This is the final publisher edited version of the paper published as Radio Science, 2010, 45, RS6013. This version was first published at http://www.agu.org/journals/rs, Doi: 10.1029/2010RS004416.Measurements have been made over a 255 km radio path between Durham and Leicester in the UK in order to investigate the potential applicability of multiple input multiple output (MIMO) techniques to communications within the HF band. This paper describes the results from experiments in which compact heterogeneous antenna arrays have been employed. The results of these experiments indicate that traditional spaced HF antenna arrays can be replaced by compact, active, heterogeneous arrays in order to achieve the required levels of decorrelation between the various antenna elements. An example case study is also presented which highlights the importance of the variable nature of the ionosphere in the context of HF‐MIMO radio links
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