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Code-Switching in the Hong Kong Content Subject Classroom - A Building Block or a Stumbling Block to English Language Acquisition?

By Clara Yin-mei Chan


Against the background of heated debates in Hong Kong concerning whether code-switching between Cantonese (L1) and English (L2) in EMI (English as the Medium of Instruction) content subject lessons facilitates or hinders English language acquisition, with most local linguists and educators asserting the former stand while the Government asserting the latter, this research was carried out to find out the communicative/ pedagogical functions of code-switching; the differences, if any, in the code-switching patterns used by the teachers with student populations of different English proficiency levels, and the insights they give to classroom code-switching.\ud Content subject lessons of three schools of high, medium and low English standards were audio-taped and analyzed first in a qualitative manner using Conversation Analysis as the tool. The findings confirmed earlier theories on both the positive and the negative functions of code-switching. Then the same findings were analyzed quantitatively using pre-coded categories of the linguistic patterns of the code-switches of the teachers' talk. Findings showed that all-English, intra-sentential code-switching with English as the Matrix Code were correlated with the student population of high English proficiency; inter-sentential code-switching, and intra-sentential code-switching with English inserted at sites at the word-level and beyond the word-level in Cantonese base structures with the student population of medium English proficiency; and insertion of English nouns in Cantonese base structures, with the student population of the lowest English proficiency. The factor of students' English proficiency levels interacted with that of the lesson objectives and subject content to decide on the language patterns used by the teachers.\ud The inference quality of the above findings was increased by interviews carried out with the teachers and the students from the sampled lessons. And the majority of the teachers and the students interviewed expressed that they favored inter-sentential code-switching over intra-sentential code-switching for English language acquisition in EMI content subject lessons. Subsequently, the researcher recommended that code-switching should be a legitimate strategy but used in a controlled manner. A continuum of code-switching patterns with different degrees of second language penetration was proposed for students of varied English standards

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8666

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  1. 0, this was not so in my days.
  2. 0, your English is really good.
  3. 1: Any other examples?
  4. 1: Better for exams.
  5. 1: But on what occasions does she speak Cantonese?
  6. 1: Can you give me some examples as to when you use Cantonese?
  7. 1: Do they sometimes use Chinese sentence structures?
  8. 1: Does the school or you yourself have any remedies?
  9. a small part.
  10. a yes! Five. And then Chinese. I think all twelve boys, they are Chinese. Twelve Chinese. Is it clear? Are you following?
  11. a. tai ha bingo jouh dak. jeui hou. Jeui jeunkok Yes. See who does the best, the most accurate..
  12. about learning the subject, do you think using all English will create a problem for the students?
  13. About nitty-gritty things.
  14. According to::: thirty
  15. actually this has to do with their English standard. Maybe they get the tenses wrong, always using the same expressions, or sometimes write unintelligible stuffs.
  16. all the rest of the lesson will be conducted in English?
  17. all the textbooks are in English, I seldom memorize the terms in Chinese. It is hard to retrieve the terms from my memory and thoughts if the teacher gives a Chinese term. If the teacher speaks in English, then it is easy to refer to the textbooks.
  18. An English sentence with Chinese words.
  19. And a complete Chinese sentence.
  20. and sometimes when you write Chinese, you can't think of the Chinese word to replace the English word. Like how to say 'OK'
  21. And when you prepare for lessons, you will write some sentence structures too. So that can help you to express better.
  22. And you can understand.
  23. And you know in Hong Kong, in Hongkongers' casual talk, we often mix Cantonese and English in one sentence..
  24. And you seldom follow English sentences with translation of Cantonese.
  25. another question is: when your teacher speaks in Cantonese, would you prefer her to mix Cantonese and English in one sentence, or would you prefer her to speak complete English sentences and complete Cantonese sentences?
  26. Apart from technical terms, what else?
  27. apart from these, I will speak Chinese whenever possible. I mean if I speak in Cantonese. English will only be for technical terms.
  28. Apart from this, any example or occasion in which you will use Cantonese?
  29. Apart from this, are there other situations in which she will speak Cantonese?
  30. Apart from this?
  31. Apart from this? Any examples you think you need to speak Cantonese, or it is better to speak Cantonese?
  32. As long as the message can get across, I think it's OK. I think the chief function of language is for communication.
  33. assuming the students can understand everything in English, if they have English if in an all-English classroom, I would say they may not be able to learn a lot.
  34. be the latter case. After she says something in English, if many students say they don't understand, then she will explain in Cantonese.
  35. Because in a pyramid, you can find lots of treasures.
  36. because some terms in Geography will sound strange in Chinese, then I will keep the English terms.
  37. because students are not as disciplined today. They may even write Chinese words in the middle of English sentences. I've got to pay attention to this problem.
  38. because they don't have a chance to speak. They just use a complete sentence or you won't have time to teach them use correct English in class.
  39. because they put lots of treasure in the pyramids. Use English, OK? teacher was setting up the screen> Who is taller than me?
  40. Build the pyramids.
  41. Burning incense.
  42. But how about nine plus twelve? Thirteen and nine?
  43. But then you still prefer the teacher to use mixed sentences.
  44. Cheuhn-chi-wohng a. Bing-mah-yung a. Yes, they are in Chin's tomb! Emperor Chin, Terra Cotta Warriers. What about nowadays? Do we believe in the same thing?
  45. chin-haak? One thousand grams?
  46. choose to use a complete English sentence...
  47. chunks of English is not difficult to understand. But for mixed sentences you don't know what some words mean? I would rather she speaks chunks of English, and then if we don't understand we may ask afterwards.
  48. Chunks of English... yes, you can understand more about grammar, vocabularies. If a bit of English and a bit of Chinese, you can't learn much.
  49. Depends on what people. For some naughty kinds, they don't know what on earth you are talking about if you speak
  50. Did you study in an EMI or CMI secondary school?
  51. Dimgaai mh-siu sei go a? Daih-sei go haih bingo? Three. Why not four people? Who is the fourth one?
  52. Dimgaai yauh geigwaan a? Why was there secret passage?
  53. do you mix languages when you teach Form one students?
  54. Does that mean you use Cantonese for complex ideas.
  55. Egypt, of course, the Egyptians. Wow. Why did the Egyptians have so many time, spare time to help him?
  56. Ele::: phant. Garn Jeuhng paaih laih a ligo. Golden Elephant brand this is. How heavy is a bag of rice? Five -
  57. Eleven or below - zero. Twelve or something. Age twelve or twelve something. Age twelve or twelve something. Sahp-yih sui waahk sahp-yih sui gei ge. Twelve or twelve something.
  58. Emperor Chin!
  59. English is really good. So they can use English
  60. English or all Chinese.
  61. Evidence! Do we believe in the life after death?
  62. Faanlaih yauh dak sai. For use when coming back.
  63. Faanlaih yauh dak sai. In English! For use when coming back.
  64. farming! 11 6. T: Because there was no farming! Good, you're so smart. How many months, I should say like this, could they work all year doing the farm work? No. How many months did they spend on farming?
  65. female, eleven or above, no, eleven or below. Girls, female, girls.
  66. five kilograms. If you don't know how heavy is a bag of rice, that means you seldom help your mother. Next time I should send you to the supermarket to buy two. So, how big would be the stone for building the pyramid?
  67. For example when you talk about feelings. I hope my students can receive some sharing from the bottom of my heart, then I'll use Chinese.
  68. For some specialized terms, very specialized terms, or Chinese things, which we normally describe in Chinese. If she speaks in English, it'll be somewhat difficult. So she will speak in Chinese.
  69. For some students are not very good in Chinese. Some students come back from overseas, and our English is not bad. So we won't have problem with the teacher speaking all English, or mixing chunks of Chinese and with chunks of English.
  70. go dou gou-gwo neih la. Everybody is taller than you.
  71. Got it. But you think complete English sentences will help them in listening proficiency.
  72. hope she can speak more English. Because ours is an EMI school. If we hear more English, our English will be improved. And we can easily adapt to higher forms' English syllabus.
  73. Hou do bouhmaht haih leuimihn. Many treasures inside.
  74. Houhbinh ga ! // From the back!
  75. How big it is? How big? How big is the stone?
  76. how can they express things when they can't put them in English?
  77. How do you know?
  78. How heavy is a stone?
  79. I beg you not to give me so much homework today! OK. I beg you. What were they begging the Pharaoh, OK? 0 my Pharaoh, please let me go. I won't tell anybody about this secret. I've worked here for twenty years!
  80. I can choose, I would prefer her to speak in all English, because this is in the textbook, and we can understand it. But if it is very special terms, at times it is good to explain in Cantonese. But it is no good to speak too much Cantonese.
  81. I don't know.
  82. I find some difficult words which a Form One student cannot understand, then I will read the sentence or idiom once, then I tell the Chinese equivalent of the word to the class.
  83. I right saying that you seldom mix English words into a Chinese sentence, or Chinese words into an English sentence?
  84. I see. Apart from these, are there any occasions when she will speak Chinese?
  85. I think at least when they hear English all the time in class, they will not be your spoken English so you can improve.
  86. I think it's just normal.
  87. I think this is not fluent in expression at all. And.. not sure if this is
  88. I would like to ask you if you have any special feelings when you hear people talking to each other in a mix of English and Chinese?
  89. I: 0 yes. When she tries to persuade you to work hard, etc. she'll still speak in English?
  90. I: 1 mean code-switching in one sentence, and code-switching in between sentences.
  91. I: I mean examples of the use of Cantonese.
  92. I: That gets in the way of your memorizing the subject and the English structures, so it'll be difficult for you to write the answers in texts or examinations. Is that what you mean?
  93. I: What sort of talk?
  94. I'll also use Cantonese, so they can express in Cantonese.
  95. If it is chatting in class, then it's English. If it is after class, then it's Cantonese.
  96. if the topic is not that difficult, they can speak English most of the time. But they would use Chinese in their personal talks, or in groups. And I will let them, as I hope that they can brainstorm ideas during discussion.
  97. If they believed Pharaoh was a god, what happened? If they believed Pharaoh was a god, why? they would obey the god. If they disobeyed the god, what happened?
  98. If you hear much Chinese, you can't write the sentence in English.
  99. if you use complete English sentences, do you think the students can understand you?
  100. in the months of flooding, they had to help the Pharaoh to do lots of public works, like building the roads, building the pyramids. Could they say I don't want to work?
  101. Is there Taoist? Alright. Sh::: and
  102. It has a trendy feel.
  103. it is difficult to get used to two languages within a short time.
  104. It is easier to understand.
  105. It was the same. Some lecturers used a mix.
  106. it's difficult to get the meaning of single words uttered out in English.
  107. It's easier to understand.
  108. It's easier to understand. If the terminology comes with the Chinese explanation, then it's easier to understand.
  109. Just my personal feelings?
  110. Keihta ge gaau. Mouh Ia. Yauh-mouh a? Is there? Other religion. No. Is there ?
  111. Leuhng deun jikhaih geichuhng jek? Yat deun yauh geido chin haak a? How heavy is two tons? How many kilograms does a ton have? Geido chin-haak a? Yat deun yauh (2) geido chin-haak a? How many kilograms? One ton has how many kilograms?
  112. longer than that. Six to seven months, or half a year. The other half year they could do nothing because there was.... Flooding. So if they could not do the farm work, what did they do?
  113. Louhjenyong! Is he taller than me? Is it true?
  114. Lukh jeung toi gam daaih!
  115. matyeh beimaht haih yahmbihn a? What secret is there inside?
  116. Maybe there are individual students you see have great difficulties, then I will use Cantonese one-on-one, as they need some clearer guidelines.
  117. maybe they've learnt the English word in school, and they feel that word fits in the context at that particular moment. So they will use it. I think it's very natural, not good or bad.
  118. Meih chaap jai ga. It's not yet plugged.
  119. mixed code. So do you think if in class, teachers use mixed code randomly, would you think if there is an influence on students' learning as compared to clearly defined roles for the two languages like what we've just mentioned?
  120. Mixing languages in one sentence.
  121. more, most of the time she speaks English.
  122. Mostly in Cantonese when chatting with us.
  123. Mouh honehng! Wow! Impossible
  124. never done anything wrong. I miss my family, my son. Must be growing up now. If you let me out, I can see him, please! Why, why do you think the Pharaoh would not let him go?
  125. Ngoh dou heui a! I would like to go too
  126. Ngoh lo jo bingo bun syu a? //Deuimhjyuh, Fai-di- tinh// Sorry. Whose book have I taken by mistake ? Sorry, fill in quickly.
  127. Ngoh wah sai-bak-pin-sai ama. Neih yauh-mouh louh-jo yeh? I said west-north-west. Did you mix anything? OK. C one, the answer is
  128. No need to answer all Chinese.
  129. Normally does you geography teacher uses both English and Cantonese in a sentence, or does she speak English for a while, then change to Cantonese.
  130. Nothing special. Then what about in class? When Miss Tsang teaches you EPA, would you prefer her to speak all in English, or all in Chinese, or a mixture of English and Chinese?
  131. Now let's (1) Sh::: Alright. Let's come to another:: with the male. Thirteen or above, stand up. Thirteen or above, stand up.
  132. (1994). Observational Techniques.
  133. of the time
  134. only English... actually I think it all depends on the students' ability. Actually the class I taught was the best class. If I think the majority can understand me, I can use English. So it depends on the students' response and situation..
  135. Our lesson duration is limited. If you repeat the same thing in two languages, then you will waste double the time.
  136. prefer inserting Chinese into English. Because in that case the basic structure would still be English, which is fitting for the language of the curriculum design.
  137. Religion
  138. remember, why did they put the dead body into the pyramid? Why did they make the dead body into a mummy. Yeah, they want to live.
  139. S: Five kilograms.
  140. S: I prefer a mix, as I can understand better.
  141. S: I think it's better to speak chunks of English.
  142. S1: =Jeui daaih geido sui a? How old are the oldest?
  143. S1: Jeuido yahn geido sui? How old are most people?
  144. S1: One girl is absent!
  145. S1: Twenty-nine dihng geido a? Is that twenty-nine?
  146. S1: Yinga jouh. Do it now
  147. S2: Gam daaih! So old!
  148. S4: May I be excused?
  149. see. In actual fact, does your History teacher speak Cantonese?
  150. seldom scolds us in our class. Depends on what the student says. If the student says he forgets to bring exercise books in English, she will scold him in English.
  151. seldom scolds us, she just say sh...
  152. Separate is better. It is easier for examinations.
  153. sh:: Can you keep quiet? OK. I just want one classmate help me to ask, alright? OK. You, you help me to ask then.
  154. She seldom speaks Cantonese.
  155. She speaks chunks of English.
  156. situations. Sometimes I speak a whole chunk of Cantonese. Well, let me think .... Yes, maybe mixed sentences more.
  157. Siuheung gam dim a? Burning incense. So what?
  158. So if you are used to hearing mixed sentences, you'll have difficulties writing complete English sentences, is that what you mean?
  159. so it's the choice between all English, or mixed code? What about all Chinese?
  160. So sometimes if you need to use Cantonese, would you prefer to separate the two languages, or you'd use both languages in one sentence?
  161. So this will help you and the students because of the issue of grammar. Complete sentence structures can be more fluent.
  162. So we just, we just find out the religion (1) the religion.. they::: they::: eh::: religion (1) religion::: religion, what is religion?
  163. So when you teach Form 1 Geography, what you taped for me was Form 1 Geography, right? Would you intend to use only English, or a mix of two languages?
  164. So you are used to learning or teaching in English.
  165. So you find it quite funny. Henry, I want to ask you when you attend History lesson, would you prefer your History teacher to teach in all English, all Chinese, or a mixture of English and Chinese?
  166. So you had some adjustment in using Cantonese now?
  167. So you seldom use both languages in one sentence.
  168. So you think it's better to speak either completely in English or in Chinese.
  169. So you would rather have all-English or all-Chinese.
  170. Some lecturers would use Cantonese in some subjects.
  171. sometimes it is quite convenient. Like saying 'OK', it's so common that it's difficult to change. S. I: Does that mean that mixing languages will make your English influenced by Chinese.
  172. sometimes something pops up. She is afraid that we don't know how to deal with it, so she would speak Chinese.
  173. sometimes when the sentence is very difficult, she will explain it in Chinese.
  174. sometimes when you are hurrying with the syllabus. Or sometimes when you see the students getting bored, inactive, you use Cantonese to crack jokes, or to remind them what the lesson is about.
  175. sometimes when you talk about ethical teaching, students will get the message faster and more thoroughly if you speak Cantonese. Especially when we talk about life education, there are some issues concerning morality, then I will use Cantonese.
  176. Sometimes you write directly from Chinese word-to-word translation.
  177. speak chunks of English or mixing English and Chinese in one sentence?
  178. SS: //very big! // // big, big ! //
  179. students nowadays are not as strong in English as us in the old days. So using pure languages will be simpler for them.
  180. T: 0 you just write down. 0 sorry. Total? What is the total number?
  181. T: I try to avoid this situation.
  182. T: In between sentences.
  183. than this, will you speak Chinese to your students for example, in casual talk?
  184. Thank you for attending this interview. Let's listen to the recording. (Other interview transcripts are obtainable upon requests)
  185. Thank you for coming to this interview.
  186. thank you for coming to this interview. I want to ask you what you feel about HK people who mix English and Cantonese in their ordinary speech ?
  187. thank you so much,
  188. Thank you very much for receiving my interview,
  189. thank you very much. Can I ask you the last question: what was your major in college?
  190. Thank you very much. i) with the Student from the Geography Class
  191. Thank you very much. j) : School C: Student from the Accounting Class
  192. That means grammar, sentence structure, you can learn more from chunks of English.
  193. That means you seldom find her speak one sentence composed of both English and Chinese.
  194. the first one. Bullists. Fahtgaau. Yauhmouh yahn seun fahtgaau ge? Buddhism. Is there any person who believes in Buddhism?
  195. The standard of my accounting class is comparatively low. Their English is rather weak. So I'll stick to Chinese as far as possible. But when it comes to English terms, I'll use the original English words.
  196. The whole sentence in Cantonese?
  197. The whole sentence in English.
  198. The whole sentence in English. Will there be situations when there are mixed sentence?
  199. Then it would not be acceptable.
  200. Then sometimes will Mrs. L speak Chinese?
  201. Then what about the actual case? Would the teacher speak Cantonese at times?
  202. Then what is the influence on their written English?
  203. then what you recorded for me showed that you used English.
  204. Then when teaching Form two History, would you like to use pure Cantonese, pure English, or a mix of Cantonese and English?
  205. Then will this help you in learning English?
  206. then would it be easier if you have more Chinese and English in one sentence?
  207. Then would you prefer your teacher use all English or all Chinese or a mix of English and Chinese?
  208. there is help.
  209. There is. Will this hinder you in learning English, like you remember all the Chinese sentence structures, then you write English in Chinese sentence structure.
  210. they can only write very simple English.
  211. They will live again.
  212. They will not die.
  213. think I'm quite used to this. When I attended school, the teacher taught in Chinese although the textbooks and the exams were in English. They used English only for special terms. So I'm quite used to this.
  214. think if they always do that, they will easily write English in a Chinese way, because you are used to it. And your Grammar will be wrong.
  215. think if they always mix Cantonese and English, it is quite difficult to understand and is somewhat funny. If they use all English, I find it acceptable.
  216. Think of others? Yes or no?
  217. think the main sentences are Chinese, the technical terms are in English.
  218. think there is a difference. If it is in between sentences, then the sentences
  219. think they are smart.. . very intelligent. And able to say something quickly in English.
  220. think this makes a difference to the students in learning English.
  221. Thirteen or above. That should be nine. Is that OK? Alright. That should be nine. Is that OK? So totally, can you fill in the total number? Total number?
  222. this is their limitation in language.
  223. Two tons !
  224. two tons! How heavy is two tons?
  225. Understand the subject content is more important than learning English.
  226. Use English for scolding.
  227. Usually when you mix Chinese and English, do you switch within a sentence, or in between sentences?
  228. very often they directly translate from Chinese.
  229. Was that
  230. we share similar beliefs, right? OK, the last question. The Egyptians made Twelve people!
  231. we're an EMI school, and all our textbooks are in English. If the teacher teach in Cantonese, we'll have problems in taking examinations.
  232. What about chatting on some personal matters?
  233. What about chatting with you?
  234. What about disciplining you, like scolding you?
  235. What about for learning English ? Do you think mixed sentences will help you to learn English?
  236. What about for topics outside of study, is there the need to speak Cantonese in class?
  237. What about in casual talk, ordinary Hong Kong people use mixed languages, would you feel repulsive, or you think it is just normal?
  238. What about in college?
  239. what about in Mrs. L's class? Would you prefer her to speak all English, or all Chinese, or a mix of both?
  240. what about listening or writing English? In what aspect can chunks of English be helpful to you?
  241. What about scolding people?
  242. What about scolding students?
  243. What about scolding you in EPA lesson?
  244. What about scolding?
  245. What about some personal feelings?
  246. What about spoken English? Will that be the same as written English? Do you find it easier to speak complete sentences if you are used to hearing them in class?
  247. What about the secondary school you went to? Was that EMI or CMI?
  248. What about when scolding people? (laughter)
  249. What about yourself? What was your major in college?
  250. What are the other occasions when she speaks Chinese?
  251. What feelings? I think it's quite common.
  252. what is your preference? Would you rather have your teacher use mixed sentences, or complete English sentences or complete Chinese sentences?
  253. What was your English grade when entering secondary school?
  254. what was your English grade when you entered secondary school.
  255. When reading maps, it is difficult to understand, you know, some students come from Chinese primary school, the teacher has to use Cantonese.
  256. When the whole class can't understand the explanation of some terms, then she will use Cantonese.
  257. when they live again, what happens? They have money and lots of things. Egyptians? Yes or no?
  258. When will she use Cantonese?
  259. when you attend Geography lesson, would you rather your teacher use only English, or only Chinese, or a mix?
  260. When you mix languages, would you say a whole chunk of English, or a whole chunk of Chinese, or would you mix the two languages in one sentence?
  261. When you teach accounting, do you usually use both languages?
  262. when your teacher speaks Chinese, would you rather she speaks chunks of Chinese, or mixing English and Chinese in one sentence?
  263. Who is taller than me?
  264. Why do you feel it's funny?
  265. Why do you think it is no good?
  266. Why is there no help for oral?
  267. why not? They believe Pharaoh was a::
  268. why, why do you think the Pharaoh would kill him?
  269. won't feel repulsive towards them?
  270. would give some worksheets for students to do before class so as to make them read up beforehand.......
  271. would it be easier for you to understand if the teacher speaks English first, and then translate into Cantonese?
  272. would rather she speaks chunks of English sentences. If she mixes Cantonese into English sentences all the time, we cannot write complete sentences in our writing.
  273. would rather she speaks chunks of English, or chunks of Chinese.
  274. would rather to have her explain difficult things in Cantonese. That's no problem. But most of the time, in English only, without mixing Chinese, so that we can get used to it. And our English will be better in listening or in writing.
  275. Would you like to have many mixed sentences in class?
  276. would you prefer your teacher to use complete English sentences or English sentences with Chinese words?
  277. Yat deun yauh (1) Yat chin go chin-haak. No. One ton has one thousand kilograms. Ah, how heavy is a bag of rice? How heavy is a bag of rice? How heavy is a bag of rice?
  278. Yauh beimaht haih yahmbihn. ) There 's secret inside.
  279. Yauh matyeh jenggeui a? What evidence is there?
  280. Yauh-mou yahn tinjyugaau ? Mouh. Any person is Catholic?
  281. years ago, actually the teachers used Chinese in class. But then the students had better English. But now students failed to express in English.
  282. yeh keuih sihk.
  283. Yes very common.
  284. Yes, actually this is the top class. They were screened into this class with English and Mathematics as the criteria. Basically they have no problem understanding English.
  285. yes, yes. Any other examples.
  286. yes. But not as good as all English. Because if we remember the English sentence structures, the Chinese words will suddenly pop up, then it's difficult. If she uses English all the time, then it's easier for memory.
  287. yes. Do you think this would influence their learning of languages, good or bad ?
  288. yes. Explaining difficult things is one. Another thing is, sometimes I find I cannot express well in English, or problematic, then I would rather explain in Cantonese. Then I will think again how to reorganize the sentences in English.
  289. yes. Then you fail to write in English sentence structures. Then would that help you to use English sentence structure if the teacher uses complete sentence structures?
  290. Yi-baak baau maih. Jikhaih duhng heilaih bin-jo buhng cheuhng Ia. Two hundred bags of rice That means two hundred bags of rice lumped Ling yih-baak baau maih. together making a wall
  291. Yih-baak baau maih. Two hundred baps of rice
  292. Yih-baak baau maih. Yat gauh daaihsehk yauh leuhng deun la. Two hundred bags of rice. One big stone has tow tons.
  293. Yih"baak baau maih. Two hundred bars of rice
  294. you are. Especially in learning English, you find that mixed code will produce English expressed in Cantonese forms. So I'll remind myself to avoid this.
  295. you can imagine how big a stone (2) was today. Last time, Miss Lo also suggest, how many stones did it take to build a
  296. you cite some examples when you switch from Cantonese to English or from English to Cantonese?
  297. you hear Hong Kong people going back and forth between Chinese and English, what feelings do you have?
  298. you may say so, for complex things, you use Cantonese to explain. And that's faster as well.
  299. you mean complete English sentences will help students to learn listening, but won't help in their oral. 30: T: I think not much help with writing or speaking. Maybe a few sentences the students can learn.
  300. you mean if you use Chinese sentence structures in class, they will have less chance to use English?
  301. You mean in learning.
  302. you mean isolated English words...
  303. you mean separate languages will help students in speaking and writing, so they wont' use mixed code to express themselves.
  304. you prefer separate languages or mixed sentences?
  305. You think chunks of complete sentences will help you acquire English better.
  306. you think complete English sentences rather than mixed sentences will make a difference in students concerning their English language acquisition?
  307. you think for students to learn English, is it better for the teachers to speak chunks of English, or mixing Chinese and English in one sentence.
  308. you think there is a difference between mixed sentences and complete English or Chinese sentences?
  309. you think these two ways of mixing Chinese and English make any difference in, say, students' receptive power or their language acquisition?
  310. you use Cantonese to scold them. Or there is some mistake that the whole class will make. You can't bear to see some students not being able to understand you.
  311. you won't insert English words into a Chinese sentence, or Chinese words into an English one?
  312. you would insert Cantonese terms in English sentences. But then even when scolding people, you would use complete English or complete Cantonese.
  313. you would rather her speak complete sentences, so that you can write complete sentences more easily.
  314. You're being very humble. Thank you very much. g) with the Student from the History Class in School A
  315. you're really cool. Then when Miss Tsang mix languages, does she say the whole sentence in English or Chinese, or mix the two in one sentence?
  316. your personal feelings.

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