Location of Repository

A Geophysical Package for In-situ Planetary Science

By Michelle Sarah Skidmore


Measuring the effect of geological and chemical processes, weather, biological processes and the interaction of SCR and GCR radiation with a planet is fundamental to understanding the formation, evolution and alteration of a planet. This thesis details the evolution and development of a geophysical package that can be used to better understand the effect of these fundamental physical processes by measuring composition, constraining heat flow and measuring the age of a planetary surface. There are a number of future ESA and NASA planetary science missions that are in the planning or initial study phases, where the scientific objectives include determining the surface composition, measuring planetary surface heat flow and constraining planetary chronology.\ud The geophysical package is capable of operation on landers and penetrators; both of these are possible in-situ platforms being proposed for these missions. In addition radioisotope power sources are being proposed for both thermal management and electricity generation; the power source might provide the source of neutrons to induce the γ-ray emission from the planetary surface. The development and verification of a Monte Carlo planetary radiation environment model using both experimental data and data acquired in orbit of the Moon and Mars is described in this thesis. It was used to model the geophysical package on the surface and sub-surface of Mars and Europa. The model was also used to investigate the suitability of several neutron sources to induce γ-ray emission on a planetary surface that could also be used for power generation

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8332

Suggested articles



  1. (2002a), ‘LaBr3:Ce Scintillators for Gamma-ray Spectroscopy’,
  2. (2002b), ‘LuI3:Ce—A New Scintillator for Gamma-ray Spectroscopy’,
  3. (1996). A Compton Backscatter Densitometer for the RoLand Comet Lander—Design Concept and Monte Carlo Simulations’,
  4. (2001). A Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package for the Surface of Mercury’,
  5. (2009). A Hybrid X-ray and γ-ray Detector for In-situ Planetary Science Missions,
  6. (1992). Acceleration of the Solar Wind’,
  7. (2007). Analysis of Gamma-ray Spectra Measured by Mars Odyssey’,
  8. (2007). and 13 colleagues,
  9. (2003). and 47 colleagues,
  10. (1973). Apollo 15 and 16 Results of the Integrated Geochemical Experiment, The Moon’,
  11. (2003). Application Note ANCZT-2 Rev. 2 Charge Trapping in XR-100T-CdTe and –CZT Detectors,
  12. (1968). Behaviour of Lithium in Silicon and Germanium’, Semiconductor Detectors,
  13. (1995). CdTe Nuclear Detectors and Applications’, Volume 43: Semiconductors for Room Temperature Nuclear Detector Applications,
  14. (2002). CdTe Stacked Detectors for Gamma-ray Detection’,
  15. (2007). CdTe’, Compound Semiconductor Bulk Materials and Characterisation,
  16. (2004). Charge Transport and Mobility Mapping in CdTe,
  17. (2001). Chemical Analyses of Martian Soil and Rocks Obtained by the Pathfinder Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer’,
  18. Columbia Plateau, Columbia River Basalt Group, USGS/Cascades Volcano Observatory,
  19. (1998). Compact Pulse Processor for High Resolution Spectroscopy with CdTe Detectors,
  20. (2006). Comparison of a LaBr3(Ce) Scintillation Detector with a Large Volume CdZnTe Detector’
  21. (2000). Composition and Stability of Salts on the Surface of Europa and their Oceanic Origin’,
  22. (1999). Counting Statistics and Error
  23. (1970). Detectors’, γ-ray Spectroscopy of Rocks,
  24. (2004). Determination of 4.438 MeV γ-ray to Neutron Emission Ratio from a 241Am–9Be Neutron Source’,
  25. (1997). Determination of the Chemical Composition of Martian Soil and Rocks: The Alpha Proton X ray Spectrometer’,
  26. (2005). Determination of Ti, K, Sm and Gd Values
  27. (2007). Efficiency Calculations for Selected Scintillators,
  28. (1995). Electric Properties of Mercuric Iodide’, Volume 43: Semiconductors for Room Temperature Nuclear Detector Applications,
  29. (2006). Elemental Composition of the Lunar Surface: Analysis of Gamma-ray Spectroscopy Data from Lunar Prospector’,
  30. (2001). Experimental Facilities at FRM-II, Research with Neutrons, Public Relations,
  31. (1984). Experiments in Nuclear Science- Introduction to Theory and Basic Applications, AN34- Lab Manual (3rd Edition),
  32. (2007). Fe, and Th in the Low- and Mid-latitude Regions of Mars’,
  33. (1958). Gamma Rays from the Proton Bombardment of Silicon’,
  34. (2004). Gamma-ray Measurements from Lunar Prospector: Time Series Data Reduction for the Gamma-ray Spectrometer’,
  35. (1996). Gamma-ray Production and Transport in
  36. (1997). Gamma-ray Spectrometric Studies’, Exploration of Terrestrial Planets from Spacecraft- Instrumentation,
  37. (2004). Gamma-Ray Spectrometry’, Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis with
  38. (2004). Gamma-Ray, Neutron, and Alpha-Particle Spectrometers for the Lunar Prospector Mission’,
  39. (1988). Hard Xray and Low-energy Gamma-ray Spectrometers’,
  40. (1992). High Resolution Gamma-ray Spectroscopy with CdTe Detector Systems’,
  41. (1995). High-Purity Germanium Detectors’, Volume 43: Semiconductors for Room Temperature Nuclear Detector Applications,
  42. (2006). Hybrid Detector Prototype User Manual,
  43. (2009). In-situ Radiometric Dating on Mars: Investigation of the Feasibility of K-Ar Dating using Flighttype Mass and X-ray Spectrometers’,
  44. (1972). Interaction of Solar and Galactic Cosmic-Ray Particles with the Moon’,
  45. (2003). Introduction to the Quantum Theory of Solids’,
  46. (2005). K-Ar and Ar-Ar Dating’, Radioisotope Geology (2nd Edition),
  47. (2003). LBNL Isotopes Project Nuclear Data Dissemination Home Page.
  48. (2002). Light Output and Energy Resolution of Ce3+-doped Scintillators’,
  49. (1998). Lunar Prospector Mission Handbook,
  50. (1995). Magnetospheric Configuration’, Introduction to Space Physics,
  51. (2007). Mars Odyssey Gamma-ray Spectrometer Elemental Abundances and Apparent Relative Surface Age: Implications for Martian Crustal Evolution’,
  52. (2002). Mars Odyssey GRS Calibration Report- Version 3.0,
  53. (1987). Megaregolith Insulation, Internal Temperatures, and Bulk Uranium Content of the Moon’,
  54. (1995). Mineralogy’, Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop, LPI
  55. (2005). Model spectrum Calculations (Version 0.5),
  56. (1999). More Recent Trends in X-ray Fluorescence Instrumentation’, X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (2nd Edition), Volume 152 in Chemical Analysis: A Series of Monographs on Analytical Chemistry and its Applications,
  57. (2007). Mupus: A Thermal and Mechanical Properties Probe for the Rosetta Lander Philae’,
  58. (2005). Neutron Activation Analysis, Gamma-ray Spectrometry and Radiation Environment Monitoring Instrument Concept: GEORAD’, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
  59. (1963). Neutron Induced Reactions’, Nuclear Physics (2nd Edition),
  60. (2009). Neutron Sources for Radioisotope Power Systems and In-situ Planetary Science Applications’, In preparation for submission to
  61. (2008). NOAA, Space Physics Interactive Data Resource (SPIDR),
  62. (2003). Non-equilibrium Excess Carriers
  63. (1996). Nondestructive Determination of Major Elements in a Large Sample by Prompt γ Ray Neutron Activation Analysis’,
  64. (1988). Nonresonant Capture of Low-energy Protons by 27Al’,
  65. (1988). Nuclear Reactions’, Introductory Nuclear Physics,
  66. (2004). Odyssey γ-ray Spectrometer Derived High Energy Neutron Detector Data
  67. (1999). Particle Acceleration at the Sun and in the Heliosphere’,
  68. (1992). Petrologic Evolution of Anorthoclase Phonolite Lavas at Mount Erebus, Ross Island, Antarctica’,
  69. (2007). Photomultiplier XP2060 Data Sheet, URL:http://www.photonis.com/medical/products/photomultipliers_assemblies/product_spe cifications.
  70. (2005). Planetary Heat Flow Measurements’,
  71. (1995). Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces’, Planetary Surface Instruments Workshop, LPI
  72. (1993). Preliminary Data on the Content of Volatile Elements in the Rocks from Mount Erebus (Ross Island, Antarctica)’,
  73. (2004). Prompt Gamma-Ray Spectrum Catalog’,
  74. (2009). Prompt γ-ray Activation Analysis of Martian Analogues at the FRM-II Neutron Reactor and the Verification of a Monte Carlo Planetary Radiation Environment Model, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
  75. (2005). Proposed Method to Improve the Accuracy of Thermal Conductivity Measurements of a Planetary Regolith’, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in
  76. (1976). Proton Induced X-ray Emission- a Tool for Non-destructive Trace Element Analysis’,
  77. (1991). Proton-induced Radiation Damage in Germanium Detectors’,
  78. (2007). Pulse Formation Process, Review of the Physics of Semiconductor Detectors,
  79. (2006). Radiation Detection and Measurement,
  80. (1999). Radiation Interactions’, Radiation Detection and Measurement (3rd Edition),
  81. (1991). Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars’,
  82. (2008). Safe Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Heat Sources for Space Applications’,
  83. (2004). Samples and Standards’, Handbook of Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis with
  84. (2009). Saturn System Mission Science Definition Team,
  85. (2009). Science Definition Team,
  86. (2006). Scintillation and Inorganic Scintillators’, Inorganic Scintillators for Detector Systems- Physical Principles and Crystal Engineering,
  87. (1968). Semiconductor Properties of Silicon and Germanuim’, Semiconductor Detectors,
  88. (1999). Solar Energetic Particles: Is there time to hide?’,
  89. (2004). Solar Particle Events Observed at Mars: Dosimetry Measurements and Model Calculations’,
  90. (1995). Solid State Photon Detectors Operators Manual: GEM Series, HPGe,
  91. (1998). Solid State Scintillation Probe Models SC1010, SC1515, SC1530, SC2525 Instruction Manual,
  92. (1995). Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide Production Systematics Calculated from Numerical Simulations’,
  93. (1998). The NEAR X-ray/γ-ray Spectrometer’,
  94. (2008). The New Multi-filter at ANTARES, TOF Measurements and First Applications’, Presented at:
  95. (2003). The Quest for the Ideal Inorganic Scintillator’,
  96. (1969). The RIDS: A Density Logger for Rough Holes’,
  97. (1988). The Role of Interplanetary Shocks in the Longitude Distribution of Solar Energetic Particles’,
  98. (1995). The Solar Wind’, Introduction to Space Physics,
  99. (2001). The X-ray Spectrometer for Mercury:
  100. (1968). Transport Phenomena’, Semiconductor Detectors,
  101. (2001). Verification of Monte Carlo Planetary Surface Radiation Environment Model using γ-ray Data from Lunar Prospector and
  102. (2002). Wide Energy Range Efficiency Calibration Method for Ge Detectors’,
  103. (2003). Windows to the Universe, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, URL:http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/mars/images/MPF_T_profile2_gif_image.ht ml.
  104. (2002). X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Detectors and Applications
  105. (1968). X-ray and Gamma-ray Spectroscopy’, Semiconductor Detectors,
  106. (1987). X-ray Fluorescence Analysis: Principles and Practices of Wavelength Dispersive Spectrometry’, A Handbook of Silicate Rock Analysis,
  107. (1993). X-ray Remote Sensing Techniques for Geochemical Analysis of Planetary Surfaces’, Remote Geochemical Analysis:
  108. (1997). X-ray Spectrometric Studies’, Exploration of Terrestrial Planets from Spacecraft- Instrumentation,
  109. (2008). γ-ray Detection Probe: LaBr3 Instruction Manual,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.