FR ratio and the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana

By Lisa F. Doyle


The shade avoidance response is of major adaptive significance to plants. Angiosperms in particular have developed a wide range of strategies to avoid shade. In canopy shade conditions, the ratio of red to far-red light wavelengths decreases (low R:FR ratio) this acts as a signal to instruct plants that they are in the proximity of neighbouring flora. A decrease in R:FR ratio is perceived through the phytochrome system, which results in onset of several developmental responses; such as elongation growth; that help promote escape from shade. Although much is known of the role phytochromes play in light perception and the concomitant physiological responses triggered by a decrease in the R:FR ratio, little is known of the downstream molecular components that bring about these changes. \ud This study focuses on a small number of genes (DIN2, ENDO1 and XTH15) that whilst known to be R:FR ratio regulated, have as yet unknown roles during shade avoidance. This work demonstrates that all three genes respond with extreme rapidity and reversibility to changes in light quality conditions. The role phytochromes play in regulation of these genes is investigated. In addition a number of light regulated transcription factors, downstream of the phytochromes, are identified as intermediate regulators of these genes. \ud As it has recently come to light that a number of R:FR ratio regulated genes are also under the control of the circadian clock the ability of this signalling pathway to influence expression of these genes was also investigated. Molecular analysis revealed that the circadian clock modulates two of the three genes examined within this study. \ud Finally, systematic physiological characterisation of mutant and over-expressing lines was performed with an aim to determine the biological function of these genes during shade avoidance. Additionally, this study reveals that one of the genes studied; XTH15; not only exhibits R:FR ratio regulation of expression, but also blue light mediated transcriptional responses. This raises the possibility that R:FR ratio and blue light signaling pathways converge. Preliminary data suggests that XTH15 could represent a point of cross over with the phytochromes and the cryptochromes. \ud This work, which characterises the response and potential role of three R:FR regulated genes downstream of the phytochromes, provides important and novel contributions to our understanding of the environmental regulation of plant development

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1995). A [beta]-Glucosidase from lodgepole pine xylem specific for the lignin precursor coniferin. Plant physiology 107,
  2. (1991). A classification of glycosyl hydrolases based on amino acid sequence similarities.
  3. (2001). A comprehensive expression analysis of all members of a gene family encoding cell-wall enzymes allowed us to predict cisregulatory regions involved in cell-wall construction in specific organs of Arabidopsis.
  4. (1997). A deletion in the PHYD gene of the Arabidopsis Wassilewskiji ecotype defines a role for phytochrome D in red/far-red light sensing.
  5. (2005). A dynamic balance between gene activation and repression regulates the shade avoidance response in Arabidopsis.
  6. (2003). A genomic analysis of the shade avoidance response in Arabidopsis.
  7. (2002). A light-switchable gene promoter system.
  8. (2004). A link between circadian controlled bHLH factors and the APRR1/ TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  9. (1996). A modular family 19 chitinase found in the prokaryotic organism Streptomyces griseus HUT 6037.
  10. (2008). A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation.
  11. (1997). A Natural Classification of the Basic Helix-LoopHelix Class of Transcription Factors.
  12. (2004). A novel molecular recognition motif necessary for targeting photactivated phytochrome signaling to specific basic heli-loop-helix transcription factors.
  13. (2001). A role for LKP2 in the circadian clock of Arabidopsis.
  14. (1954). Action of light on lettuce seed germination.
  15. (2001). Adaptive divergence in plasticity in natural population on Impatiens capensis and its consequences for performance in novel habitats.
  16. (2003). An Arabidopsis protein closely related to Synechocystis cryptochrome is targeted to organelles.
  17. (1997). An emerging molecular map of the phytochromes.
  18. (1997). Antagonistic but complementary actions of phytochromes A and B allow optimum seedling de-etiolation.
  19. (1975). Apical Dominance.
  20. (2002). Arabidopsis chitinases: a genomic survey. The Arabidopsis book.
  21. (2001). Arabidopsis nph1 and nph2: blue light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast realocation.
  22. (1997). Arabidopsis NPH1: a protein kinase with a putative redox-sensing domain.
  23. (2003). Arabidopsis PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR7 is a signaling intermediate in phytochrome-regulated seedling deetiolation and phasing of the circadian clock.
  24. (1997). Arabidopsis thaliana class IV chitinase is early induced during the interaction with Xanthomonas campestris.
  25. (2002). Arabidopsis, the rosetta stone of flowering time?
  26. (1994). Assembly and properties of holophytochrome.
  27. (2002). AtPIN4 mediates sink-driven auxin gradients and root patterning in Arabidopsis.
  28. (2002). BES1 accumulates in the nucleus in response to brassinosteroids to regulate gene expression and promote stem elongation.
  29. (2005). bHLH class transcription factors take centre stage in phytochrome signaling.
  30. (1999). Binding of phytochrome B to its nuclear signaling partner PIF3 is reversibly induced by light.
  31. (1995). Biochemical and molecular characterization of a barley seed β-glucosidase.
  32. (2002). Blue light receptors and signal transduction.
  33. (1998). Cell wall loosening by expansins.
  34. (1998). Characterisation of tomato PHYB1 and identification of molecular defects in four mutant alleles.
  35. (2003). Chimeric proteins between cry1 and cry2 Arabidopsis blue light photoreceptors indicate overlapping functions and arying protein stability.
  36. (1995). Circadian clock mutants in Arabidopsis identified by luciferase imaging.
  37. (1991). Circadian control of cab gene transcription and mRNA accumulation in Arabidopsis.
  38. (1979). Circadian rhythms: influences of internal and external factors on the period measured in constant conditions.
  39. (2004). Circadian-controlled Basic Helix-loop-Helix factor, PIL6, implicated in light-signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  40. (1998). Co- and/ or post-translational modifications are critical for TCH4 XET activity.
  41. (2005). Cold and light control seed germination through the bHLH transcription factor SPATULA.
  42. (2004). Comparative genomics in salt tolerance between Arabidopsis and Arabidopsis-related halophyte salt cress using Arabidopsis microarray.
  43. (1998). Conditional synergism between cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B is shown by the analysis of phyA, phyB and hy4 simple, double and triple mutants in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 118,
  44. (2001). CONSTANS mediates between the circadian clock and the control of flowering in Arabidopsis.
  45. (2004). Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 and multiple photoreceptors control degradation of phytochrome interacting factor 3, a transcription factor required for light signaling in arabidopsis.
  46. (1999). Control of circadian rhythms and photoperiodic flowering by the Arabidopsis GIGANTEA gene.
  47. (1981). Control of development in Chenopodium album L. By shadelight: the effect of light quantity (total fluence rate) and light quality (Red:Far-Red ratio)
  48. (2002). Critical role for LHY and CCA1 in maintaining circadian rhythmicity in Arabidopsis.
  49. (2003). Cryptochrome structure and signal transduction.
  50. (1991). Cryptochrome, phytochrome and Anthocyanin production.
  51. (2000). Cryptochromes are required for phytochrome signaling to the circadian clock but not for rhythmicity.
  52. (2001). Dark-inducible genes from Arabidopsis thaliana are associated with leaf senescence and repressed by sugars.
  53. (2007). DELLA protein function in growth responses to canopy signals.
  54. (2004). Density-induced plant size reduction and size inequalities in ethylene sensing and ethylene-insensitive tobacco.
  55. (2006). Developmental expression patterns of Arabidopsis XTH genes reported by transgenes and Genevestigator.
  56. (2003). Differential activities of the Arabidopsis phyB/ D/ E phytochromes in complementing phyB mutant phenotypes.
  57. (2002). Differential genetic variation in adaptive strategies to a common environmental signal in Arabidopsis accessions: phytochrome-mediated shade avoidance.
  58. (1997). Differential patterns of expression of the Arabidopsis PHYB, PHYD and PHYE phytochrome genes.
  59. (2003). Dimers of the N-terminal domain of phytochrome B are functional in the nucleus.
  60. (2001). Direct interaction of Arabidopsis cryptochromes with COP1 light control development.
  61. (2000). Direct Targeting of Light Signals to a Promoter Element-Bound Transcription Factor.
  62. (1990). Direct visualization of cross-links in the primary plant cell wall.
  63. (2003). Dissecting the phytochrome A-dependent signaling network in higher plants.
  64. (2000). Distinct roles of CONSTANS target genes in reproductive development of Arabidopsis.
  65. (2001). Distribution of yieldin, a regulatory protein of the cell wall yield threshold, in etiolated cowpea seedlings.
  66. (1999). Dynamic properties of endogenous phytochrome A in Arabidopsis seedlings.
  67. (1987). Early detection of neighbour plants by phytochrome perception of spectral changes in reflected sunlight.
  68. (2001). ELF3 encodes a circadian clock-regulated nuclear protein that functions in an Arabidopsis PHYB signal transduction pathway.
  69. (1995). Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco.
  70. (1998). Enhancement of blue-light sensitivity of Arabidopsis seedlings by a blue light receptor cryptochrome 2.
  71. (1991). Evidence for a senescence-associated gene induced by darkness.
  72. (2006). Experimental validation of a predicted feedback loop in the multi-oscillator clock of Arabidopsis Thaliana.
  73. (1999). Expression of endoxyloglucan transferase genes in acaulis mutants of Arabidopsis.
  74. (2003). Expression of senescence-enhanced genes in response to oxidative stress.
  75. (1990). Far-red radiation reflected from adjacent leaves: an early signal of competition in plant canopies.
  76. (1992). Firefly luciferase as a reporter of regulated gene expression in higher plants.
  77. (2005). FKF1 F box protein mediates cyclic degradation of a repressor of CONSTANS in Arabiopsis.
  78. (2003). FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis.
  79. (2000). FKF1, a ClockControlled Gene that Regulates the Transition to Flowering in Arabidopsis.
  80. (1998). Floral dip: a simplified method for Agrobacteriummediated transformation of Arabidopsis thaliana.
  81. (1977). Function of phytochrome in natural-environment. 4. Light quality and development.
  82. (2003). Functional characterization of phytochrome interacting factor 3 in phytochrome-mediated light light signal transduction.
  83. (2000). Functional interaction of phytochrome B and cryptochrome 2.
  84. (2003). Gating of the rapid shade-avoidance response by the circadian clock in plants.
  85. (1998). gene disrupts circadian rhythms and suppresses its own expression.
  86. (2004). Genes commonly regulated by water-deficit stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  87. (1980). Genetic control of light-inhibited hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana
  88. (1995). Genetic differentiation in morphological responses to simulated foliage shade between populations of Impatiens capensis from open and woodland sites.
  89. (2004). Genetic regulation of time to flower in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  90. (2004). Genome-wide identification of touch- and darkness- regulated Arabidopsis genes: a focus on calmodulin-like and XTH genes.
  91. (2004). Genomic basis for cell-wall diversity in plants. A comparative approach to gene families in rice and Arabidopsis.
  92. (2003). Genomic brassinosteroid effects.
  93. (1987). GUS fusions: B-glucuronidase as fusion marker in higher plants.
  94. (1992). HD-Zip proteins: members of an Arabidopsis homeodomain protein superfamily.
  95. (2000). HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction.
  96. (2005). HFR1 is targete by COP1 E3 ligase for post-translational proteolysis during phytochrome A signaling.
  97. (2006). How to beearly flowering: an evolutionary perspective.
  98. (1988). Hydroxamic acids (4-Hydroxy-1,4 benzoxazin-3-ones), defence chemicals in the gramineae.
  99. (2003). Identification of a new cryptochrome class: structure, function and evolution.
  100. (2006). Identification of primary target genes of phytochrome signaling. Early transcriptional control during shade avoidance responses in Arabidopsis.
  101. (1994). Illuminating phytochrome functions. There is light at the end of the tunnel.
  102. (1999). In vitro activities of four xyloglucan endotransglycosylases from Arabidopsis.
  103. (2003). Increased phytochrome B alleviates density effects on tuber yield of field potato crops.
  104. (1999). Independent regulation of flowering by phytochrome B and gibberellins in Arabidopsis.
  105. (2005). Induction of protein secretory pathway is required for systemic acquired resistance.
  106. (1996). Integration of circadian and phototransduction pathways in the network controlling CAB gene transcription in Arabidopsis.
  107. (2005). Involvement of GIGANTEA gene in the regulation of the cold stress response in arabidopsis.
  108. (2004). is a critical bHLH regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis.
  109. (2003). Isolation and charactersiation of phyC mutants in Arabidopsis reveals complex crosstalk between phytochrome signaling pathways.
  110. (1999). Leaf expansion-an integrating plant behaviour.
  111. (1994). Leaf movement in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  112. (2002). LHY and CCA1 are partially redundant genes required to maintain circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis.
  113. (1999). Light Quality-dependent nuclear import of the plant photorecptors phytochrome A and B.
  114. (1982). Light quality, photoperception and plant strategy.
  115. (2001). Light-induced nuclear import of phytochrome-A:GFP fusion proteins is differentially regulated in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis.
  116. (2004). Light-regulated nuclear localization of phytochromes.
  117. (2008). Lightinduced phosphorylation and degradation of the negative regulator PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 from arabidopsis depend upon its direct physical interactions with photoactivated phytochromes.
  118. (1976). Linear relationship between phytochrome photoequilibrium and growth in plants under simulated natural radiation.
  119. (2000). LKP1 (LOV kelch protein 1): a factor involved in the regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis.
  120. (1999). Loss of the circadian clock-associated protein 1 in Arabidopsis results in altered clock-regulated gene expression.
  121. (2005). LUX ARRHYTHMO encodes a Myb domain protein essential for circadian rhythms,
  122. (1997). Mechanosensitive expression of a lipoxygenase gene in wheat.
  123. (2002). Microarray analysis of brassinosteroid-regulated genes in Arabidopsis.
  124. (2002). Millar A and Amasino
  125. (1998). Modes of action of phytochromes.
  126. (2007). Modulation of environmental responses of plants by circardian clocks.
  127. (2002). Molecular basis of seasonal time measurement in Arabidopsis.
  128. (1993). Molecular cloning and cDNA sequencing of endoxyloglucan transferase, a novel class of glycosyltransferase that mediates molecular grafting between matrix polysaccharides in plant cell walls.
  129. (2000). Molecular cloning of yieldins regulating the yield threshold of cowpea cell walls: cDNA cloning and characterization of recombinant yieldin.
  130. (1999). Molecular domains of the cellulose/ xyloglucan network in the cell walls of higher plants.
  131. (2004). Monitering the expression profiles of genes induced by hyperosmotic, high salinity, and oxidative stress and abscisic acid treatment in Arabidopsis cell culture using a full-length microarray.
  132. (2000). Multiple signaling pathways in gene expression during sugar starvation. pharmacological analysis of din gene expression in suspension-cultured cells of Arabidopsis.
  133. (2001). Multiple transcription factor genes are early targets of phytochrome A signaling.
  134. (2002). Mutation of a chitinase-like gene causes ectopic deposition of lignin, aberrant cell shapes, and over production of ethylene.
  135. (2001). Nph1 and npl1: Blue-light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast relocation in Arabidopsis.
  136. (2000). Nuclear and cytosolic events of light-induced, phytochrome-regulated signaling in higher plants.
  137. (1996). Nuclear localization activity of phytochrome B.
  138. (2000). Orchestrated transcription of key pathways in Arabidopsis by the circadian clock.
  139. (2002). Patterns of expression and normalized levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes.
  140. (2006). Photoactivated Phytochrome Induces Rapid PIF3 Phosphorylation Prior to Proteasome-mediated Degradation.
  141. (2000). Photochemical and mutational analysis of the FMN-binding domains of the plant blue light receptor, phototropin.
  142. (2000). Photocontrol of subcellular partitioning of phytochrome-B:GFP fusion protein in tobacco seedlings.
  143. (1997). Photomorphogenesis and phytochromes.
  144. (1982). Photomorphogenesis in Impatiens Parviflora and other plant species under simulated natural canopy radiations.
  145. (1994). Photomorphogenesis in plants 2 nd edition.
  146. (1991). Photomorphogenic effects of UV-B radiation on hypocotyl elongation in wild type and stable-phytochrome-deficient mutant seedlings of cucumber.
  147. (1985). Photomorphogenic responses of long-hypocotyl mutants of tomato.
  148. (2004). Photorecptor ubiquination by COP1 E3 ligase desensitizes phytochrome A signaling.
  149. (1994). Photoresponses of light-grown phyA mutants of Arabidopsis.
  150. (1993). Photoresponses of transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings expressing introduced phytochrome B-encoding cDNAs: evidence that phytochrome A and phytochrome B have distinct photoregulatory functions.
  151. (2001). Phototropin-related NPL1 controls chloroplast relocation induced by blue light.
  152. (1998). Phytochrome A affects stem growth, anthocyanin synthesis, sucrosephosphate-synthase activity and neighbour detection in sunlight-grown potato.
  153. (2007). Phytochrome A is an irradiancedependent red light sensor.
  154. (1995). Phytochrome A, phytochrome B and HY4 are involved in hypocotyl growth responses in natural radiation in Arabidopsis; phyA mutants under dense canopies.
  155. (1987). Phytochrome action in light-grown mustard: kinetics, fluence-rate compensation and ecological significance.
  156. (1994). Phytochrome B and at least one
  157. (2003). Phytochrome controlled signaling cascades in high plants.
  158. (1999). Phytochrome D acts in the shade-avoidance syndrome in Arabidopsis by controlling elongation growth and flowering time.
  159. (1998). Phytochrome E influences internode elongation and flowering time in Arabidopsis.
  160. (2009). Phytochrome functions in Arabidopsis development.
  161. (2002). Phytochrome photosensory signalling networks.
  162. (1997). Phytochrome: If it looks and smells like a histidine kinase, Is it a histidine kinase?
  163. (2007). Phytochromemediated inhibition of shade avoidance involves degradation of growth-promoting bHLH transcription factors.
  164. (1998). Phytochromes and cryptochromes in the entrainment of the Arabidopsis circadian clock.
  165. (2006). Phytochromes and shade-avoidance responses in plants.
  166. (2003). Phytochromes B, D, and E act redundantly to control multiple physiological responses in Arabidopsis.
  167. (1998). PIF3, a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal photoinduced signal transduction, is a novel basic helix-loophelix protein.
  168. (2002). PIF4, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH factor, functions as a negative regulator of phytochrome B signaling in Arabidopsis.
  169. (2004). PIL5, a phytochromeinteracting basic helix-loop-helix protein, is a key negative regulator of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  170. (1994). Plant chitinase genes.
  171. (2004). Plant response regulators implicated in signal transduction and circadian rhythm.
  172. (2005). Positive and Negative Factors Confer Phase-Specific Circadian Regulation of Transcription in Arabidopsis.
  173. (2004). Primary cell wall metabolism: tracking the careers of wall polymers in living plant cells.
  174. (1996). Proteolysis in plants: mechanisms and functions.
  175. (1995). Putative bluelight photoreceptors from Arabidopsis thaliana and Sinapis alba with a high degree of sequence homology to DNA photolyase contain the two photolyase cofactors but lack DNA repair activity.
  176. (1980). Rapid photomodulation of stem extension in light-grown Sinapis alba L.
  177. (1999). Reevaluating concepts of apical dominance and the control of axillary bud outgrowth. Current topics in developmental
  178. (1990). Reflection signals and the perception by phytochrome of the proximity of neighbouring vegetation.
  179. (2002). Regulation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 by blue-light-dependent phosphorylation.
  180. (1998). Regulation of flowering time by Arabidopsis photoreceptors.
  181. (2003). Regulation of flowering time by light quality.
  182. (2005). Regulation of phytochrome B nuclear localization through light-dependent unmasking of nuclear-localisation signals.
  183. (2004). Regulation of the mammalian circadian clock by cryptochrome.
  184. (1994). Regulatory Hierarchy of Photomorphogenic Loci:
  185. (1978). Relationship between phytochrome photoequilibrium and development in light grown Chenopodium-Album L.
  186. (1993). Release of active cytokinin by a beta-glucosidase localized to the maize root meristem.
  187. (2001). Resetting of the circadian clock by phytochromes and cryptochromes in Arabidopsis.
  188. (2005). Response to darkness of late-responsive dark-inducible genes is positively regulated by leaf age and negatively regulated by calmodulin-antagonistsensitive signalling in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  189. (1991). Retention of phytochromemediated shade avoidance responses in phytochrome-deficient mutants of Arabidopsis, cucumber and tomato.
  190. (2007). Rhythmic growth explained by coincidence between internal and external cues.
  191. (1997). Roles of different phytochromes in Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis.
  192. (1993). Selected components of the shadeavoidance syndrome are displayed in a normal manner in mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa deficient in phytochrome B.
  193. (1991). Sensitivity and integration in a visual pathway for circadian entrainment in the hamster (Mesocricetus auratus).
  194. (1999). Shade avoidance responses are mediated by the ATHB-2 HDZip protein, a negative regulator of gene expression.
  195. (2002). Shade avoidance responses. Driving auxin along lateral routes.
  196. (2002). Signs f the time: environmental input into the circadian clock.
  197. (1994). Spurious localizations of diX-indigo microcrystals generated by the histochemical GUS assay.
  198. (1994). Stem extension growth responses to blue light require Pfr in tomato seedlings but are not reduced by the low phytochrome levels of the aurea mutant.
  199. (1997). Structural and evolutionary relationships among chitinases of flowering plants.
  200. (2001). SUB1, an Arabidopsis CA+-binding protein involved in cryptochrome and phytochrome coaction.
  201. (1979). Systematic relationship between phytochromecontrolled development and species habitat, for plants grown in simulated natural radiation.
  202. (1993). The Arabidopsis Athb-2 and –4 genes are strongly induced by far-red-rich light.
  203. (2003). The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family.
  204. (1997). The arabidopsis GAI gene defines a signaling pathway that negatively regulates gibberellin responses.
  205. (1996). The Arabidopsis XETrelated gene family: environmental and hormonal regulation of expression.
  206. (2003). The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in plants: a genome-wide study of protein structure and functional diversity.
  207. (2000). The C termini of Arabidopsis cryptochromes mediate a constitutive light response.
  208. (2000). The cell wall.
  209. (1999). The circadian clock controls the expression pattern of the circadian input photoreceptor, phytochrome B.
  210. (2004). The degradation of HFR1, a putative bHLH class transcription factor involved in light signaling, is regulated by phosphorylation and requires COP1.
  211. (2004). The degredation of HFR1, a putative bHLH class transcription factor involved in light signaling, is regulated by phosphorylation and requires COP1.
  212. (2000). The ELF3 zeitnehmer regulates light signaling to the circadian clock.
  213. (1997). The function of phytochrome
  214. (1975). The function of phytochrome in plants growing in the natural environment.
  215. (2000). The genetics of phytochrome signaling in Arabidopsis.
  216. (2000). The isolation of wall-bound proteins regulating yield threshold tension in glycerinated hollow cylinders of cowpea hypocotyl.
  217. (1988). The loci of perception for phytochrome control of internode growth in light-grown mustard: Promotion by low phytochrome photoequilibria in the internode is enhanced by blue light perceived by the leaves.
  218. (1988). The phenomena of senescence and aging.
  219. (1994). The physiology of phytochrome action. Photomorphogenesis in plants 2 nd edition. (eds Kendrick R and Kronenberg G) Martinus Nijoff Publishers.
  220. (1994). The phytochrome apoprotein family in Arabidospsis is encoded by five genes: the sequence and expression of PHYD and PHYE.
  221. (1997). The phytochrome gene family in tomoatoe (Solanum lycopersicum L.).
  222. (2004). The phytochrome-interacting transcription factor, PIF3, acts early, selectively, and positively in light enduced chloroplast development.
  223. (1995). The REVOLUTA gene is necessary for apical meristem development and for limiting cell divisions in the leaves and stems of Arabidopsis thaliana.
  224. (1997). The role of endoxyloglucan transferase in the organization of plant cell walls.
  225. (1994). The role of hormones in apical dominance. New approaches to an old problem in plant development.
  226. (1996). The rosette habit of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent upon phytochrome action: novel phytochromes control internode elongation and flowering time.
  227. (2001). The signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis CRY1 involves direct interaction with COP1.
  228. (1989). The structure and function of xyloglucan.
  229. (2004). The ubiquitin 26S proteasome proteolytic pathway.
  230. (1997). The VLF loci, polymorphic between ecotypes Lansberg erecta and Columbia. Dissect two branches of phytochrome A signal transduction that correspond to very-low-fluence and high-irradiance responses.
  231. (2002). The XTH family of enzymes involved in xyloglucan endotransglucosylation and endohydrolysis: current perspectives and a new unifying nomenclature.
  232. (1986). Tillering responses of Lolium multiflorum plants to changes of red/far-red ratio typical of sparse canopies.
  233. (2009). Time for circadian rhythms: plants get synchronized.
  234. (2001). Tomato and barley contain duplicated copies of cryptochrome 1.
  235. (2000). Tomato contains homologues of Arabidopsis cryptochromes1 and 2.
  236. (1991). Transgenic plants with enhanced resistance to the funga1 pathogen Rhizoctonia solani.
  237. (1996). Twilight-zone and canopy shade induction of the Athb-2 homeobox gene in green plants.
  238. (2003). Update on the Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Gene Family in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  239. (1998). Vectors used in this study: Appendix 2. 1. pDrive (Invitrogen) Appendix 2.2. pROK2
  240. (2005). What makes the Arabidopsis clock tick on time? A review on entrainment.
  241. (2005). XTH acts at the microfibril-matrix interface during cell elongation.
  242. (1991). Xyloglucan antibodies inhibit auxin-induced elongation and cell wall loosening of Azuki bean epicotyls but not of oat coleoptiles.
  243. (2002). Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases have a function during the formation of secondary cell walls of vascular tissues.
  244. (1999). Xyloglucan endotransglycosylases: diversity of genes, enzymes and potential wall-modifying functions. Trends in plant science
  245. (1998). Xyloglucans in the primary cell wall.
  246. (2000). Zeitlupe encodes a novel dock-associated PAS protein from Arabidopsis.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.