Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Female Fandom in an English ‘Sports City’: A sociological study of female spectating and consumption around sport

By Stacey Elizabeth Pope


This thesis is an exploratory study which examines, comparatively, the largely neglected area of female sports fandom. Using the UK East Midlands city of Leicester as a case study site for the research, 85 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three generations of female fans of football (Leicester City) and rugby union (Leicester Tigers).\ud The thesis emerges, broadly speaking, out of the recent feminist tradition of research on sport and leisure, but uses Glaser and Strauss’s (2008) ‘grounded theory’ approach to data collection and analysis to seek to ‘add’ a sociological account of women’s experiences as sports fans to the existing research on women and leisure. The main aim was to consider the extent to which, and how, sports fandom figures in the leisure lives of women in different sporting contexts today and in the recent past.\ud Continuity, as well as change, in women’s sporting lives was a central theme. Whilst some women overcame barriers to their involvement in sport as players and spectators, many obstacles continue to restrict women’s leisure involvement as active fans. The thesis examines the distinctiveness of women’s experience of spectator sport as a changing commercial and cultural product in England from the post-war period, stressing both similarities, but also important differences between men’s and women’s historical experiences of these sports.\ud The differential extent to which sports fandom fosters a positive ‘sense of place’ for females was explored, as was the mutual hostility often expressed between female football and rugby fans which is largely attributed to the combined impact of relations of place, gender and social class. Little existing research has explored this complex terrain. Finally, important differences between women in terms of the wider meanings they attribute to their involvement in sport were revealed which other approaches to the study of fandom largely fail to acknowledge

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (2006). 2006/07 RFUW Senior Affiliated Teams' accessed on 16.8.09 at D/14284
  2. (2007). A Beautiful Game: International Perspectives on Women's Football,
  3. (2003). A Changing Culture? Interrogating the Dynamics of Peer Affiliations over the Course of a Sport Education Season',
  4. (2002). A Comparison of Selected 'Serious' and 'Popular' British, Canadian, and United States Newspaper Coverage of Female and Male Athletes Competing in the Centennial Olympic Games', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  5. (2006). A Game for Hooligans: The History of Rugby
  6. (2003). A Game for Rough Girls?: A History of Women's Football in
  7. (2003). A Game of Two Halves: Football, Television and Globalization,
  8. (1991). A National Survey of Female Football Fans, Leicester:
  9. (2000). A Passion for Football': Dominant Masculinities and Primary Schooling',
  10. (2008). A Price Worth Paying? Considering the 'Cost' of Reflexive Research Methods and the Influence of Feminist Ways of 'Doing'',
  11. (2009). A Social History of English
  12. (1996). A Tale of Two Cities,
  13. (2004). a) A Survey of Leicester City FC Football Fans, Leicester:
  14. (2010). accessed on 8.1.2010 at Gorard, S.
  15. (1988). All in a Day's Leisure: Gender and the Concept of Leisure',
  16. (1997). All They've Got on their Brains is Football': Sport, Masculinity and the Gendered Practices of Playground Relations',
  17. (1986). All Work and No Play? The Sociology of Women and Leisure, Milton Keynes:
  18. (1995). An Introduction to Theories of Popular Culture,
  19. (2009). Apologetic Behavior Among Female Athletes: A New Questionnaire and Initial Results', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  20. (1980). Association Football and English Society 1863-1915,
  21. (2004). b) A Research Survey of Leicester City FC Supporters, Leicester:
  22. (2008). Barriers to Sports Participation for Women: Factsheet' accessed on 25.9.2009 at Women's Sport and Fitness Foundation
  23. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Emergence vs. Forcing,
  24. (1976). Basking in Reflected Glory: Three (Football) Field Studies',
  25. (1988). Beating Them at Our Own Game? Women's Sport Involvement'. In
  26. (1992). Beatlemania: Girls Just Wanna Have Fun'. In L. Lewis (ed) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular
  27. (2005). Bend it Like Patel": Centring "Race", Ethnicity and Gender in Feminist Analysis of Women's Football in England', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  28. (1995). Beyond the Star Trek Phenomenon: Reconceptualizing the Science Fiction Audience'. In
  29. (2008). Biggest But Smallest: Female Football and the Case of Norway',
  30. (2005). Binge' Drinking, British Alcohol Policy and the New Culture of Intoxication',
  31. (1996). Boys Muscle in Where Angels Fear to Tread- Girls' Sub-cultures and Physical Activities'.
  32. (2000). Breaking the Silence: Lesbian Fans, the Internet, and the Sexual Politics of Women's Sport',
  33. (1990). British Society Since
  34. (1991). Can Play, Will Play? Women and Football in Britain, Leicester: Sir Norman Chester Centre for Football Research.
  35. (2004). Can Watching Football be a Component of Developing a State of Mental Health for Men?'
  36. (2003). Carers: Why Women?' Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review,
  37. (2001). Census
  38. (2001). Characteristics of a British Ice Hockey Audience - Major Findings of the 1998 and 1999 Manchester Storm Ice Hockey Club Supporter Surveys', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  39. (2008). Class and Stratification,
  40. (1994). Coming on Strong : Gender and Sexuality in Twentieth-Century Women's Sport,
  41. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis,
  42. (2004). Consuming Sport: Fans, Sport and Culture,
  43. (2000). Contestation in Modern Football', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  44. (1998). Contesting the Super Bowl,
  45. (2002). Context and Dialogue in Research on Women and Leisure',
  46. (1994). Conversations with Women Sports Journalists'. In
  47. (1999). Crossing the Line: Women Playing Rugby Union'. In
  48. (1997). Culture and Power: The Sociology of Pierre Bourdieu,
  49. (1993). Dallas With Balls': Televised Sport, Soap Opera and Male and Female Pleasures',
  50. (2009). Dean Richards had 'Central Control' Over Bloodgate Cover-up, Says ERC'
  51. (1984). Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
  52. (1997). Divergent Experiences of Family Leisure: Fathers, Mothers and Young Adolescents',
  53. (2009). Elite Women Wrestlers' Muscles: Physical Strength and a Social Burden', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  54. (1989). English Football and Society 1910-1950,
  55. (2001). English Football Fan Groups in the 1990s: Class, Representation and Fan Power',
  56. (1991). English Football in the 1990s: Taking Hillsborough Seriously?' In
  57. (1997). Entering the Field: New Perspectives on World Football,
  58. (1992). Essays from Bitch: The Women's Rock Newsletter with Bite'. In L. Lewis (ed) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular
  59. (2005). Everything a Girl Needs to Know About Football, London: A and C Black Ltd.
  60. (1998). Extra Time,
  61. (2001). FA Premier League Fan Survey
  62. (1997). FA Premier League Fan Surveys 1996/97, Leicester:
  63. (2001). Facing the Bogey: Women, Football and Sexuality',
  64. (1997). Faith of Our Fathers,
  65. (2009). Family and Friends in Today's World',
  66. (2002). Fan Cultures,
  67. (2000). Fanatical Football Chants: Creating and Controlling the Carnival'. In
  68. (1992). Fandom as Pathology: The Consequences of Characterization'. In L. Lewis (ed) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular media,
  69. (2005). Fans: The Mirror of Consumption,
  70. (1995). Fanship and the Television Sports Viewing Experience',
  71. (1997). Fantasies of Femininity: Reframing the Boundaries of Sex,
  72. (2008). Female Fandom: Identity, Sexism, and Men's Professional Football in England',
  73. (2007). Female Football Supporters' Communities in Spain: A Focus on Women's Peñas'.
  74. (2002). Femininity, Masculinity, Physicality and the English Tabloid Press: The Case of Anna Kournikova', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  75. (1988). Feminism and Leisure Studies: Opening Up New Directions'. In
  76. (1987). Feminism and Methodology,
  77. (2002). Feminist Methodology: Challenges and Choices,
  78. (2004). Feminization of the 2002 World Cup and Women's Fandom',
  79. (1990). Final Report,
  80. (2003). Flying the Flag: Identities, the Nation, and Sport', Identities:
  81. (2004). Focus Group''. In M. Lewis-Beck et al. (eds) The Sage Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods,
  82. (2000). Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research,
  83. (1996). Football Against the Enemy,
  84. (1992). Football and its Fans: Supporters and the Relations with the Game, Leicester:
  85. (1994). Football and the Supermarket Imperative'. In
  86. (2000). Football Fandom and Post-National Identity in the New Europe',
  87. (1998). Football Hooligans: Knowing the Score,
  88. (1989). Football In Its Place,
  89. (2000). Football in the UK: Women, Tomboys, Butches and Lesbians'.
  90. (1979). Football Since the War'. In
  91. (1999). Football: A Sociology of the Global Game,
  92. (2006). Football: An all Consuming Passion: EA Sports Research Report.
  93. (2005). Football: Forging Nationhood and Masculinities in Costa Rica',
  94. (2004). Footballers' Wives: the Role of the Soccer Player's Partner in the Construction of Idealized Masculinity',
  95. (1997). Foreward '.
  96. (1997). Formations of Class and Gender : Becoming Respectable,
  97. (1994). From Whalebone to Spandex: Women and Sports Journalism in American Magazines, Photography and Broadcasting'. In
  98. (2003). Gender and Leisure: Social and Cultural Perspectives,
  99. (1987). Gender and Power,
  100. (2003). Gender Bias in the 1996 Olympic Games',
  101. (1998). Gender Differences in Education: The Underachievement of Boys',
  102. (1994). Gender Stereotyping in Televised Sports'.
  103. (1997). Gender Transformations,
  104. (2002). Gender,
  105. (2000). Gender, 'Race' and Power in the Research Process: South Asian Women in East London'.
  106. (1997). Gender, Careers, and Organisations: Current Developments in Banking, Nursing and Local Government,
  107. (1999). Gender, Identity and Place,
  108. (1994). Gender, Leisure, and Constraint: Towards a Framework for the Analysis of Women's Leisure',
  109. (1998). Gender, Methodology and People's Ways of Knowing: Some Problems with Feminism and the Paradigm Debate in Social Science',
  110. (2001). Gender, Race, Age and Fear in the City', Urban Studies,
  111. (1998). Gendered Cities: Women and Public Lesiure Space in the 'Postmodern City'',
  112. (2007). Girls Allowed? The Marginalization of Female Sports Fans'. In
  113. (2001). Girls With Balls' In The Guardian, published on 9.1.2001
  114. (2005). Girls, Football Participation and Gender Identity'. In
  115. (1994). Global Games, Entertainment and Leisure: Women as TV Spectators'. In
  116. (1999). Globalisation and the City,
  117. (1998). Globalization: The Human Consequences,
  118. (1998). Grey Shirts to Grey Suits: The Political Economy of English Football in the 1990s'.
  119. (2007). Grounded Theory and Racial/Ethnic Diversity'.
  120. (2007). Grounding Categories'. In
  121. (2005). Hegemonic Masculinity: Rethinking the Concept',
  122. (2003). How Young Schoolboys Become Somebody: The Role of the Body in the Construction of Masculinity',
  123. (1992). I'll be Here With You': Fans, Fantasy and the Figure of Elvis'.
  124. (2000). Identity and Gender in Sport and Media Fandom: An Exploratory Comparison of Fans Attending Football Matches and Star Trek Conventions'.
  125. (1998). Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers
  126. (1981). Interviewing Women: A Contradiction in Terms'.
  127. (1997). Introduction: Reclaiming the Game - An Introduction to the Anthropology of Football'.
  128. (1996). Introduction: Rugby, Manhood and Identity'. In
  129. (2007). Introduction: Why Study Fans'. In
  130. (1988). Introduction'. In
  131. (1998). Introduction'. In A. Brown (ed) Fanatics: Power, Identity and Fandom in Football,
  132. (1992). Introduction'. In L. Lewis (ed) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular
  133. (1999). Is It All Over? Can Football Survive the Premier League?,
  134. (2002). Is it Time for a Victory Lap? Changes in the Media Coverage of Women in Sport', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  135. (1992). Is There a Fan in the House?: The Affective Sensibility of Fandom'.
  136. (1984). It's Great to Have Someone to Talk To': The Ethics and Politics of Interviewing Women'. In
  137. (1999). It's Still a Man's Game? The Experience of Top-Level European Women Footballers', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  138. (2007). Keep Your Fans To Yourself: The Disjuncture Between Sport Studies' and Pop Culture Studies' Perspectives on Fandom',
  139. (2004). Kennedy's Way,
  140. (2006). Kicking Depression into Touch' accessed on 15.5.2006 at ESRC Website
  141. (2007). Ladettes' and 'Modern Girls': 'Troublesome' Young Femininities',
  142. (1999). Lads will be Lads'. In M. Perryman (ed) The Ingerland Factor: Home Truths From Football,
  143. (1994). Landscapes of Modern Sport,
  144. (2010). Leicester City Council News' accessed on 7.1.2010 at News:&pgid=7851 Leicester City Council Website (2010) 'Leicester City Council, Census
  145. (1993). Leisure and Consumption'.
  146. (1988). Leisure and Male Partners'. In
  147. (1992). Leisure Research and the Social Structure of Feminism',
  148. (2000). Leisure, Gender and the Family: The Influence of Social Policy',
  149. (1999). Let's Put on a Show! Performing Acts and Urban Revitalization in
  150. (1999). Lie Back and Think of England',
  151. (2000). Liquid Modernity,
  152. (1984). Making Space: Women and the Man Made Environment,
  153. (2007). Making Teams Work in Conducting Grounded Theory'.
  154. (1999). Making the Rugby World: Race,
  155. (1990). Male-Gazing: Australian Rules Football, Gender and Television'.
  156. (2010). Manchester City' accessed on 20.2.2010 at Tang,
  157. (2002). Marketing Mardi Gras: Commodification, Spectacle and the Political Economy of Tourism in New Orleans',
  158. (2006). Masculine Femininities/Feminine Masculinities: Power, Identities and Gender',
  159. (1995). Masculinities,
  160. (1988). Measured Time: Women, Sport and Leisure',
  161. (2007). Media Portrayals of Male and Female Athletes: A Text and Picture Analysis of British National Newspaper Coverage of the Olympic Games Since 1948', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  162. (1998). Media Sport Studies: Key Research and Emerging Issues'. In
  163. (2000). Mega-events and Modernity: Olympics and Expos in the Growth of Global Culture,
  164. (1990). Method, Methodology and Epistemology in Feminist Research Processes'. In L. Stanley (ed) Feminist Praxis,
  165. (1994). Methods, Sex and Madness,
  166. (2001). Movie Crazy: Fans, Stars and the Cult of Celebrity, Hampshire:
  167. (1997). Moving the Goal Posts: Football's Exploitation, Edinburgh: Mainstream Pulishing Company.
  168. (2002). Mud, Sweat and Beers: A Cultural History of Sport and Alcohol,
  169. (2003). Multiculturalism in Contemporary Britain: Reflections on the “Leicester Model”',
  170. (2000). Multiple Bodies: Sportswomen, Soccer and Sexuality', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  171. (2002). Narratives of Identity in Modern Management: the Corresion of Identity Difference?'
  172. (2005). Negotiating Gender/Race/Class Constraints in the New South Africa', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  173. (2006). Never Had It So Good: A History of Britain from Suez to the Beatles,
  174. (2004). New Perspectives on Sport and 'Deviance': Consumption, Performativity and Social Control,
  175. (1994). No Turning Back: Generations and the Gender Quake,
  176. (2006). No Way My Boys Are Going To Be Like That!' Parents' Responses to Children's Gender Nonconformity',
  177. (1991). North and South'.
  178. (2009). Not Just for Men: Israeli Women who Fancy Football',
  179. (1988). Not Tonight Dear!' The Social Control of Women's Leisure'. In
  180. (2009). Obesity' accessed on 8.5.2010 at ues/obesity/obesity/ Fawbert,
  181. (1991). Obligations of Kinship in Contemporary Britain: Is there Normative Agreement?'
  182. (1992). On Feminist Methodology',
  183. (2010). One Leicester Story' accessed on 7.1.2010 at
  184. (1997). One of the Lads: Women Who Follow Football,
  185. (2007). Orthodoxy vs. Power: The Defining Traits of Grounded Theory'.
  186. (2010). Our Programmes Youth Sport Trust' accessed on 18.1.2010 at Zukin, S.
  187. (2008). Out in the Field',
  188. (1986). Out of Bounds: Women, Sexuality and Sport,
  189. (2004). Out on the Field of Play: Women's Experiences of Gender and Sexuality in Football Contexts'.
  190. (2000). Overloaded: Popular Culture and the Future of Feminism,
  191. (1990). Pink or Blue: Environmental Gender Stereotypes in the First Two Years of Life',
  192. (1987). Play Up! Play Up! And Play the Game! Sport at the Late Victorian Girls' Public Schools'. In
  193. (2000). Power Play: Sport, the Media and Popular Culture,
  194. (2002). Practical Social Investigation,
  195. (1995). Preliminary Validation of the Sport Fan Motivational Scale',
  196. (2006). Protect Me From What I Want': Football Fandom, Celebrity Cultures and 'New' Football in England',
  197. (1998). Racism, Gender Identities and Young Children,
  198. (1989). Raising One Voice', Marxism Today,
  199. (1999). Rational Woman: A Feminist Critique of Dichotomy,
  200. (1994). Re-entering Leisure: Transition within the Role of Motherhood',
  201. (2001). Recent Developments in Football Ownership'.
  202. (2008). Reconceptualizing Student Motivation in Physical Education: An Examination of what Resources are Valued by Pre-adolescent Girls in Contemporary Society',
  203. (2010). Redmen: A Social and Cultural History of Liverpool Football Club,
  204. (1995). Reducing Fragmentation in Qualitative Research'. In U. Kelle (ed) Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice,
  205. (1988). Relative Freedoms: Women and Leisure,
  206. (1988). Relative Freedoms: Women and Leisure'.
  207. (1997). Replacing Popular Culture'.
  208. (2001). Research and the Policy-Making Process'. In N. Gilbert (ed) Researching Social Life,
  209. (2004). Research Methods for Sport Studies,
  210. (1995). Research on Women and Leisure: Past, Present and Future Research'. In
  211. (2004). Response to Quoting and Counting: An Autobiographical Response to Oakley',
  212. (2006). Rethinking Friendship : Hidden Solidarities Today,
  213. (1992). Return of the Wanderer'. In
  214. (2006). Risky Bodies at Leisure: Young Women Negotiating Space and Place',
  215. (2008). Rogue Men and Predatory Women: Female Fans' Perceptions of Australian Footballers' Sexual Conduct', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  216. (2006). Rugby's Great
  217. (1989). Scarlett's Women: Gone With the Wind and its Female Fans,
  218. (2006). Scoring Goals for Integration in Leicester: CRE Helps Kids and Coaches use Football to bring Communities Together' accessed on 28.7.09 at Conn,
  219. (2003). Settling Accounts with Hooligans',
  220. (2002). Sex and Gender, Cambridge:
  221. (2000). Sex Differences in Sport Fan Behavior and Reasons for Being a Sport Fan',
  222. (2002). Shades of White: An Examination of Whiteness in Sport',
  223. (1992). Shaping up to Womanhood: Gender and Girls' Physical Education,
  224. (2003). Silence, Sports Bras, and Wrestling Porn: Women in Televised Sports News and Highlights Shows',
  225. (2001). Sitting Pretty? Women and Football in Liverpool'. In J. Williams (ed) Passing Rhythms: Liverpool FC and the Transformation of Football,
  226. (1995). Soap Fans: Pursuing Pleasure and Making Meaning in Everyday Life,
  227. (1994). Soap Opera and Women's Talk: The Pleasure of Resistance,
  228. (2003). Soccer, Women, Sexual Liberation (edited collection)',
  229. (2004). Soccer, Women, Sexual Liberation: Kicking Off a New Era,
  230. (2005). Sociability and Excitement Motives of Spectators Attending Entertainment Sport Events: Spectators of Soccer and Ski-jumping',
  231. (1989). Social Criticism Without Philosophy: An Encounter Between Feminism and Postmodernism'. In A. Ross (ed) Universal Abandon: The Politics of Postmodernsim, Edinburgh:
  232. (2004). Social Research Methods,
  233. (2001). Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process,
  234. (1985). Social Space and the Genesis of Groups',
  235. (1994). Space, Place and Gender,
  236. (1986). Spectator Violence at Football Matches: Towards a Sociological Explanation'. In N. Elias and E. Dunning (eds) Quest For Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process,
  237. (2001). Spice girls", "Nice girls", "Girlies" and "Tomboys": Gender Discourses, Girls'
  238. (1992). Sport and the British: A Modern History,
  239. (1994). Sport as a Male Preserve: Notes on the Social Sources of Masculine Identity and its Transformations'. In
  240. (1993). Sport Fans: Measuring Degree of Identification with the Team',
  241. (2001). Sport Fans: The Psychology and Social Impact of Spectators,
  242. (2006). Sport in Consumer Culture,
  243. (1999). Sport Matters: Sociological Studies of Sport, Violence and Civilization,
  244. (2005). Sport Spectators and the Social Consequences of Commodification: Critical Perspectives from Scottish Football',
  245. (1993). Sport, Space and the City,
  246. (2001). Sporting a New Image? Sport-based Regeneration Strategies as a Means of Enhancing the Image of the City Tourist Destination'. In C. Gratton and I. Henry (eds) Sport in the City,
  247. (1994). Sporting Females: Critical Issues in the History and Sociology of Women's Sports,
  248. (1996). Sporting Masculinities: Gender Relations and the Body'. In M. MacanGhail (ed) Understanding Masculinities: Social Relations and Cultural Arenas,
  249. (2006). Sports Knowledge is Power: Reinforcing Masculine Privilege Through Fantasy Sport League Participation',
  250. (1994). Sports Women in Black and White: Sports History from an AfroAmerican Perspective'. In
  251. (2000). Sportscasting and Sports Reporting: The Power of Gender Bias',
  252. (2003). Staging the Real: Factual TV Programming in the Age of Big Brother,
  253. (2002). Statement of Ethical Practice for the British Sociological Association' accessed on 3.8.09 at Bromberger,
  254. (1988). Stepping Out: The Importance of Dancing for Young Women'. In
  255. (2004). Still a Man's Game? Women Footballers, Personal Experience and Tabloid Myth'.
  256. (2005). Stratification: Social Division and Inequality,
  257. (2009). Supporter Culture in Denmark: The Legacy of the 'World's Best Supporters'', Soccer and Society,
  258. (2002). Supporters, Followers, Fans, and Flaneurs',
  259. (2002). Survey Research Methods,
  260. (1992). Talking about Gender, Race and Class'.
  261. (1996). Talking Back To Sociology: Distinctive Contributions of Feminist Methodology', Annual Review of Sociology,
  262. (2004). Talking to Me? Televised Football and Masculine Style'.
  263. (1992). Television Soaps,
  264. (1992). Textual Poachers, Television Fans of Participatory Culture,
  265. (2002). Thank Heaven for Little Girls: 'Girl Heaven' and the Commercial Context of Feminine Childhood',
  266. (2006). The
  267. (2005). The "Pals", the "Professionals" and the "Conformers": The Meaning of Football in the Lives of Women Footballers in Scotland'.
  268. (1969). The Affluent Worker in the Class Structure, Cambridge:
  269. (2001). The Case of Euro 96: Where Did the Party Go?'
  270. (1994). The Changing World of Women and Leisure: Feminism, 'Postfeminism' and Leisure',
  271. (2007). The Coding Process and its Challenges'.
  272. (1992). The Cultural Economy of Fandom'. In L. Lewis (ed) The Adoring Audience: Fan Culture and Popular
  273. (2008). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research,
  274. (1993). The End: 80 Years of Life on the Terraces,
  275. (1990). The Eternally Wounded Woman: Women,
  276. (2007). The Evolving Nature of Grounded Theory Method: The Case of the Information Systems Discipline'.
  277. (1999). The Exclusive Society,
  278. (2002). The FA Premier League National Fan Survey
  279. (1987). The Feminist Physique: Physical Education and the Medicalization of Women's Education,
  280. (1995). The Football Imagination: The Rise of Football Fanzine Culture,
  281. (2004). The Gendered "Nature" of the Urban Outdoors: Women Negotiating Fear of Violence',
  282. (1989). The Geography of Women's Fear',
  283. (1997). The Girls Done Good'
  284. (2004). The Globalization of Football: A Study in the Glocalization of the 'Serious Life'',
  285. (2005). The Image Problem in Women's Football',
  286. (2005). The Interview: From Neutral Stance to Political Involvement'.
  287. (1997). The Lads: Masculinity and the New Consumption of Football',
  288. (1993). The Man of Reason: 'Male' and 'Female' in
  289. (1996). The Man-Shaped City'. In
  290. (1998). The Media Image of Sport and Gender'. In
  291. (1994). The Medias Role in Accomodating and Resisting Stereotyped Images of Women in Sport'. In
  292. (2000). The Money's Good, The Fame's Good, The Girls are Good': The Role of Playground Football in the Construction of Young Boys' Masculinity in a Junior School',
  293. (2001). The Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption: Assessment of the Scale's Psychometric Properties',
  294. (2004). The Myth of the 'Puck Bunny': Female Fans and Men's Ice Hockey',
  295. (1978). The Nineteenth Century Woman: Her Cultural World,
  296. (2001). The Only Game,
  297. (2002). The Paradox of Social Class and Sports Involvement: The Roles of Cultural and Economic Capital', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  298. (1994). The People's Game: The History of Football Revisited,
  299. (2005). The Place of Women in Argentinian Football',
  300. (1990). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life,
  301. (1988). The Promise and Problems of Women's Leisure and Sport'. In C. Rojek (ed) Leisure For Leisure,
  302. (2007). The Sage Handbook of Grounded Theory,
  303. (1998). The Sixties: Cultural Revolution
  304. (1968). The Social Order of the Slum: Ethnicity and Territory in the Inner City,
  305. (1991). The Sociology of Football: A Research Agenda for the 1990s',
  306. (2001). The Southern Football Hero and the Shaping of Local and Regional Identity in the South of England',
  307. (1999). The Thatcher Legacy: Power Feminism and the Birth of Girl Power'. In N. Walter (ed) On the Move: Feminism for a New Generation,
  308. (2007). The Times They are A-Changin':
  309. (1982). The Unstructured Interview as a Conversation'. In
  310. (1996). The Use of the Self in Qualitative Research'.
  311. (1993). The Victorian Cult of the Family and the Early Years of Female Sport'. In E. Dunning (ed) The Sports Process: A Comparative and Developmental Approach: Human Kinetics Publishers.
  312. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity,
  313. (1990). Theorizing Patriarchy,
  314. (2008). This Is England': Sanitized Fandom and the National Soccer Team',
  315. (1999). Three Generations: Oral Testimonies on Crime and Social Change in London's East End',
  316. (1993). Three Sides of the Mersey: An Oral History of Everton, Liverpool and Tranmere Rovers,
  317. (1998). Ticket Pricing, Football Business and Excluded Football Fans, London: Report to the Football Task Force.
  318. (1998). Time Crunch and the Perception of Control over Time From a Gendered Perspective: The Dutch Case', Society and Leisure,
  319. (2004). Tools for Qualitative Data Analysis'.
  320. (1998). Uncertain Utopia: Science Fiction Media Fandom and Computer Mediated Communication'. In
  321. (1998). United We Stand: Some Problems with Fan Democracy'.
  322. (1987). Victorian Familism and the Formative Years of Female Sport'. In
  323. (2004). Visual Research: Potential and Overview'.
  324. (2005). Watching Daytime Soap Operas: The Power of Pleasure,
  325. (1998). Watching Sports on Television: Audience Experience, Gender, Fanship and Marriage'. In
  326. (1992). We'll Support You Evermore,
  327. (1990). What a Man's Gotta Do: The Masculine Myth in Popular Culture,
  328. (1995). What's New in the Philosophy of Science?'
  329. (2007). Who are Tomboys and How do we Recognise Them?'
  330. (1992). Why Can't a Woman be More Like a Fan?' In
  331. (2002). Women and Football- A Contradiction? The Beginnings of Women's Football in Four European Countries'.
  332. (2010). Women and Gender in South African Soccer: A Brief History', Soccer and Society,
  333. (1996). Women and Leisure'. In
  334. (1999). Women in Contemporary Britain: An Introduction,
  335. (1998). Women of Their Time: Generation, Gender Issues and Feminism,
  336. (1997). Women on the Ball,
  337. (2006). Women Playing Football at Clubs in England with Socio-Political Associations',
  338. (1998). Women, Sport, and Media Institutions: Issues in Sports Journalism and Marketing'. In
  339. (2007). Women's Football in Scotland: An Historical Overview'. In
  340. (1999). Women's Football in the United Kingdom: Theorising Gender and Unpacking the Butch Lesbian Image',
  341. (1992). Women's Leisure in a Resource Industry Town: Problems and Issues',
  342. (2000). Women's Leisure in England, 1920-60,
  343. (1990). Women's Leisure,
  344. (2007). Women's Participation in Tackle Football: An Exploration of Benefits and Constraints', International Review for the Sociology of Sport,
  345. (2000). Women's Rugby and Subcultural Identity: A Case Study of an Initiation Event'.
  346. (1992). Women's Sense of Responsibility for the Care of Old People: "But Who Else Is Going To Do It?"',
  347. (2006). Women's Soccer in the Republic of Ireland: Some Preliminary Sociological Comments', Soccer and Society,
  348. (2003). Women's Soccer in the United States and the Netherlands: Differences and Similarities in Regimes of Inequalities',
  349. (2010). World Stadiums' accessed on 8.1.2010 at
  350. (1992). You Don't Look the Type'. In

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.