Location of Repository

The relationship between gender, age, study mode, locus of control, extracurricular activities, learning approaches and academic achievement: the case of full-time and part-time Hong Kong Chinese sub-degree students

By Yiu Kong Ringo Chan


The massive expansion of self-financing sub-degree programmes is a major development in Hong Kong post-secondary education over the past decade. More full-time and part-time students from less advantaged academic backgrounds are able to access higher education. Given the specific nature and academic background of these students, there is a need to develop a greater understanding of major factors which shape their educational success.\ud Many studies have explored the relationship between individual student characteristics, learning approaches and academic achievement on Western tertiary students. Comparatively little is known about such relationship in the Hong Kong Chinese sub-degree context. The research aims to investigate the relationship between individual student characteristics, learning approaches and academic achievement of Hong Kong Chinese sub-degree finance students. Biggs’s 3P learning model suggests that gender, age, study mode, locus of control and extracurricular activities influence learning approaches and subsequently affect academic achievement.\ud The present study uses a quantitative approach from the positivist paradigm to empirically test the 3P model of the relationships between gender, age, study mode, locus of control, extracurricular activities, learning approaches, and academic achievement. 131 full-time and 130 part-time Hong Kong Chinese sub-degree finance students participate in this research. Biggs’s Revised Two-Factor Study Processes Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) and McAuley’s Revised Causal Dimension Scale (CDSII) are used to measure learning approaches and locus of control respectively. Regression analysis is used to examine the fit of the variables to hypothesized models. The results suggest that locus of control and extracurricular activities influence the learning approaches of full-time and part-time Hong Kong Chinese sub-degree finance students. The study suggests that the deep approach is positively associated with academic achievement

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8308

Suggested articles



  1. (1991). A challenge to the anecdotal stereotype of the Asian student,
  2. (1998). A comparative study of approaches to studying in Hong Kong and the United Kingdom,
  3. (1986). A factor analytic study of achievement goals and means: An Indian view,
  4. (1976). A further consideration of the effect of evaluation on motivation,
  5. (1994). A gender comparison of contextualized study behaviour in higher education.
  6. (1998). A longitudinal study of psychosocial environment and learning approaches in the Hong Kong classroom,
  7. (1985). A longitudinal study of the approaches to learning to Australian tertiary students, Human Learning,
  8. (1963). A model of school learning,
  9. (1987). A model of the teaching-learning process,
  10. (1982). A perspective on education in Hong Kong: report by visiting panel, Hong Kong Government Printer.
  11. (1983). A proposal for cross-cultural studies of attribution,
  12. (1980). A psychological theory of educational productivity,
  13. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences,
  14. (1979). Academic achievement and individual differences in learning processes,
  15. (2001). Academic capitalization in the new millennium: the marketisation and corporatisation of higher education in Hong Kong,
  16. (1987). Academic locus of control: a relevant variable at tertiary level?,
  17. (1996). Accepting personal responsibility for learning,
  18. (1992). Achievement and motivation, Unpublished research report,
  19. (1993). Achievement motivation: a cross-cultural study of British and Chinese motivational pattern, Unpublished report,
  20. (1992). Achievement orientation and academic causal attribution of Chinese students in Hong Kong, Unpublished PhD thesis,
  21. (1998). Adult students in higher education: burden or boon?,
  22. (1997). Adventure education and outward bound: Out-of-class experiences that make a lasting difference.
  23. (1998). Affective variables, learning approaches and academic achievement: A causal modeling investigation with Hong Kong tertiary students,
  24. (1996). Age differences in episodic memory, semantic memory, and priming; relationships to demographic, intellectual and biological factors,
  25. (1997). An analysis of accounting at second level,
  26. (1995). An Arabic version of the Study Process Questionnaire: reliability and validity.
  27. (1986). An Attribution Theory of Motivation and Emotion,
  28. (1988). An introduction to strategies and styles of learning,
  29. (2003). Another look at the role of age, gender and subject as predictors or academic attainment in higher education,
  30. (1989). Anxiety and study methods in pre-clinical students: Causal relation to exam performance,
  31. (1978). Applications of research on the effects of rewards,
  32. (2001). Approaches to learning in science: a longitudinal study,
  33. (2003). Approaches to learning, need for cognition and strategic flexibility among university students,
  34. (1991). Approaches to learning, their context and relationship to assessment performance,
  35. (1997). Approaches to learning’,
  36. (1992). Approaches to study of distance education students,
  37. (1988). Approaches to studying and levels of processing in university students,
  38. (1996). Approaches to studying: Age, gender and academic performance,
  39. (1989). Approaches to the enhancement of tertiary teaching,
  40. (2000). Are learning approaches and thinking styles related? A study in two Chinese populations.
  41. (1990). Asian American educational achievement: A phenomenon in search of an explanation,
  42. (1988). Asian Americans
  43. (1998). Assessing approaches to learning: a cross-cultural perspective on the Study Process Questionnaire,
  44. (2000). Assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning,
  45. (1997). Assessing study approaches in Sweden. Psychological Reports,
  46. (1980). Attitudes of staff towards mature students,
  47. (1982). Attribution for achievement-related events, expectancy, and sentiments: A study of success and failure in Chile and the United States,
  48. (1989). Attribution of examination results: Chinese primary students in Hong Kong, Psychologia,
  49. (1989). Attributional measurement techniques: classification and comparison of approaches for measuring three causal dimensions,
  50. (1978). Behavioral confirmation in social interaction: from social perception to social reality,
  51. (2001). Beliefs about knowledge and the process of teaching and learning as a factor in adjusting to study in higher education,
  52. (1983). Beyond the uniformity myth: A comparison of academically successful and unsuccessful test-anxious college students,
  53. (1992). Broadening our conception of general education: the self-regulated learner,
  54. (1996). Causal attribution processes among the Chinese,
  55. (1994). Causal attributions for college success and failure: An Asian American comparison,
  56. (1998). Challenges for older students in higher education,
  57. (2008). Characterizing the motivational orientation of students in higher education: A naturalistic study in three Hong Kong universities,
  58. (1996). Chinese childhood socialization,
  59. (1999). Chinese conceptions of ‘effective teaching’ in Hong Kong: towards culturally sensitive evaluation of teaching,
  60. (1986). Chinese personality and its change,
  61. (1995). Classroom learning: educational psychology for the Asian teacher, Singapore,
  62. (1999). Closing the gender gap: Postwar education and social change,
  63. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests,
  64. (1986). Cognitive conceptions of learning,
  65. (1991). Cognitive strategies and study habits: an analysis of the measurement of tertiary students’ learning,
  66. (2006). College made first private university, South China Morning Post,
  67. (2001). Community colleges: policy in the future context,
  68. (1976). Components of a psychology of instruction: toward a science of design,
  69. (1979). Conceiving the self,
  70. (1979). Conceptions of research in student learning,
  71. (1982). Congruence between field independence and locus of control as a predictor of student performance,
  72. (1988). Context and strategy: Situational influences on learning,
  73. (1990). Contexts of Achievement.
  74. (1984). Contextual dependence of learning approaches: the effects of assessments,
  75. (1934). Contingency table involving small numbers and the 2 test,
  76. (1991). Contrasting forms of understanding for degree examinations: the student experience and its implications,
  77. (2001). Correlation of approaches to learning: a cross-cultural meta-analysis,
  78. (1995). Cultural differences in learning motivation and learning strategies: a comparison of overseas and Australian students at an Australian university,
  79. (1990). Cultural specificity of approaches to study.
  80. (1988). Culture-based learning problems of Asian students: some implications for Australian distance educators,
  81. (1977). Degrees of excellence: The academic achievement game, London: Hodder and Stoughton.
  82. (1983). Depth of processing and the quality of learning outcomes,
  83. (1988). Descriptions of teaching and learning: a Malaysian experience,
  84. (2001). Determinants of degree performance in UK universities: a statistical analysis of the 1993 student cohort,
  85. (1977). Development of a self-report inventory for assessing individual differences in learning processes,
  86. (1997). Differences among low-, average-, and high-achieving college students on learning and study strategies,
  87. (1986). Differences in the cognitive process of academically successful and unsuccessful test-anxious students,
  88. (2003). Does the big five predict learning approaches? Personality and Individual Differences,
  89. (1993). Doing Your Research Project, Milton Keynes,
  90. (1987). Early academic socialization of successful Asian-American college students,
  91. (2001). Education, Culture & Identity, Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  92. (1986). Educational development and phenomenography,
  93. (1968). Educational psychology: A cognitive view,
  94. (1995). Educational Traditions Compared,
  95. (2003). Electronic Encyclopedia (2002) Columbia University Press, 6th edition http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/126960/Columbia-Encyclopedia
  96. (1993). Enhancing achievement motivation and performance in college students: an attributional retaining perspective,
  97. (1987). Entry Qualification and Degree Performance, London, Council for National Academic Awards.
  98. (2005). Epistemological beliefs and approaches to learning: their change through secondary school and their influence on academic performance,
  99. (1982). Epistemology and agency in the development of undergraduate women,
  100. (2000). Equal resources, equal outcomes? The distribution of school resources and student achievement in California, Public Policy Institute of California,
  101. (1974). Essentials of Learning and Instruction,
  102. (1984). Evaluating a research report’,
  103. (2006). Examination of student learning approaches, reflective thinking, and epistemological beliefs: A latent variables approach,
  104. (1990). Examination result attribution, expectancy, and achievement goals among Chinese students in Hong Kong,
  105. (2004). Examining the multidimensionality of approaches to learning through the development of a revised version of the learning process questionnaire,
  106. (1995). Explaining Chinese students’ motivation and achievement: A socio-cultural analysis,
  107. (1938). Exploration in Personality,
  108. (1995). First year on campus: diversity in the initial experiences of Australian graduates,
  109. (2004). First-year students’ perceptions of capability,
  110. (1993). From theory to practice: A cognitive systems approach,
  111. (1988). Gender and the arts/science divide in higher education,
  112. (1996). Gender differences in approaches to learning in first year psychology students,
  113. (1997). Gender differences in episodic memory,
  114. (2005). Gender differences in explaining grades using structural equation modeling, Review of Higher Education,
  115. (1991). Gender differences in the experience of higher education: qualitative and quantitative approaches,
  116. (1994). Gender-related differences in cognitive abilities: evidence from a medical school admissions testing program, Personality and Individual Differences,
  117. (1992). Gender, ethnicity, and social cognitive factors predicting the academic achievement of students in engineering,
  118. (2001). Globalizing the Community College: Strategies for Change in the Twenty-First Century,
  119. (2008). HKU SPACE and its Alumni The First Fifty Years, Hong Kong
  120. (1992). Ho et at.,
  121. (2007). Hong Kong teacher education students’ epistemological beliefs and their relations with conceptions of learning and learning strategies, The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher,
  122. (1976). Human Characteristics and School Learning,
  123. (1993). Identifying characteristics of successful tertiary students using path analysis,
  124. (1982). Identifying the study process dimensions of Australian university students,
  125. (1987). Improving teaching and learning in higher education: the case for a relational perspective,
  126. (1992). Improving the Quality of Student Learning, Bristol: Technical and Education Services.
  127. (1991). Improving the quality of student learning: The influence of learning context and student approaches to learning on learning outcomes,
  128. (1982). In a Different Voice: psychological theory and women’s development,
  129. (1990). Individual and contextual differences in the approaches to learning of Australian secondary school students,
  130. (1978). Individual and group differences in study processes,
  131. (1979). Individual differences in study processes and the quality of learning outcomes,
  132. (1990). Interest and its contribution as a mental resource for learning,
  133. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable,
  134. (1989). Internal-external control expectancies: From contingency to creativity,
  135. (1975). Internal/external control of reinforcement as a determinant of study habits and academic attitudes,
  136. (2005). Introduction to social research: quantitative and qualitative approaches,
  137. (2006). Investigating the relationship between variations in students’ perceptions of their academic environment and variations in study behaviour in distance education,
  138. (1998). Is age kinder to females than to males? Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,
  139. (1988). Learning
  140. (1997). Learning and awareness, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  141. (1989). Learning and teaching: Hong Kong Polytechnic
  142. (1981). Learning approach and outcome: some empirical observations,
  143. (2000). Learning for Life, Learning through
  144. (1984). Learning from problem solving,
  145. (1987). Learning problems of overseas students: two sides of a story,
  146. (1986). Learning processes and background characteristics as predictors of tertiary grades,
  147. (1984). Learning strategies, student motivation patterns, and subjectively perceived success,
  148. (1988). Learning strategies, teaching strategies and conceptual of learning style,
  149. (1994). Learning styles and approaches to learning: Distinguishing between concepts and instruments,
  150. (1992). Learning styles and computer based learning environments,
  151. (1992). Learning to Teach
  152. (1983). Locus of control and academic achievement: a literature review,
  153. (1996). Locus of control and college students’ approaches to learning, Psychological Reports,
  154. (1994). Mature students in higher education: I. a literature survey on approaches to studying,
  155. (1995). Mature students in higher education: II. An investigation of approaches to studying and academic performance,
  156. (1984). Meaning and motivation: toward a theory of personal investment,
  157. (1987). Measuring causal attributions for success and failure: A comparison of methodologies for assessing causal dimensions,
  158. (1992). Measuring causal attributions: the Revised Causal Dimension Scale (CDSII), Personality and Social Psychology,
  159. (1996). Memorization and understanding: the keys to the paradox?
  160. (1997). Meta-analyses of age-cognition relations in adulthood: estimates of linear and nonlinear age effects and structural models,
  161. (2000). Misconceptions about the learning approaches, motivation and study practices of Asian students,
  162. (2006). More second-year degree places urged, South China Morning Post,
  163. (1988). Motivational factors in students’ approaches to learning,
  164. (1981). Multiattributional causality: A five cross-national samples study,
  165. (1997). Multiple regression in behavioral research, 3rd ed., Fort Worth:
  166. (1992). Nontraditional students: Third-age and part-time,
  167. (1990). Older Students in Europe: a survey of older students four European countries,
  168. (1977). On qualitative differences III: Study skill and learning,
  169. (1976). On qualitative differences in learning. I: Outcome and process,
  170. (1977). On qualitative differences in learning. IV – Effects of motivation and test anxiety on process and outcome,
  171. (1991). Patterns of learning style across selected medical specialties,
  172. (2000). Patterns of response to an approaches to studying inventory across contrasting groups and contexts,
  173. (1981). Perceived personal control and academic achievement,
  174. (1996). Perceptions of mathematics ability versus actual mathematics performance: Canadian and Hong Kong Chinese children,
  175. (2003). Personality and approaches to learning as predictors of academic achievement,
  176. (1981). Phenomenography – Describing conceptions of the world around us,
  177. (2003). Pioneering the Community College Movement in Hong Kong,
  178. (1975). Positivism and Sociology, Routledge and Kegan Paul,
  179. (1999). Practitioner research in education: making a difference, Sage Publications
  180. (2004). Predicting academic success: General intelligence, “Big Five” personality traits, and work drive,
  181. (1961). Psychological and educational bases of academic performance,
  182. (1983). Psychological models of educational performance: A theoretical synthesis of constructs,
  183. (1968). Pygamlion in the Classroom,
  184. (1978). Recent research on teaching: A dream, a belief, and a model,
  185. (1991). Relating approaches to study and quality of learning outcomes at the course level,
  186. (1998). Relationships among control beliefs, approaches to learning and the academic performance of final-year nurses.
  187. (1985). Relationships between school motivation, approaches to studying, and attainment among British and Hungarian adolescents,
  188. (1992). Relative importance of aptitude and prior domain knowledge on immediate and delayed posttests,
  189. (1991). Self-concept and learning: the revised inventory of learning process,
  190. (1976). Self-concept: Validation of construct interpretations,
  191. (1990). Self-efficacy, locus of control, self-assessment of memory ability and study activities as predictors of college course achievement,
  192. (1979). Skill as an aspect of knowledge,
  193. (1977). So you want to go back to school: Facing the realities of reentry,
  194. (1979). Sociological Paradigms and Organizational Analysis,
  195. (1983). Some methodological pitfalls in attributional research,
  196. (2007). SPSS survival manual: a step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS for Windows,
  197. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  198. (1991). Structure and semantic differential placement of specific causes: Academic causal attributions by Chinese students in Hong Kong,
  199. (1987). Student Approaches to Learning and Studying,
  200. (1986). Student learning and the ‘capacity to benefit’: the performance of non-traditional students in public sector higher education,
  201. (1979). Student learning in a natural setting,
  202. (1984). Student learning processes: an exploratory study in the Philippines, Human Learning,
  203. (1987). Student learning: Research in education and cognitive psychology,
  204. (1991). Students affective characteristics and classroom behaviour,
  205. (1986). Students’ approaches to learning in an innovative medical school: a cross-sectional study,
  206. (1976). Styles and strategies of learning,
  207. (1993). Styles of engagement with learning: multidimensional assessment of their relationship with strategy use and school achievement,
  208. (1981). Styles of teaching and learning: an integrated outline of educational psychology for students, teachers and lecturers.
  209. (1988). Subjective meaning of success in high and low achievers,
  210. (1992). Success and progress in higher education: a structural model of studying,
  211. (1976). Symposium: learning processes and strategies. On qualitative differences in learning. II: Outcomes as a function of the learner’s conception of the task,
  212. (1990). Teacher approval and disapproval in Hong Kong secondary school classrooms,
  213. (1983). Teachers’ perceptions of their pupils: a Hong Kong case study,
  214. (1999). Teaching for quality learning at university,
  215. (1993). Techniques and procedures for assessing cognitive skills,
  216. (2000). The
  217. (1997). The 1997-1998 budget of Hong Kong SAR, Hong Kong: Hong Kong Printing Department.
  218. (1996). The academic achievement of Chinese students,
  219. (1982). The Causal Dimension Scale: A measure of how individuals perceive causes,
  220. (1996). The Chinese learner: Cultural, Psychological and Contextual Influences, Comparative Education Research Centre, Hong Kong and The Australian Council for Education Research Ltd.,
  221. (2001). The closing gender gap in attitudes between boys and girls: A 5-year longitudinal study,
  222. (1992). The color of success: African-American college student outcomes at predominantly White and historically Black public colleges and universities,
  223. (1999). The Community College Story: A Tale of American Innovation,
  224. (1984). The context of learning,
  225. (1983). The correlation between A level grades and degree results in England and Wales, Higher Education,
  226. (1903). The correlation of mental and physical tests,
  227. (1972). The Cult of the Fact,
  228. (1996). The development of measures of individual differences in self-regulatory control and their relationship to academic performance.
  229. (1984). The dimensionality antecedents and study method correlates of the causal attribution of Filipino children,
  230. (1998). The dimensionality of approaches to learning: An investigation with confirmatory factor analysis on the structure of the SPQ and LPQ,
  231. (1994). The effect of teachers evaluative feedback on Chinese students’ perception of ability: A cultural and situational analysis,
  232. (1984). The effects of intervention on deep and surface approaches to learning,
  233. (1989). The how and what of learning physics,
  234. (2001). The influence of culture and context on students’ motivational orientation and performance,
  235. (1996). The intention to both memorise and understand: Another approach to learning? Higher Education,
  236. (1996). The learning and study strategies inventory – high school version,
  237. (1996). The learning approaches of Chinese people: A function of socialization processes and the context of learning?
  238. (1981). The learning processes of Australian university students: investigations of contextual and personological factors,
  239. (1994). The matter of style: manifestations of personality in cognition, learning and teaching,
  240. (1988). The need for study strategy training,
  241. (1984). The older the better? A study of mature student performance
  242. (2001). The paradox of the Chinese learner and beyond,
  243. (1979). The process of student learning,
  244. (1999). The relationship among causal attributions, learning strategies and level of achievement: a Hong Kong Chinese study, Asia Pacific
  245. (2003). The relationship between approaches to learning and reflection upon practice,
  246. (1991). The relationship between causal attributions, learning strategies and the level of achievement: A Hong Kong Chinese Study. Unpublished manuscript,
  247. (2002). The relationship between learning approaches and learning outcomes: a study of Irish accounting students, Accounting Education:
  248. (2005). The relationship between learning approaches to part-time study of management courses and transfer of learning to the workplace,
  249. (1984). The relationship between learning conception, study strategy and learning outcome,
  250. (2007). The revised learning process questionnaire: A Validation of a Western model of students’ study approaches to the South Pacific context using confirmatory factor analysis,
  251. (2001). The revised second level accounting syllabus – a new beginning or old habits retained?,
  252. (2001). The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F,
  253. (1985). The role of meta-learning in study processes,
  254. (1996). The Role of Motivation, Dublin: Authentik Language Learning Resources.
  255. (1974). The study of teaching,
  256. (1976). The teaching-learning process in elementary schools: a synoptic view, Curriculum Inquiry,
  257. (2005). The validity of self-reported grade point averages, class ranks, and test scores: A meta-analysis and review of the literature,
  258. (1991). The-Asian-learner-as-a-rote-learner stereotype: myth or reality?,
  259. (1997). Thinking styles,
  260. (1966). Toward a Theory of Instruction,
  261. (1996). Toward the cross-cultural validation of a Western model of student approaches to learning,
  262. (1981). Traditional patterns of socialization in Chinese society,
  263. (1995). Transferable Skills - Can
  264. (2000). Truth’ and ‘lies’ revisited,
  265. (1999). Understanding learning and teaching:
  266. (2000). University students’ learning approaches in three cultures: an investigation of Biggs’s 3P model.
  267. (2002). University students’ perceptions of the learning environment and academic outcomes: implications for theory and practice,
  268. (1996). Uses and abuses of coefficient alpha,
  269. (2004). Using interviews in researching student learning: a true and valid account?,
  270. (1994). Using the SAT and noncognitive variables to predict the grades and retention of Asian American university students, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development,
  271. (2008). Visible Learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement,
  272. (1994). What are effective schools.
  273. (1993). What do inventories of students’ learning processes really measure? A theoretical review and clarification,
  274. (2002). What do we mean by educational research?
  275. (1992). Why and how do Hong Kong students learn? Using the Learning and Study Process Questionnaires,
  276. (2001). Will Foundation Degrees widen participation?
  277. (1986). Women’s Ways of Knowing: the development of self, voice, and mind,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.