Location of Repository

Internal gravity waves which propagate upwards from the lower atmosphere transport energy and momentum into the middle and upper atmosphere. As these waves dissipate, they alter the dynamics and composition of the background atmosphere. Changes in the background also affect the dissipation of these waves. Through this interplay, gravity waves couple the lower and upper atmosphere. Recent improvements in our understanding of gravity waves have allowed detailed physical representations of these waves to be included in global-scale atmospheric models. Three models have been developed for this study which are used to examine the role of gravity waves in the dynamics of the middle and upper atmosphere over a range of time-scales.\ud The effects of the solar sunspot cycle on gravity waves in the middle atmosphere are explored. Changes in the wave-induced wind variance of up to 10 % are simulated in the mesosphere. It is shown that a strong change in the tropospheric gravity-wave source could explain observed variability in gravity waves in this region, but changes in the mesospheric winds also play a crucial role in the model results.\ud Varying the amplitude of the lower atmosphere gravity-wave source affects gravity-wave drag and the residual circulation. These are shown to influence conditions in the stratosphere and can alter the strength of sudden warmings. This has important consequences for the whole atmosphere.\ud The interaction between gravity wave-drag and the diurnal tide is investigated using a coupled middle atmosphere and thermosphere model. This is shown to have a strong influence on dynamics and airglow emissions in the equatorial MLT region. Further constraint of the lower-atmosphere gravity waves and time dependent propagation effects are needed to improve our understanding of the role which gravity waves play in the dynamical coupling of the atmosphere

Publisher: University of Leicester

Year: 2005

OAI identifier:
oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8636

Provided by:
Leicester Research Archive

Downloaded from
https://lra.le.ac.uk/bitstream/2381/8636/1/2005englandslphd.pdf

- (1891). 1825, Traite de mecanique celeste,
- 1894, A prolonged sunspot minimum, Knowledge,
- 1999b, Gravity wave interactions with the diurnal propagating tide,
- 2001b, Simulation of large-scale dynamics in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with the Doppler-spread parameterization of gravity waves, 2, Eddy mixing and the diurnal tide,
- (1987). A climatology of gravity wave in the mesosphere and lower thermospehre over
- (1987). A computation of stratospheric diabatic circulation using an accurate radiative transfer model,
- (1996). A coupled thermosphere ionosphere model, Solar terrestrial energy program (STEP), handbook of ionospheric models,
- (1996). A Coupled Thermosphere- Ionosphere- Plasmasphere Model (CTIP), Solar Terrestrial Energy Program
- (1993). A detailed study of heating efficiency in the middle atmosphere,
- (1971). A dynamical model of the stratospheric warming, 7.
- (2000). A global morphology of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere revealed by the GPS occultation data (GPS/MET),
- (1997). A model of non-stationary gravity waves in the stratosphere and comparison to observations, from NATO ASI series, volume I, 50, Gravity wave Processes, their parameterization in global climate models,
- (2001). A new coupled middle atmosphere and thermosphere general circulation model: Studies of dynamic, energetic and photochemical coupling in the middle and upper atmosphere,
- (1980). A new determination of ultraviolet heating efficiency in the thermosphere,
- (1980). A numerical model of the zonal mean circulation of the middle atmosphere,
- (1985). A numerical model of the zonally averaged dynamical and chemical structure of the middle atmosphere,
- (1982). A parameterization for scale dependent radiative damping in the middle atmosphere,
- (1982). A quasi one-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere circulation interacting with internal gravity waves,
- (2002). A study into the effect of the diurnal tide on the structure of the background mesosphere and thermosphere using the new coupled middle atmosphere and thermosphere (CMAT) general circulation model,
- (1982). A theoretical study of the distribution of ionisation in the highlatitude ionosphere and plasmasphere: First results of the mid-latitude trough and the light ion trough,
- (1968). A theory of the quasi-biennial oscillation,
- (1930). A theory of upper atmosphere ozone,
- (1994). A thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphereelectrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM): Equinox solar cycle minimum simulation (30-500 km),
- (1992). A three-dimensional modelling study of the influence of planetary wave dynamics on polar ozone photochemistry,
- (1995). A three-dimensional nonhydrostatic raytracing model for gravity waves: formulation and preliminary results for the middle atmosphere,
- (1978). A travelling quasi-2 day wave in the meteor region,
- (1982). A universal spectrum of buoyancy waves in the atmosphere,
- (2004). Absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux derived from satellite data,
- (1984). Aeronomy of the middle atmosphere,
- (1980). Air parcel motions during a numerically simulated sudden stratospheric warming,
- (1986). Alleviation of a systematic westerly bias in general circulation and numerical weather prediction models through an orographic gravity wave drag parameterisation,
- (2000). Amplification of the influence of solar flux variations on the winter stratosphere by planetary waves,
- (1997). An analysis of wind imaging interferometer observations of O('S) equatorial emission rates using the thermosphere-ionospheremesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model,
- (1990). An assessment of proposed O('S) and OZ(b'Eb) nightglow excitation parameters,
- (1978). An exact theory for nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow,
- (1996). An idealized ray model of gravity wave-tidal interactions,
- (2000). An introduction to atmospheric physics,
- (1992). An introduction to dynamic meteorology, Academic,
- (1987). An investigation of the vertical wavenumber and frequency spectra of gravity wave motions in the lower stratosphere,
- (1984). An overview of wave-mean flow interactions during the winter of 1978-79 derived from LIMS observations,
- (2001). An ultra-simple spectral parameterization for non-orographic gravity waves,
- (1972). An updated theory of the quasi-biennial cycle of the tropical stratosphere,
- (1997). Analysis and validation of GPS/MET data in the neutral atmosphere,
- (1994). and the HRDI Science Team,
- (1999). Are planetary wave type oscillations in the F2 region caused by planetary wave modulation of upward propagating tides?,
- (2002). Association between extraterrestrial phenomena and weather changes in the northern hemisphere in winter,
- (1988). Association between the 11-year solar cycle, the QBO and the atmosphere. Part I: the troposphere and stratosphere in the Northern Hemisphere winter,
- (1982). Atmosphere-ocean dynamics, Academic,
- (1982). Atmospheric tides I, Model description and results for the solar diurnal component,
- (1970). Atmospheric tides,
- (1983). Baroclinic instability of the summer mesosphere: a mechanism for the quasi-two-day wave?,
- (1987). Bifurcation properties of a stratospheric vacillation model,
- (1950). Cellular atmospheric waves in the ionosphere and troposphere,
- (1993). Characteristics of gravity waves (10 min -6 hours) at Saskatoon (52 ON, 107 °W): observations by the phase coherent medium frequency radar,
- (1993). Characteristics of gravity waves in the mesosphere observed with the middle and upper atmosphere radar, 1, Momentum flux,
- (1997). Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling,
- (1995). Climatological monthly characteristics of middle atmosphere gravity waves (10 min-10 h) during 1979-1993 at Saskatoon,
- (1984). Climatology of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere,
- (1999). Comments on paper by
- (2002). Comments on the gravity wave theory of 3. Weinstock concerning dissipation induced by nonlinear effects, 3.
- (1996). Comparative effects of migrating solar sources on tidal signatures in the middle and upper atmosphere, 3.
- (1988). Comparative morphology of the vertical ozone profile in the Antarctic spring,
- (2002). Comparative study of interannual changes of the mean winds and gravity wave activity in the middle atmosphere over Japan, Central Europe and
- (1975). Comparison and interpretation of simultaneous wind measurements in the lower thermosphere at Garchy (France) and Obnisk (USSR) by meteor radar technique, 3.
- (2003). Compilation of wind data for the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Reference Atmosphere Project,
- (1995). Connection between the troposphere and stratosphere on a decadal scale, Tellus,
- (1993). Correlation of atmospheric dynamics withs olra activity: evidence for a connection via the solar wind, atmospheric electricity, and cloud microphyics,
- (1999). Coupled longitudinal and tidal variations of equatorial nightglow O('S) zenith emission rates from WINDII and Christmas Island data,
- (2003). Development of super-high resolution atmospheric and oceanic general circulation models on quasi-uniform grids,
- (1995). Development of the new CCC/GCM radiation model for extension into the middle atmosphere,
- (1981). Diagnostic study of a wavenumber-2 stratospheric sudden warming in a transformed Eulerian-mean formalism,
- (1981). Discovery of a connection between internal gravity wave intensity in the upper atmosphere and tidal phases, Akademiia Nauk SSSR, Izvestiia, Fizika Atmosfery i Okeana,
- (1997). Doppler spread parameterisation of gravity wave momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere, Part I, Basic formulation,
- (1997). Doppler spread parameterisation of gravity wave momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere, Part II, Broad and quasi monochromatic spectra, 3.
- (1971). Dynamical modelling of the stratosphere and mesosphere, Mesospheric models and related experiments,
- (1987). Dynamics and tracer transport in the middle atmosphere: an overview of some recent developments,
- (1983). Dynamics of the middle atmosphere,
- (1998). Effect of the QBO and the Mt. Pinatubo volcanic eruption on the gravity wave activity in the lower ionosphere,
- (1997). Effects of gravity wave drag in the Berlin troposphere-stratospheremesosphere GCM,
- (2000). Electric field variability associated with the Millstone Hill electric field model,
- (1993). Empirical wind model for the middle and lower atmosphere 1: Local time average,
- (1995). Energetics of the mesosphere and thermosphere, Upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere: A review of experiment and theory,
- (1985). Energy balance constraints on gravity wave induced eddy diffusion in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
- (2004). Enhancement of gravity wave activity observed during a major Southern Hemisphere stratospheric warming by CHAMP/GPS measurements,
- (1949). Evidence for a world circulation provided by measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere,
- (2002). Extended Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model: Zonalmean climatology and physical parameterizations,
- (1991). Extension of the MSIS thermosphere model into the middle and lower atmosphere, 3.
- (1991). fluctuations in the ionospheric D-region,
- (1985). Fluxes of heat and constituents due to convectively unstable gravity waves,
- (1961). Frictional effects and the meridional circulation of the mesosphere,
- (1978). Generalized Eliassen-Palm and CharneyDrazin theorems for waves on axisymmetric mean flows in compressible atmospheres,
- (1999). Gravity wave / planetary wave interactions,
- (2002). Gravity wave acticity and dynamical effects in the middle atmosphere (60-90km): observations from an MF/MLT radar network, and results from the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model
- (1995). Gravity wave activity in the lower atmosphere: seasonal and latitudinal variations,
- (2003). Gravity wave dynamics and effects in the middle atmosphere,
- (1988). Gravity wave heat fluxes: a Lagrangian approach,
- (1984). Gravity wave saturation in the middle atmosphere: a review of theory and observations,
- (1997). Gravity wave spectra, direction statistics and wave interactions as observed by radars and the global MLT network.
- (1996). Gravity wave variance in LIMS temperatures, part II: Comparison with the zonal-mean momentum balance,
- (1991). Gravity waves in the middle atmosphere observed by Rayleigh lidar, part 2, Climatology,
- (1996). Gravity-wave-scale temperature fluctuations seen by the UARS MLS,
- (1987). Height-integrated Pedersen and Hall conductivity patterns inferred from the TIROS-NOAH satellite data,
- (1954). High-altitude winds by meteor train photography,
- (2002). Impact of a spectral gravity wave parameterization on the stratosphere in the Met Office Unified Model,
- (2002). influence from below and above,
- (1997). Influence of wave propagation on the Doppler spreading of atmospheric gravity waves,
- (1997). Influences of the solar cycle on climate through stratospheric processes, In: The stratosphere and its role in the climate system,
- (1991). Interactions between gravity waves and the diurnal tide in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
- (1985). Interim reference ozone models of the middle atmosphere, Handbook for MAP, 16, Atmospheric structure and its variation in the region 20-120 km: Draft of a new reference middle
- (1993). Internal atmospheric gravity waves at ionospheric heights,
- (1998). Interpretations of observed climatological patterns in stratospheric gravity wave variance,
- (1995). Introduction to space physics,
- (1994). Investigation of seasonal and interannual variations of internal gravity wave intensity in the thermosphere over Saint Santin,
- (1986). Ionospheric convection associated with discrete levels of particle precipitation,
- (1993). Lagrangian coordinates and their application to gravity wave spectra,
- (1991). Lidar observations of long-period gravity waves in the stratosphere,
- (1998). Matrix parameterisation of the 15pm band cooling in the middle and upper atmosphere for variable CO2 concentration,
- (1997). Mean vertical wind in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere region (80-120 km) deduced from the WINDII observations on board UARS,
- (1997). Medium energy particle precipitation influences on the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
- (1996). Mesospheric gravity waves at
- (1987). Mesospheric momentum flux studies at Adelaide, Australia: observations and a gravity wave/tidal interaction model,
- (1991). Mesospheric momentum fluxes observed by the MST Radar at Poker Flat,
- (1984). MF/HF radar measurements of the dynamics of the mesopause region -a review,
- (1999). Middle atmosphere simulated with high vertical and horizontal resolution versions of a GCM: Improvements in the cold pole bias and generation of a QBO-like oscillation in the tropics, 3.
- (1980). Modelling of the composition of the lower thermosphere taking account of the dynamics with application to tidal variations of the (01) 5577 A airglow,
- (1993). Modelling the solar cycle change in nitric oxide in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere,
- (2004). Monthly mean climatology of the prevailing winds and tides in the Arctic mesosphere/lower thermosphere,
- (1980). Nitric oxide cooling in the terrestrial thermosphere,
- (1982). Nonlinear theory of gravity waves: momentum deposition, generalized Rayleigh friction, and diffusion,
- (1996). Nonlinearity of gravity wave saturated spectra in the middle atmosphere,
- (1950). Numerical integration of the barotropic vorticity equation,
- (1995). Observational evidence of tidal/gravity wave interactions using the UWO 2 MHz radar,
- (1989). Observational results using the microwave temperature profiler during the airborne Antarctic ozone experiment,
- (1984). Observations indicating parametric instabilities of internal gravity waves at thermospheric heights,
- (1985). Observations of mesospheric wind velocities, 2, cross sections of power spectral densities for 48-8 hours, 8-1 hours, and 1 hour to 10 min over 60 - 110 km for 1981, Radio Sci.,
- (1997). On Dopplerspreading models of internal waves,
- (1989). On dynamics and transport near the polar mesospause in summer,
- (1954). On gravity waves in the atmosphere,
- (1995). On modelling migrating solar tides,
- (1996). On the annual variation of tropospheric zonal winds observed above Christmas Island in the central equatorial Pacific,
- (1991). On the downward control of extratropical diabatic circulations by eddy-induced mean zonal forces, 3.
- (1987). On the global mean structure of the thermosphere,
- (1998). On the importance of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere and their parameterization in general circulation models,
- (2002). On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion,
- (1991). On the interactions between gravity waves and the propagating diurnal tide,
- (1984). On the linear approximation of gravity wave saturation in the mesosphere,
- (1995). On the observed morphology of gravity-wave and equatorialwave variance in the stratosphere,
- (1996). On the propagation and dissipation of gravity wave spectra through a realistic middle atmosphere, 3.
- (1990). On the role of parameteric instability of internal gravity waves in atmospheric radar observations, Radio Sci.,
- (1980). Operational temperature sounding of the stratosphere,
- (1956). Origin and distribution of polyatomic molecules in the atmosphere,
- (1985). Paramaterization of the radiative flux divergence in the 9.6 micro-m 03 band,
- (2000). Parameterization of gravity wave momentum deposition based on nonlinear wave interactions: basic formulation and sensitivity tests,
- (1978). Parameterization of the atmospheric heating rate from 15 to 120 km due to 02 and 03 absorption of solar radiation,
- (1982). Parmeterization of IR cooling at a middle atmosphere dynamics model 1. Effects on the zonally averaged circulation,
- (1985). Photochemistry and transport of carbon monoxide in the middle atmosphere, 3.
- (1992). Photon Cross Sections for 0, N21 02 and N. Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables,
- (1989). Physics and chemistry of the upper atmosphere, Cambridge Atmospheric and Space Science Series,
- (1940). Planetary flow patterns in the atmosphere,
- (1992). Polar cooling thought experiment, in The use of EOS for studies of atmospheric physics,
- (1961). Possible meridional circulation in the stratosphere and mesosphere,
- (1976). Pressure and wind variations in the mesopause region, resulting from stratospheric warmings, Physica Solariterrestris,
- (1998). Propagation directions of gravity wave patterns observed in OH CCD images during the SEEK campaign,
- (1961). Propagation of planetary-scale disturbances from the lower into the upper atmosphere,
- (1993). Quasi-decadal variability of the stratosphere: influence of long-term solar ultraviolet variations,
- (1997). Radar observations of gravity waves over Jicamarca, Peru during the CADRE campaign,
- (1997). Radiative dynamical climatology of the first generation Canadian middle atmosphere model,
- (1980). Radiative energy sources and sinks in the stratosphere and mesosphere,
- (1939). Relations between variations in the intensity of the zonal circulation of the atmosphere and the displacements of the semipermanent centers of action,
- (1996). Satellite observations of atmospheric variances: A possible indication of gravity waves,
- (1990). Saturated and unsaturated spectra of gravity waves and scaledependent diffusion,
- (1994). Seasonal variability of vertical eddy diffusivity in the middle atmosphere, 1: Three-year observations by the middle and upper atmosphere radar,
- (2001). Seasonal variation of gravity wave activity in the lower ionosphere in central
- (1998). Seasonal variation of the diurnal tide induced by gravity wave filtering,
- (1984). Shear excitation of atmospheric gravity waves, II: nonlinear radiation from a free shear layer,
- (1984). Shear excitation of gravity waves, part II, Upscale scattering from Kelvin-Helmholtz waves,
- (1987). Short period fluctuations of the horizontal wind measured in the upper middle atmosphere and possible relationships to internal gravity waves,
- (1994). Short-period disturbances in the equatorial lower stratosphere,
- (1997). Short-period fluctuations of the diurnal tide observed with low-latitude MF and meteor radars during CADRE: Evidence for gravity wave/tidal interactions,
- (1964). Simple models of thermally driven mesospheric circulation,
- (2001). Simulation of large-scale dynamics in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere with the Doppler-spread parameterization of gravity waves, 1, Implementation and zonal mean climatologies,
- (1982). Simulations of an observed stratospheric warming with quasigeostrophic refractive index as a model diagnostic,
- (1988). Simulations of linear and nonlinear disturbances in the stratosphere,
- (1970). Smoothing, filtering and boundary effects,
- (1999). Solar activity effects on gravity wave activity inferred from radio wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, Studia Geoph. Et Geod.,
- (1998). Solar cycle changes to planetary wave propagation and their influence on the middle atmosphere circulation,
- (1979). Solar cycle influences in tropospheric circulation,
- (2003). Solar cycle modulation of the winter stratosphere: the role of atmospheric gravity waves,
- (1988). Solar cycles and the atmosphere,
- (2001). Solar magnetic flux influences on the dynamics of the winter middle atmosphere,
- (2000). Solar variability and the Earth's climate: Introduction and overview,
- (1985). Solar/stellar irradiance comparison experiment (SOLSTICE), Upper atmosphere research satellite (OARS)
- (1981). Some Eulerian and Lagrangian diagnostics for a model stratospheric warming,
- (1989). Sources and sinks of zonal momentum in the middle atmosphere diagnosed using the diabatic circulation,
- (1991). Spectral analysis of temperature and Brunt-Väisälä frequency fluctuations observed by radiosondes,
- (1993). Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum fluxes, I, Energy dissipation, acceleration, and constraints,
- (1993). Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum fluxes, II, parameterization of wave forcing and variability, 3.
- (1993). Spectral estimates of gravity wave energy and momentum fluxes, III, Gravity wave-tidal interactions,
- (1983). Standard ozone profiles from balloon and satellite data sets,
- (2002). Stratospheric Connection to Northern Hemisphere Wintertime Weather: Implications for Prediction,
- (1976). Stratospheric vacillation cycles,
- (1999). Stratospheric vacillations in a general circulation model,
- (1990). Studies of velocity fluctuations in the lower atmosphere using the MU radar, II, Momentum fluxes and energy densities,
- (1995). Sun, Earth and Sky,
- (1999). The 16-day planetary wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
- (1981). The amplification of height wave 1 in
- (1968). The application of classical atmospheric tidal theory,
- (1998). The Berlin troposphere-stratosphere-mesosphere GCM: sensitivity to physical parameterizations,
- (1975). The dynamical meteorology of the stratosphere and mesosphere,
- (1987). The earth's thermosphere, The solar wind and the earth, Tokyo/Dordrecht, Terra Scientific
- (1975). The effect of doubling the CO2 concentration of the climate of a general circulation model,
- (1987). The effect of orographically excited gravity wave drag on the general circulation of the lower stratosphere and troposphere,
- (1997). The effect of parameterized gravity wave drag on simulations of the middle atmosphere during northern winter 1991/1992 - General evolution, Gravity Wave Processes: Their Parameterization in Global Climate Models,
- (1968). The eigenfunctions of Laplace's tidal equations over a sphere,
- (1956). The general circulation of the atmosphere: a numerical experiment,
- (1996). The impact of solar variability on climate,
- (1983). The influence of gravity wave breaking on the general circulation of the middle atmospehre,
- (1978). The instability of a forced standing wave in a viscous stratified fluid: a laboratory analogue of the quasi-biennial oscillation,
- (1984). The limb infrared monitor of the stratosphere: experiment description, performance, and results,
- (1976). The Maunder Minimum, Science,
- (1987). The middle atmosphere in the absence of dynamical heat fluxes,
- (1996). The NMC/NCAR 40-Year Reanalysis Project,
- (1997). The parameterization of gravity wave drag based on the nonlinear diffusion of wave spectra, Gravity Wave Processes: Their Parameterization in Global Climate Models,
- (1983). The response of a spectral general circulation model to refinements in radiative processes,
- (1982). The role of gravity wave induced drag and diffusion in the momentum buget of the mesospehre,
- (1997). The role of the Sun in climate change,
- (1993). The saturation of gravity waves in the middle atmosphere, part IV, Cutoff of the incident wave spectrum,
- (1957). The smoothing of temperature fluctuations by radiative transfer,
- (1980). The solar ultraviolet heating efficiency in the mid-latitude thermosphere,
- (2000). The SOLAR2000 empirical solar irradiance model and forecast tool,
- (1982). The spectrum of atmospheric velocity fluctuations at 8 and 86 km,
- (1978). The stratosphere and mesosphere,
- (1951). The temperature of the upper atmosphere,
- (1977). The upper atmosphere and magnetosphere, National Academy of Sciences,
- (1984). The vertical distribution of ozone in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere,
- (1969). Theory of planetary wave-zonal mean interaction,
- (2003). Thermal effects of saturating gravity waves in the atmosphere,
- (1997). Thermal tides and studies to tune the mechanistic tidal model using OARS observations,
- (1967). Thermally driven diurnal tide in the atmosphere,
- (1983). Thermospheric dynamics and electrodynamics, in Solar Terrestrial Physics - principles and theoretical
- (1964). Three body reactions,
- (1994). Tidal/gravity wave interactions and their influence on the large-scale dynamics of the middle atmosphere: Model results,
- (1998). TMTM simulations of tides: comparison with UARS observations,
- (1986). Tracer transport by the diabatic circulation deduced from satellite observations,
- (1981). Turbulence and stress owing to gravity wave and tidal breakdown, 1.
- (2004). Turbulence measurements and implications for gravity wave dissipation during the MaCWAVE/MIDAS rocket program,
- (1992). Two-day oscillation of the equatorial ionization anomaly,
- (1996). Validation of mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds from the high resolution Doppler imager on UARS,
- (1997). Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage -a missing link in solar-climate relationships,
- (1992). Variations of solar ultraviolet irradiance derived from SOLSTICE (UARS) observations,
- (1983). Vertical density and temperature structure over Northern Europe, Adv. Space Res.,
- (1995). Vertical evolution of gravity wave spectra and the parameterization of associated wave drag, 3.
- (1982). Wave transience in a compressible atmosphere, part 3: the saturation of internal gravity waves in the mesosphere,
- (1978). Waves in fluids,
- (1985). Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII), in Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS)
- (1993). WINDII, the wind imaging interferometer on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.