Location of Repository

An environmental case-study of depleted uranium particulate contamination

By Nicholas Selwyn Lloyd


A factory in Colonie (NY, USA) emitted c. 4.8 ± 1 tonnes of depleted uranium (DU) particulates into a suburban environment during 1958 – 1984. These particulates were initially dispersed by prevailing winds. Quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation multicollector (LA-MC-) ICP-MS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microfocus extended X-ray absorption fine structure (μEXAFS) spectroscopy have been used to characterise soils, dusts, vegetation, and individual particles. The concentration range of natural uranium in Colonie soils is 0.7 — 2.1 μg g-1; with total uranium up to 500 ± 40 μg g-1 in DU contaminated soils. Bioturbation can account for dispersal of contaminant from the soil surface. Primary morphologies are described for uraniferous particles from soils and dusts. Polycrystalline, often hollow microscopic uranium oxide spheres are similar to particles produced by DU munitions impacting armoured targets. These survive as UO2+x and U3O8, the least bioaccessible oxides of uranium. Fruit and wood samples were contaminated by DU, demonstrating limited bioavailability. Deviation of 235U/238U from the natural isotope ratio allows detection of DU in soils to at least 5.6 km from site. The average DU ‘end-member’ composition aggregated in soil samples comprises (2.05 ± 0.06) x10-3 235U/238U, (3.2 ± 0.1) x10-5 236U/238U, and (7.1 ± 0.3) x10-6 234U/238U. Individual uranium oxide grains were analysed by LA-MC-ICP-MS, all of which were from DU, with variable isotopic compositions (236U/238U, 235U/238U & 234U/238U). There is no evidence of enriched uranium in Colonie soils and dusts. The isotopic compositions of the Colonie particles can be explained by the inhomogeneous mixing of at least seven batches of tails from the Paducah gaseous diffusion plant, which are identified as the origins of the DU feedstocks used by National Lead Industries at Colonie. LA-MC-ICP-MS is recommended for nuclear forensic applications. This case-study is an attractive analogue for battlefield contamination

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7953

Suggested articles



  1. 120mm Ammunition. World Wide Web Address: http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/land/120.htm (24/01/2006).
  2. (2000). 236U in uranium minerals and standards.
  3. (2003). A 40+ year record of Cd, Hg, Pb, and U deposition in sediments of Patroon Reservoir,
  4. A concise guide to uranium weapons, the science behind them and their threat to human health and the environment. World Wide Web Address:
  5. (1998). A mechanism for combustive heating and explosive dispersal of plutonium.
  6. (1978). A new approach to the estimation of analytical precision.
  7. (1976). A review of the early AP penetrator work at LASL which led to the selection of U- 3/4 Ti alloy.
  8. (1998). A review of the oxidation of uranium dioxide at temperatures below 400 °C.
  9. A simple fitness-for-purpose control chart based on duplicate results obtained from routine test materials. Royal Society of Chemistry, London, Report amc technical brief no.
  10. (1988). A study of radionuclides in vegetation on abandoned uranium tailings.
  11. (1980). A survey of uranium in soils surrounding the NL Bearings Plant. Teledyne Isotopes,
  12. (1964). Abundance of chemical elements in the continental crust: a new table.
  13. (1996). Accumulation of lead in tree trunk bark pockets as pollution time capsules.
  14. Actinide analysis of a depleted uranium penetrator from a 1999 target site in southern Serbia.
  15. (1995). Age-dependent doses to members of the public from intake of radionuclides: Part 4 Inhalation dose coefficients.
  16. (2001). Airborne uranium contamination - as revealed through elemental and isotopic analysis of tree bark.
  17. (1982). Alpha-recoil damage and solution effects in minerals: uranium isotopic disequilibrium and radon release.
  18. (2006). An enigma that only the Israelis can fully explain The Independent, 30/10/2006, World News.
  19. (2005). Analytical atomic spectrometry for nuclear forensics.
  20. (1999). Analytical Methods for Determination of Uranium in Geological and Environmental Materials. In:
  21. (2008). Application of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the isotopic analysis of single uranium particles.
  22. (1997). Aqueous Environmental Geochemistry.
  23. (1960). Aspects of the metallurgy of uranium and constructional metals.
  24. (2007). Assessing depleted uranium (DU) contamination of soil, plants and earthworms at UK weapons testing sites.
  25. (2006). Atomic weights of the elements
  26. (2003). Atomic weights of the elements: Review
  27. (2001). Base map with permission
  28. (1996). Bioturbation as a mechanism for radionuclide transport in soil: Relevance of earthworms.
  29. Bush Preserve Commission 2005. The Albany Pine Bush. World Wide Web Address: http://www.albanypinebush.org/preserve_information/preserve.htm (28/03/2009).
  30. (1978). Ca isotope fractionation on the Earth and other solar system materials.
  31. (2007). Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 1: Effect of soil Lloyd,
  32. (2007). Can we predict uranium bioavailability based on soil parameters? Part 2: Soil solution uranium concentration is not a good bioavailability index.
  33. (2004). Capstone Aerosols: Depleted Uranium Aerosol Doses and Risks. Battelle for U.S.
  34. (2001). Cartoon printed alongside special reporting on depleted uranium, Gulf War and Balkans veteran's illnesses. World Wide Web Address:
  35. (1999). Changes in phytoavailability and concentration of cadmium in soil following long term Salix cropping.
  36. (2004). Characterisation of depleted uranium (DU) from an unfired CHARM-3 penetrator.
  37. (2003). Characterisation of projectiles composed of depleted uranium.
  38. (1987). Characterisation of Uranium Oxides by Micro-Raman Spectroscopy.
  39. (2009). Characterization and speciation of depleted uranium in individual soil particles using microanalytical methods. Spectrochimica Acta -
  40. (2007). Characterization of U/Pu particles originating from the nuclear weapon accidents at Palomares,
  41. (1994). Characterization of uranium oxide aerosols.
  42. (2007). Characterization of uranium particles produced by hydrolysis of UF6 using SEM and SIMS.
  43. (2005). Chemical and mineralogical transformations caused by weathering in anti-tank DU penetrators ("the silver bullets") discharged during the Kosovo war.
  44. (2003). Civil use of depleted uranium.
  45. (1994). Colonie FUSRAP Site - Remedial Action Project. World Wide Web Address: http://www.fusrapcolonie.com
  46. Colonie Interim Storage Site (CISS) Fact Sheet. World Wide Web Address: http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/project/newyork/factsh/pdf/colonie.pdf (11/05/2009).
  47. (1982). Comments to assembly committee on environmental conservation hearing concerning uranium waste disposal by NL Industries,
  48. (1997). Comparison of semiconductor pixel array, phosphor plate, and track-etch detectors for alpha autoradiography.
  49. (1992). Concentration enrichment of sparingly soluble contaminants (U, Th and Pb) by erosion and by soil adhesion to plants and skin.
  50. (2004). Concentration, distribution and characteristics of depleted uranium (DU) in the Kosovo ecosystem: A comparison with the uranium behavior in the environment uncontaminated by DU.
  51. (1996). Contaminant uranium phases and leaching at the Fernald site
  52. (2009). Corrosion and fate of depleted uranium penetrators under progressively anaerobic conditions in estuarine sediment.
  53. (2004). Corrosion of depleted uranium in an arid environment: Soil-geomorphology, SEM/EDS, XRD, and electron microprobe analyses.
  54. (1992). Corrosion of uraninite under oxidizing conditions.
  55. (1999). Dendroanalysis: A tool for biomonitoring environmental pollution?
  56. (2009). Depleted and natural uranium: Chemistry and toxicological effects.
  57. (2007). Depleted and Recyclable Uranium in the United States: Inventories and Options In: GLOBAL
  58. Depleted Uranium
  59. (2002). Depleted Uranium and Health of People in Basrah: Epidemiological Evidence. II: Congenital Anomalies. World Wide Web Address:
  60. (2001). Depleted uranium and radiation-induced lung cancer and leukaemia.
  61. (2006). Depleted Uranium Armour. Presented to: The third depleted uranium conference,
  62. (2008). Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after ~20 years: Implications for human health assessment.
  63. (2004). Depleted uranium dust from fired munitions: Physical, chemical and biological properties.
  64. (2007). Depleted uranium holds fast in Colonie, British researcher finds traces years after weapons plant closed. Times Union,
  65. (2001). Depleted Uranium in Kosovo - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment. United Nations Environmental Programme,
  66. Depleted Uranium in Serbia and Montenegro - Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment in the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. United Nations Environmental Programme,
  67. (2008). Depleted uranium mobility across a weapons testing site: isotopic investigation of porewater, earthworms, and soils.
  68. (2008). Depleted uranium turns earthworms into glowworms. Sunday Herald,
  69. (2003). Depleted Uranium; Deadly, Dangerous and Indiscriminate; The Full Picture. Spokesman, for Campaign Against Depleted Uranium (CADU),
  70. (2006). Depleted uranium: All the questions about DU and Gulf War syndrome are not yet answered.
  71. (2005). Derivation of ecotoxicity thresholds for uranium.
  72. (1996). Derivation of guidelines for uranium residual radioactive material in soil at the Colonie Site,
  73. (2004). Detection of depleted uranium in urine of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War.
  74. Determination of 236U and transuranium elements in depleted uranium ammunition by α-spectrometry and ICP-MS.
  75. (2002). Determination of 236U/238U isotope ratio in contaminated environmental samples using different ICP-MS instruments.
  76. (2006). Determination of 238U/235U, 236U/238U and uranium concentration in urine using SF-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS: an interlaboratory comparison.
  77. (2004). Determination of the 235U content in uranium oxide particles by fission track analysis.
  78. (2002). Determination of the physical and chemical properties, biokinetics, and dose coefficients of uranium compounds handled during nuclear fuel fabrication in France.
  79. (2009). Determination of U isotope ratios in sediments using ICP-QMS after sample cleanup with anion-exchange and extraction chromatography.
  80. (2008). Determining the isotopic compositions of uranium and fission products in radioactive environmental microsamples using laser ablation ICP-MS with multiple ion counters.
  81. (2006). Development of UK tank main armament policy
  82. (2008). Difficulties in using 234U/238U ratios to detect enriched or depleted uranium.
  83. (2007). Digestion of solid materials by hot block mixed acid attack. British Geological Survey,
  84. (1982). Dissolution mechanisms for UO2 and spent fuel.
  85. (2009). Distribution and partitioning of depleted uranium (DU) in soils at weapons test ranges - Investigations combining the BCR extraction scheme and isotopic analysis.
  86. (2009). Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review.
  87. (1979). DRAFT Status report - Environmental and public health evaluation of discharges - National Lead Industries.
  88. (2007). Effects of organic matter on the distribution of uranium in soil and plant matrices.
  89. (2005). Embedded weapons-grade tungsten alloy shrapnel rapidly induces metastatic high-grade rhabdomyosarcomas in F344 rats. Environmental Health Perspectives,
  90. (2000). Evaluating the risk from depleted uranium after the Boeing 747-258F crash in Amsterdam,
  91. (1973). Evaluation of DepletedUranium Alloys for use in Armor-Piercing Projectiles (U). Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory of the
  92. (1985). EXAFS: A new approach to the structure of uranium oxides.
  93. Facility List - Colonie Site (National Lead). World Wide Web Address: http://www.eh.doe.gov/advocacy/faclist/
  94. (1988). Fear of flying.
  95. (2009). Final report of the depleted uranium oversight board, submitted to the undersecretary of state for defence. Depleted uranium oversight board.
  96. Final Status Survey Plan - Colonie FUSRAP Site. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,
  97. (1987). Fission track mapping of uranium in black spruce (Picea Mariana) twigs.
  98. Fitting a linear functional relationship to data with error on both variables.
  99. (2009). for determining uranium isotope ratios in individual particles.
  100. (1998). Fuel powder production from ductile uranium alloys. Presented to: International Meeting on Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors,
  101. (2005). GeoReM: A new geochemical database for reference materials and isotopic standards.
  102. Guidelines for drinking-water quality [electronic resource]:
  103. Gulf War and Health: Updated Literature Review of Depleted Uranium.
  104. Gulf War Illness and the Health of Gulf War Veterans: Scientific Findings and Recommendations.
  105. (1999). Gulf war leaves legacy of cancer.
  106. (1958). Hallam nuclear power facility: fuel cycles.
  107. (2004). Health Consultation: Colonie Site. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,
  108. (1999). Health of UK servicemen who served in Persian Gulf War.
  109. (2006). Healthcare utilization and mortality among veterans of the Gulf War.
  110. (2001). High energy X-ray microscopy for characterisation of fuel particles.
  111. (1984). Historical impact of reactor tails on the Paducah Cascade. Martin Marietta Energy Systems Inc. for the United States Department of Energy,
  112. (1994). Hot particles in accidental releases from Chernobyl and Windscale nuclear installations. The Analyst,
  113. (2008). How war debris could cause cancer.
  114. (2001). I see 300 graves that could bear the headstone: 'died of depleted uranium'. The Independent,
  115. (1977). Improved Heavy-Liquid Separation at Fine Particle Sizes.
  116. (2004). Independent Public Inquiry on Gulf War Illnesses. www.Lloyd-gwii.com,
  117. (2005). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and laser ablation ICP-MS for isotope analysis of long-lived radionuclides.
  118. (2009). Informativeness of morphology analysis of uranium microparticles from industrial dust at nuclear plants. Presented to: GLOBAL
  119. (2008). INSC Material Properties Database.
  120. (2003). Instrument response functions, mass bias and matrix effects in isotope ratio measurements and semi-quantitative analysis by single and multi-collector ICPMS.
  121. (1980). Investigation of Excess Alpha Activity Observed in Recent Air Filter Collections and Other Environmental Samples. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory, General Electric Company,
  122. (1999). Isotopic 'fingerprints' for natural uranium ore samples.
  123. (2003). Isotopic composition and origin of uranium and plutonium in selected soil samples collected in Kosovo.
  124. (1998). Isotopic compositions of the elements
  125. (2004). Kinetics of dissolution of Chernobyl fuel particles in soil in natural conditions.
  126. (2008). Laser ablation assisted ICP-MS as a tool for rapid categorization of seized uranium oxide materials based on isotopic composition determination.
  127. (2005). Leaching of depleted uranium in soil as determined by column experiments.
  128. (2004). Lead and uranium isotopic behavior in diagenetic and epigenetic manganese nodules, Timna Basin, Israel, determined by MC-ICP-MS.
  129. Lebanon Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme,
  130. (2009). Lethal legacy of tank-busting uranium dust. The Guardian, London, 27/06/2007, UK news and analysis,
  131. (2006). Location, identification, and size distribution of depleted uranium grains in reservoir sediments.
  132. (2007). Long-term corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) in soil.
  133. (2001). Management of depleted uranium.
  134. (1992). Map of the CISS vicinity properties characterization surveys.
  135. (1997). Mass balance between emission and deposition of airborne contaminants.
  136. (1983). Mercury Refining Inc.,
  137. (1999). Monitoring historical changes in soil and atmospheric trace metal levels by dendrochemical analysis.
  138. (1978). Morphological characteristics of particulate material formed from high velocity impact of depleted uranium projectiles with armor targets.
  139. (2006). Multi-symptom illnesses, unexplained illness and Gulf War Syndrome.
  140. (1991). Multifunctional catalyst for treating exhaust fumes from internal combustion engines, containing uranium, at least one uranium promotor and at least one precious metal, and its preparation,
  141. (1995). Multiple-scattering calculations of the uranium L3-edge x-ray-absorption near-edge structure.
  142. (2004). National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance data (v.
  143. (2008). Natural fractionation of 238U/235U.
  144. (2005). New Tools for the Analysis of EXAFS: The DL_EXCURV Package. Council for the Central Laboratory of the Research Councils,
  145. (2005). Nuclear Forensic Analysis,
  146. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment,
  147. (2004). Office of the Federal Register
  148. (1970). On the oxide fume formed by the combustion of plutonium and uranium. Inhaled particles,
  149. (1986). Ordered defects in the oxides of uranium.
  150. (2006). Overview of the radiochemical analysis task. Presented to: The third depleted uranium conference,
  151. (1980). Oxidation of Depleted Uranium Penetrators and Aerosol Dispersal at High Temperatures. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory,
  152. (1977). Oxidation of Polycrystalline Uranium Dioxide in Air at Room Temperature.
  153. (2008). Oxidation of UO2(s) in aqueous solution.
  154. (2009). Oxidation of uranium oxide aerosol particles in the near-surface environment.
  155. (2005). Oxidation states of uranium in depleted uranium particles from Kuwait.
  156. (2003). Oxidation states of uranium in DU particles from Kosovo.
  157. (1998). Oxidative dissolution mechanism of uranium dioxide at 25 °C. Mineralogical Magazine,
  158. (1999). Past Recycled Uranium Programs Under Review as Energy Department Investigation Continues. World Wide Web Address:
  159. (2009). Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols II: particle size distributions as a function of time.
  160. (2009). Physicochemical characterization of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols III: morphologic and chemical oxide analyses.
  161. (2009). Pitting corrosion of metals: A review of the critical factors.
  162. (2006). Plant-induced changes in soil chemistry do not explain differences in uranium transfer.
  163. (2001). Plant-uptake of uranium: Hydroponic and soil system studies.
  164. (2009). Precise and accurate isotopic analysis of microscopic uranium-oxide grains using LAMC-ICP-MS.
  165. (1998). Precise and rapid determination of 238U/235U and uranium concentration in soil samples using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry.
  166. (1964). Preparation and properties of plutonium-bearing oxide particulates.
  167. Presented to: The third depleted uranium conference,
  168. (2008). Processing of Used Nuclear Fuel for Recycle World Wide Web Address:
  169. (2007). Production date determination of uranium-oxide materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
  170. (2003). Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium (DU): a general overview.
  171. (2007). PySpline: A modern, crossplatform program for the processing of raw averaged
  172. (2009). Radioactive pollution impacts on human health in Iraq. Presented to: Practical Applications of Medical Geology, British Geological Survey,
  173. (2001). Radioecological survey at selected sites hit by depleted uranium ammunitions during the 1999 Kosovo conflict.
  174. (1164). Radiological Conditions in Areas of Kuwait with Residues of Depleted Uranium. International Atomic Energy Agency,
  175. (2006). Radionuclide determination in environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Spectrochimica Acta -
  176. (1999). Range, energy loss, energy straggling and damage production for α-particles in uranium dioxide.
  177. (2008). Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles.
  178. (2008). Redistribution of uranium and thorium by soil/plant interaction in a recultivated mining area.
  179. (1998). Relationship between isotopic uranium activities and total uranium at various uranium enrichments.
  180. (2006). Reproductive health of Gulf War veterans.
  181. (2006). Research on alternatives to DU. Presented to: The third depleted uranium conference,
  182. (1984). Results of the radiological survey at 1148 Central Avenue - Rear,
  183. (2006). Robert Fisk: Mystery of Israel's secret uranium bomb The Independent,
  184. (1981). Roessleville study: investigation of health effects in a community downwind of uranium oxide effluents.
  185. (1997). Role of alveolar macrophage lysosomes in metal detoxification.
  186. (2008). Role of fungi in the biogeochemical fate of depleted uranium.
  187. (2002). Role of soil properties in phytoaccumulation of uranium.
  188. (1998). Role of uranium speciation in the uptake and translocation of uranium by plants.
  189. (1473). Samson Surface Met Data. World Wide Web Address:
  190. (1992). Separation and preconcentration of uranium from acidic media by extraction chromatography.
  191. (1989). Separation of matter by floatation, WHO
  192. (2007). Short-term soil mixing quantified with fallout radionuclides.
  193. (2004). SIMS analysis of uranium and actinides in microparticles of different origin.
  194. (2000). Soil fauna transport versus radionuclide migration.
  195. (2006). Soil survey geographic database for Albany county,
  196. (2009). Solid state speciation and potential bioavailability of depleted uranium particles from Kosovo and Kuwait.
  197. (2006). Sorption and bioreduction of hexavalent uranium at a military facility by the Chesapeake Bay. Environmental Pollution,
  198. State 2005. Albany County 30 centimeter Resolution Natural Color Orthoimagery. World Wide Web Address: http://www.nysgis.state.ny.us/
  199. (2000). Strategy for Characterizing Transuranics and Technetium Contamination in Depleted UF6 Cylinders.
  200. (1998). Strengthening IAEA safeguards through environmental sampling and analysis.
  201. (1974). Studies on lateral movement of 210Pb in woody stems. Patterns observed in dormant and non dormant stems.
  202. (1997). Study of Chemical State of Toxic Metals during the Life Cycle of Fly Ash Using X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure. X-Ray
  203. (1977). Subcommission on geochronology: Convention on the use of decay constants in geo- and cosmochronology.
  204. (1972). Sur l'existence d'anomalies isotopiques recontrées dans l'uranium du Gabon. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences,
  205. (1972). Sur l'existence dans un passé reculeé d'une réaction en chaîne naturelle de fissions, dans le gisement d'uranium d'Oklo (Gabon). Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des Sciences,
  206. (1982). Surficial Continental Sediments. In:
  207. (2009). Surveillance results of depleted uranium-exposed Gulf War I veterans: Sixteen years of follow-up.
  208. Survey 1999. Hudson Mohawk Sheet.
  209. (2005). Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective. Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source,
  210. (1957). The chemistry of the actinide elements.
  211. (1981). The Company. Nuclear Division,
  212. (2009). The distribution of depleted uranium contamination in
  213. (1994). The effect of solubility on inhaled uranium compound clearance: A review.
  214. (2009). The environmental fate of depleted uranium particulate after 25 years.
  215. (1994). The first detection of naturally-occurring 236U with accelerator mass spectrometry.
  216. (2008). The first environmental science experiments on the new microfocus spectroscopy beamline at Diamond.
  217. (1966). The ignition of uranium.
  218. (2008). The isotopic composition of natural uranium samples-Measurements using the new n(233U)/n(236U) double spike IRMM-3636.
  219. (2009). The morphologies and compositions of depleted uranium particles from an environmental case-study.
  220. (1955). The oxides of uranium. Part VII. The oxidation of uranium dioxide.
  221. (1952). The production of uranium powder by the uranium dioxide-magnesium route.
  222. (2002). The quantitative analysis of depleted uranium isotopes in British, Canadian, and U.S. Gulf War veterans.
  223. (1996). The radioactive earth.
  224. The Royal Society 2002. The health hazards of depleted uranium munitions Part II.
  225. (1991). The statistical distribution of the mean squared weighted deviation.
  226. (1986). The structural determination of fluorite-type oxygen excess uranium oxides using EXAFS spectroscopy.
  227. (2006). The toxicological geochemistry of earth materials: An overview of processes and the interdisciplinary methods used to understand them.
  228. (1996). The United Kingdom chemical database service.
  229. (2009). The use of soil survey data to determine the magnitude and extent of historic metal deposition related to atmospheric smelter emissions across Humberside, UK. Environmental Pollution,
  230. (2005). Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of UO2 fuel oxidation in air at 400-2000 K.
  231. (2001). TIGER/Line Files, Redistricting Census
  232. (2009). Tonko: Study NL site impact. Times Union,
  233. (2001). Toxicity of depleted uranium.
  234. (2006). Toxicological assessments of Gulf War veterans.
  235. (1999). Toxicological Profile for Uranium. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry,
  236. (2008). Transfer of 40K, 238U, 210Pb, and 210Po from soil to plant in various locations in south of Syria.
  237. (2002). Transport of fallout radiocesium in the soil by bioturbation: A random walk model and application to a forest soil with a high abundance of earthworms.
  238. (2006). UK radiation jump blamed on Iraq shells. The Sunday Times,
  239. (2009). University of Leicester PhD thesis
  240. (2007). Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.
  241. (2009). Uptake of munitions-derived depleted uranium by three grass species.
  242. (2002). Uranium and thorium isotopic and concentration measurements by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
  243. (1971). Uranium concentrations in surface air at rural and urban localities within New York State.
  244. (2005). Uranium contents and 235U/238U atom ratios in soil and earthworms
  245. (2005). Uranium distribution and cycling in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) growing on a revegetated U-mining heap.
  246. (1988). Uranium in humans.
  247. (2000). Uranium in Natural Environments. In:
  248. (1962). Uranium Metallurgy.
  249. (2003). Uranium oxide weathering: spectroscopy and kinetics.
  250. (2003). Uranium speciation in plants.
  251. (2008). Uranium's undoing.
  252. (2007). Urinary isotopic analysis in the UK Armed Forces: No evidence of depleted uranium absorption in combat and other personnel in Iraq. Occup Environ Med.
  253. (1999). Use of secondary ion mass spectrometry in nuclear forensic analysis for the characterization of plutonium and highly enriched uranium particles.
  254. (2009). Using ArcGIS Geostatistical Analyst.
  255. (1997). Vertical migration of fallout 137Cs in agricultural soils from Southern Chile.
  256. (2000). Web Address:
  257. World Nuclear Association 2009. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle. World Wide Web Address:
  258. (2005). WRPLOT View 5.9.0. Lakes Environmental Software,
  259. (1988). X-Ray Absorption; Principles, Applications; Techniques of EXAFS, SEXAFS, and XANES. Chemical Analysis: A series of monographs on analytical chemistry,
  260. (2009). X-ray irradiation, at the Diamond Light Source.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.