Location of Repository

Parent and teacher based epidemiological survey of psychiatric morbidity amongst school children in Karachi, Pakistan

By Sajida Hassan


According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), about 10-20% of children\ud worldwide have mental health problems. Substantial research literature, mostly\ud from developed and developing countries, suggests a complex socioeconomic\ud framework of risk factors operating in multiple contexts that are central to\ud children’s lives, namely family, school, and neighbourhood. There is limited\ud evidence on child mental health problems and associated risk factors in Pakistan.\ud The aim of this study was two fold, to estimate the prevalence of common\ud psychiatric disorders as well as to determine the socioeconomic risk factors of\ud emotional and behavioural problems among Pakistani school children.\ud A two-phase cross sectional survey of 5-11 year-old children attending\ud mainstream public, private and community schools in Karachi was carried out.\ud In the first screening phase, broad morbidity rates were measured using the\ud Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). A total of 968 parents and 793\ud teachers participated in the study. In the second phase, 100 children were\ud randomly selected for a detailed diagnostic interview using the Kiddie Schedule\ud of Affective Disorders & Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS--IV-R).\ud Results indicated a weighted prevalence of 17% common child psychiatric\ud disorder among primary school children in Pakistan. The pattern of psychiatric\ud disorders found in Karachi resembled those identified in other parts of the\ud world, with a preponderance of behavioural disorders, followed by anxiety and\ud mood disorders. Logistic regression analysis reported that poor physical health,\ud male gender, urban neighbourhood, head of family other than father figure,\ud government and community school type, lower teacher’s qualifications, less\ud teaching experience, poor child school attendance and academic performance\ud were significantly associated with likely child mental health problems in\ud Pakistan.\ud This exploratory study suggests estimates of child psychiatric disorders in\ud Pakistan are slight higher than other countries. It also highlights the importance\ud of socio- economic determinants of child mental health problems and points out\ud the necessity of planning and establishing service networks to meet children’s\ud mental health needs

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2010
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7949

Suggested articles



  1. (1967). A children’s behaviour questionnaire.
  2. (2001). A Dictionary of Epidemiology (4th ed).
  3. (1970). A Neuropsychiatric Study of Childhood. Clinics
  4. (2000). A new look at international research ethics.
  5. (2003). A school mental health program in India.
  6. (2003). A systematic review of universal approaches to mental health promotion in schools.
  7. (2002). Adolescent problem behaviour and depressed mood: Risk and protection within and across social contexts.
  8. (1995). Advisory Service
  9. (1989). An epidemiological study of behavioural problems in school children in urban areas of Beijing.
  10. (2007). An Introduction to Categorical Data Analysis (Second Edition)
  11. (2006). Annotation: Pathways to care for children with mental health problems
  12. (2009). Annual Report 2007-08. Retrieved on 17th
  13. (1998). Antisocial Behaviour by Young People.
  14. (1994). APPENDIX A (Behaviour disorders) Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) consists of a pattern of negativistic, hostile, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth Edition. Copyright
  15. (2002). Are non-respondents to health surveys less healthy than respondents.
  16. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas.
  17. (1975). Attainment and adjustment in two geographical areas. III: Some factors accounting for area differences.
  18. (2004). Australian data and psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Australian and New Zealand
  19. (1997). Behaviour disorders among urban schoolboys in south-western Saudi Arabia.
  20. (2005). Behavioural problems in Sri Lankan schoolchildren: Associations with socio-economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion.
  21. (2003). Brief report: training general practitioners (GPs) in the identification and management of adolescent depression within the consultation: a feasibility study.
  22. (2008). British Social Attitudes: The 24th report. London: National Centre for Social Research,
  23. (2000). Calculating ordinal regression models in SAS and S-plus.
  24. (2005). Capacity of Tier 2/3 CAMHS and service specification: A model to enable evidence based service development.
  25. (2002). Causes and effects of teacher conflict-inducing attitudes towards pupils: a path analysis model.
  26. (2009). Change in knowledge of ADHD following a five day teachers training program: pilot study.
  27. (2001). Characteristics of children and parents attending a primary mental health service.
  28. (2000). Child and adolescent mental health problems in primary care.
  29. (2001). Child and adolescent mental health service use in Finland. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  30. (2008). Child and adolescent mental health services in Pakistan: Current situation, future directions and possible solutions.
  31. (2005). Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services: Strategy, Planning, Delivery, and Evaluation.
  32. (2001). Child and adolescent mental health training for primary care staff.
  33. (2002). Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Wiley-Blackwell,
  34. (2005). Child and adolescent psychopathology in a developing country: testing the validity of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (Urdu Version).
  35. (1993). Child and adolescent psychopathology research: Problems and prospects for the 1990s.
  36. (2000). Child Care Research Network.
  37. (2007). Child development: Risk factors for adverse outcomes in developing countries.
  38. (2002). Child Labour: Vast problem whose effects on children's health remain largely unstudied.
  39. (2007). Child mental health is everybody’s business: The prevalence of contact with public sector services by type of disorder among British school children in a three year period. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,
  40. (2000). Child mental health problems in Arab children: application of the strength and difficulties questionnaire.
  41. (2007). Child mental health services across the world: Opportunities for shared learning.
  42. (2003). Child psychiatric disorders among primary mental health service attenders.
  43. (1999). Child psychology across cultures.
  44. (1981). Childhood mental disorders in primary health care: results of observations in four developing countries.
  45. (2004). Children and their grandparents at home.
  46. (2008). Children and Young People in Mind: The final report.
  47. (2005). Children with complex mental health problems: Needs, costs and predictors over one year. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,
  48. (2003). Children with psychiatric disorders: the Al- Ain community psychiatric survey.
  49. (2000). Children's adjustment in conflicted marriage and divorce: a decade review of research.
  50. (2006). Children's health services in a system of care: Patterns of mental health, primary and specialty use. Public Health Reports,
  51. (2007). Children’s perceptions of neighbourhood trustworthiness and safety and their mental health.
  52. (2007). Chronic physical illness and mental health in children. Results from a large-scale population study.
  53. (1991). College teacher misbehaviours: What students don’t like about what teachers say and do.
  54. (2003). Commentary: Two-phase surveys. A death is announced; no flowers please.
  55. (1999). Comparing the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and Child Behaviour Checklist: Is small beautiful?
  56. Comparing the Urdu version of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) in a sample of 5-11 year old school children in Karachi, Pakistan.
  57. (1997). Consequences of Growing Up Poor.
  58. (1989). Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  59. (2001). Correlates of mental health service utilization and unmet need among a sample of male adolescents.
  60. (2009). Cultural competence in child psychiatric practice.
  61. (2000). Culture, health systems and psychiatric disorder.
  62. (2002). Deliberate self harm in adolescents: self report survey in schools in England.
  63. (2005). Denizens of Alien Worlds: A Study
  64. (1998). Depressed adolescents grown up.
  65. (2000). Depression and social stress in Pakistan.
  66. (2003). Detecting emotional and behavioural problems in paediatric clinics. Child: Care, Health and Development,
  67. (2001). Developing a weighting and grossing system for the GHS.
  68. (2009). Developing child and adolescent mental health services in a low income country: A global partnership model.
  69. (2000). Developing child mental health services in developing countries.
  70. (2002). Developing models of balanced mental health care: the case of Pakistan.
  71. (2004). Developing the Emotionally Literate School.
  72. (1982). Development of a structured psychiatric interview for children: agreement between child and parent on individual symptoms.
  73. (2003). Development of mental health services in Pakistan.
  74. (2007). Developmental disabilities modification of the Children’s Global Assessment Scale.
  75. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. (DSM-IV),
  76. (2005). Diagnostic classification systems.
  77. (1991). Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents DICA-R.
  78. (2002). Do places matter? socioeconomic disadvantage and behaviour problems of children in Canada.
  79. (1987). DSM-III disorder in pre-adolescent children.
  80. (2003). Education and Employment (DfEE)
  81. (2003). Effective Joint Working between CAMHS and Schools. DfES Research Report 412. UK: The Mental Health Foundation.
  82. (2000). Effectiveness of school-based curriculum suicide prevention program for adolescents.
  83. (1999). Effects of poverty on academic failure and delinquency in boys: A change and process model approach.
  84. (2003). Efficiency of two-phase designs for prevalence estimation.
  85. (2002). Emergence of gender differences in depression during adolescence: National panel results from three countries.
  86. (2001). Emerging perspectives on mental health.
  87. (1992). Emotional and behavioural problems among school children in Pakistan.
  88. (2002). Emotional problems in Palestinian children living in a war zone: a cross-sectional study.
  89. (2003). Encyclopaedia of Community (Vols 4). Thousand Oaks,
  90. (2000). Entering the 21st Century: The Changing Development Landscape. World Development Report 1999/2000.
  91. (2005). Epidemiological study of child & adolescent psychiatric disorders in urban and rural areas of Bangalore, India.
  92. (2000). Epidemiology of ADHD in school-age children.
  93. (1996). Epidemiology of childhood disorders in a cross cultural context.
  94. (1977). Estimate of mental ill health in children in an urban community.
  95. (1988). Estimates of the prevalence of childhood maladjustment in a community survey in Puerto- Rico.
  96. (2002). Estimating disease prevalence from two-phase surveys with non-response at the second phase.
  97. (2006). Estimation from samples.
  98. (2002). Ethical issues for collaborative research in developing countries.
  99. (2008). Ethical issues in psychiatric research on children and adolescents.
  100. (2001). Ethical issues in the design and conduct of clinical trials in developing countries.
  101. (2003). Exploring risk factors for the emergence of children's mental health problems.
  102. (2000). Facilitating children's voices in the community and government. In
  103. (2003). Factors associated with adolescent mental health service need and utilization.
  104. (2002). Father's child care and children's behaviour problems.
  105. (2001). Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS).
  106. (2001). Financial cost of social exclusion: Follow-up study of antisocial children into adulthood.
  107. (2000). from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml
  108. (2009). from http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/bkgd.shtml World Health Organization. (2000b). The State of the World’s Children 2000, A vision for the 21st century.
  109. (2007). from http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_30177.html UNICEF.
  110. (2008). from http://www.worldbank.org/gender/prr Finney,
  111. (2004). From science to practice: The flexible use of evidence-based treatments in clinical settings.
  112. (2009). from, Government of Pakistan.
  113. (2002). Gender, poverty, and postnatal depression: A study of mothers in
  114. (2007). Global Health Partnership: The UK contribution to health in developing countries. Department of Health Lupton,
  115. (2001). Glossary: Causality in public health science.
  116. (2000). Good for mental health - An academy for the social sciences.
  117. (2002). Grandmother Co residence and the Life Course of Young Mothers: Understanding the Associations. Unpublished manuscript,
  118. (2000). Growing Up with Unemployment: A Study of Parental Unemployment and Children's
  119. (1999). Health promoting schools and health promotion in schools: two systematic reviews.
  120. (2000). Historical development and present status of the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS).
  121. (2005). How attrition impacts the internal and external validity of longitudinal research.
  122. (2002). How money matters for young children’s development: Parental Investments and family processes.
  123. (2005). How the environment affects mental health.
  124. (2000). Human Resources Performance Framework,
  125. (2008). Impacts of urbanization process on mental health.
  126. (1990). Impairment in the epidemiology measurement of childhood psychopathology in the community.
  127. (2001). In patient diagnostic assessments: 2. Interrater reliability and outcomes of structured vs. unstructured interviews.
  128. (2000). Increasing identification of psychosocial problems:
  129. (2000). Individual and contextual effects on mental health status in Sao Paulo,
  130. (2000). Integration of mental health care into primary care: Demonstration cost-outcome study in India and Pakistan.
  131. (1995). Inter-rater reliability of global assessment of functioning in a clinical setting.
  132. (1992). International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision.
  133. (2008). Introduction of a child and adolescent mental health link worker: Education and health staff focus group findings.
  134. (2001). Investigations of temperament at 3–7 years: The Children’s Behaviour Questionnaire.
  135. (2001). Is there a role of child mental health services in countries like Pakistan.
  136. (2007). Lost in translation. Methodological considerations in crosscultural research.
  137. (1995). Madrasash Education.
  138. (2007). Making it work: low-income working mothers' involvement in their children's education, digest version. Harvard family research project Harvard graduate school of education. (Online version).
  139. (2003). Making psychiatric epidemiology useful: The contribution of epidemiology to government policy.
  140. (1991). Manual for the Child Behaviour Checklist and
  141. (1983). Manual for the child behaviour checklist and revised child behaviour profile.
  142. (2005). Maternal employment and child development: a fresh look using newer methods.
  143. (2004). Measuring depression in Canada's elderly Chinese population: Use of a community screening instrument.
  144. (2005). Mental health care for children and adolescents worldwide: A review.
  145. (2005). Mental health care for children: The needs of African countries.
  146. (2002). Mental Health Handbook for Schools. London: Routledge Falmer,
  147. (2000). Mental health in paediatric settings: Distribution of disorders and factors related to service use.
  148. (2001). Mental health in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Achievements and areas of need.
  149. (2005). Mental health of children and young people in Great Britain. Office for National Statistics (ONS).
  150. (2006). Mental health of children with learning disabilities,
  151. (2002). Mental health of homeless children and their families.
  152. (2007). Mental health of young people: A global public-health challenge.
  153. (2007). Mental health policy for children and adolescents in developing countries.
  154. (1998). Mental Health problems in school going children in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates: Prevalence and risk factors.
  155. (2007). Mental Health: The impact of culture and diversity. Pakistan Association for mental Health,
  156. (2001). Mothers at work: Effects on children’s well-being.
  157. (2004). Multi-Agency Collaboration: The Challenges for CAMHS.
  158. (2004). National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services: Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services.
  159. (2005). National Service Framework: Its principles are relevant to all countries.
  160. (2001). Neighbourhood level and individual level SES effects on child problem behaviour: a multilevel analysis.
  161. (2003). Neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and behavioural problems from late childhood into early adolescence.
  162. (2000). NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (NIMH DISCIV): Description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses.
  163. (2001). Non-response and related factors in a nation-wide health survey.
  164. (2005). Non-response bias in a survey of patient perceptions of hospital care.
  165. (2008). Non-traditional lifestyles and prevalence of mental disorders in adolescents in
  166. (2003). Nuffield Council on Bioethics
  167. (2008). On the frontline: Teachers as active observers of pupils' mental health.
  168. (2007). One-stage design is empirically more powerful than two-stage design for family-based genomewide association studies. Bio-Medical Central Proceedings,
  169. (1987). Ontario child health study- six month prevalence of disorders and rates of services utilization.
  170. (1995). Optimal cut-off points for depression rating scales in adolescent depression (abstract).
  171. (2002). Optimal designs of two-stage studies for estimation of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value.
  172. Organization.
  173. (2007). Paediatric mental health in Pakistan: a neglected avenue.
  174. (2003). Parental perception of problems and mental health service use for hyperactivity.
  175. (2002). Parental problem recognition and child mental health service use.
  176. (2004). Partnerships in mental health care possible without multidisciplinary teams.
  177. (2003). Pathways into and through care: Patterns of child and adolescent mental health service use. Psychiatric Services,
  178. (2002). Post traumatic stress disorder among adolescent earthquake victims in Taiwan.
  179. (2007). Post traumatic stress disorder in childhood.
  180. (2006). Poverty and Adolescent Mental Health: The Role of Maternal Psychological Resources.
  181. (2000). Poverty and Child Health.
  182. (2003). Poverty and common mental disorders in developing countries.
  183. (2001). Poverty, race/ethnicity, and psychiatric disorder: A study of rural children.
  184. (2004). Poverty, social inequality and mental health.
  185. (2007). Poverty, social stress & mental health.
  186. (2006). Practical Issues in Calculating the Sample Size for Prevalence Studies.
  187. (2000). Predicting type of psychiatric disorders form Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) scores in child mental health clinics in London and Dhaka.
  188. (2000). Predictors of psychopathology in young adults referred to mental health services in childhood or adolescence.
  189. (2008). Predictors of service use for mental health problems among British school children.
  190. (2009). Prerequisites for global child and adolescent mental health.
  191. (2001). Prevalence and correlates of childhood fears in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates.
  192. (1998). Prevalence and correlates of mental retardation among children in Karachi, Pakistan.
  193. (2003). Prevalence and development of psychiatric disorders in childhood and adolescence.
  194. (2004). Prevalence of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in southeast Brazil.
  195. (1989). Prevalence of childhood and adolescent depression in the community: Ontario child health study.
  196. (2009). Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among 6-12 year old children in Egypt. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  197. (2009). Prevalence of emotional and behavioural problems among primary school children in Karachi, Pakistan -multi informant survey. Indian Journal of Paediatrics. (Early online version).
  198. (2005). Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Yemeni children and its Relationship with Harsh Disciplinary Practice. Unpublished PhD thesis,
  199. (1998). Prevalence of psychopathology among children and adolescent.
  200. (2002). Prevention science and positive youth development: Competitive or cooperative frameworks?
  201. (2002). Primary care referral of children with psychosocial problems.
  202. (2000). Primary care treatment of paediatric psychosocial problems: A study from paediatric research in office settings and ambulatory sentinel practice network.
  203. (2006). Primary mental health care in rural Punjab, Pakistan: Providers, and user perspectives of the effectiveness of treatments. Social science and medicine,
  204. (2008). Promoting child and adolescent mental health in low and middle income countries.
  205. (2000). Promoting Mental, Emotional and Social Health. A Whole School Approach.
  206. (1989). Promotion of mental health through school health program.
  207. (1975). Psychiatric disorder and intellectual impairment in childhood.
  208. (2002). Psychiatric disorder, impairment and services use in rural African American and White Youth.
  209. (1994). Psychiatric disorders in a paediatrics primary care clinic.
  210. (2007). Psychiatric disorders in Norwegian 8- to 10-year-olds: An epidemiological survey of prevalence, risk factors, and service use.
  211. (2003). Psychiatric morbidity and substance use in young people aged 13–15 years: results from the child and adolescent survey of mental health.
  212. (2000). Psychiatric morbidity in children - A preliminary analysis.
  213. (2007). Psychiatric rating scales in Urdu: A systematic review.
  214. (1990). Psycho-social Risk Factors for Depression in Pakistani Women. Academic dissertation for FCPS,
  215. (1970). Psychological development: Predictions from infancy.
  216. (2002). Psychological Effect upon the Children of Working and Nonworking Mothers in Different Family Structure. Unpublished PhD dissertation.
  217. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Farsi translation of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-present and lifetime version (K-SADS-PL). BioMedical Central Psychiatry.
  218. (2001). Psychometric properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire.
  219. (2008). Quality Improvement Network for Multi-Agency CAMHS Annual Report (Cycle 2). Royal College of Psychiatrists Centre for Quality Improvement,
  220. (2001). Quantitative Data Analysis with SPSS Release 15 for Windows.
  221. (2001). Questionnaire screening for mental health problems in Bangladeshi children: A preliminary study. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  222. (1998). Randomized trial of impact of school mental health programme in rural Rawalpindi,
  223. (2001). Regression Modelling Strategies
  224. (2006). Representativeness in population-based studies: A detailed description of non-response in a Danish cohort study.
  225. (1978). Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders.
  226. (2007). Research with Young Children: Contemplating Methods and Ethics.
  227. (2000). Research with young children: Some ethical considerations.
  228. (2000). Researches psychiatric diagnostic interviews for children and adolescents.
  229. (1996). Researching children: Methods and ethics.
  230. (2001). Revisiting the factor structure of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: United States.
  231. (2004). Risk factors, prevalence, and treatment of anxiety and depressive disorders in Pakistan: systematic review.
  232. (2004). Royal College of Psychiatrists.
  233. (2005). Russian child mental health. A cross-sectional study of prevalence and risk factors.
  234. (2003). Sampling Error Estimation for Survey Data. Technical report on surveys in developing and transition countries, United Nations statistics division.
  235. (1999). Sampling of Populations: Methods and Applications.
  236. SAS version 9.0, online documentation. Research Triangle Institute.
  237. Save the Children (2000) State of the World's Mothers.
  238. (1999). Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation. London: Stationery Office.
  239. (1996). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Aged Children - Present Version, Version IVR
  240. (2003). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for school-age children-present episode (KSADS-P): A pilot inter-rater reliability study for Greek children and adolescents.
  241. (1997). Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children - Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL): initial reliability and validity data.
  242. (2003). School consultation: A review of research on issues unique to school environment.
  243. (2000). School drop-out: A public health approach for India.
  244. (2001). School dropout and conduct disorder in Brazilian elementary school students.
  245. (2006). School-age children raised by their grandparents: Problems and solutions.
  246. (2000). School-based mental health services: A research review.
  247. (2004). School-based mental health services.
  248. (2009). Screening for childhood mental health problems: outcomes and early identification.
  249. (2007). Screening of emotional and behavioural problems amongst 5-11 year old school children
  250. (2009). Selection bias due to nonresponse in a health survey among patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
  251. (2005). Service contacts among the children participating in the British child and adolescent mental health surveys. Child and Adolescent Mental Health,
  252. (2003). Service over 18 months among a nationally representative sample of British children with psychiatric disorder.
  253. (2003). Service utilisation by children with conduct disorders.
  254. (2009). Service utilization by children with conduct disorders: findings from the 2004 Great Britain child mental health survey. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, (Early online publication).
  255. (2001). Sex Differences in Antisocial Behaviour: Conduct Disorder, Delinquency and Violence in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study. Cambridge:
  256. (2007). Sindh Education Foundation. Retrieved on 28th June,
  257. (2002). Social and Cognitive Competence in Dual Working Families. Unpublished M.phil thesis.
  258. (2009). Social capital and childhood psychiatric disorders: A cross-sectional study.
  259. (2001). Social dimensions of child mental health in developing countries.
  260. (2001). Social factors associated with child mental health problems in Brazil: cross sectionals survey.
  261. (2005). Social justice and school improvement: improving the quality of schooling in the poorest neighbourhoods.
  262. (1998). Socioeconomic status, standard of living and neurotic disorder.
  263. (1998). Somatic and psychological models of common mental disorders in India.
  264. (2001). Some practical guidelines for effective sample size determination.
  265. (2008). Stata Statistical Software: Release 9.0. College Station TX:
  266. (1994). Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth Edition. Copyright
  267. (2006). STATISTICS: Methods and Applications Book: A comprehensive reference for science, industry, and data mining.
  268. (2006). Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: Research and clinical applications.
  269. (1997). Stress and psychiatric disorder in rural Punjab. A community survey.
  270. (2000). Stress and psychiatric disorder in urban Rawalpindi.
  271. (2007). Study on child labour in automobile workshops of Peshawar, Pakistan.
  272. (1998). Suicide, deprivation, and unemployment: record linkage study.
  273. (2002). Support across two generations.
  274. (2002). Symptoms and deviant behaviour among 8 year olds as predictors of referral for psychiatric evaluation by age 12. Psychiatric Services,
  275. (1994). Syndromes of Attention Deficit and over activity.
  276. (2001). Systems development of child mental health services in developing countries.
  277. (2007). Tackling Child Poverty and Promoting the Social Inclusion of Children: A
  278. (1993). Teacher-centre and school-based models of collegiality & professional development: Case studies of the teacher’s resource centre and the Aga Khan school systems in Karachi, Pakistan.
  279. (1991). Teachers’ descriptions of experiences with their own teachers that made a significant impact on their lives.
  280. (2001). Teachers’ perspectives on the family backgrounds of children at risk.
  281. (1995). Teaching Teachers to Teach in Hoodbhoy Educational and the State: Fifty Years of Pakistan. Karachi, Pakistan:
  282. (2006). The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analysis of follow-up studies.
  283. (1985). The assessment of affective disorders in children and adolescents by semi structured interview: Test-retest reliability of the schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children, present episode version.
  284. (1994). The Chartes study: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders amongst French school aged children.
  285. (1995). The Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment (CAPA).
  286. (1994). The Children’s Global Assessment Scale (C-GAS) in clinical practice: an empirical evaluation.
  287. (2000). The development and well being assessment: description and initial validation of an instigating assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology.
  288. (1982). The development of a child assessment interview for research and clinical use.
  289. (2002). The diagnostic classification, epidemiology and crosscultural validity of ADHD,
  290. (2004). The DSM-IV rates of child
  291. (2000). The effect of extended family living on the mental health of three generations within two Asian communities.
  292. (1997). The effect of poverty on child health and development. Annul Review Public Health,
  293. (1995). The explanatory models and phenomenology of common mental disorder in Harare,
  294. (2001). The exploratory models of mental health amongst low-income women and health care practitioners
  295. (2004). The global absence of a child and adolescent mental health policy.
  296. (1996). The Great Smoky Mountains study of youth: goals, design, methods, and the prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders.
  297. (1994). The ICD 10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: diagnostic criteria for research.
  298. (2005). The Ilha de Mare study: A survey of child mental health problems in a predominantly African-Brazilian rural community. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  299. (2006). The impact of fathers' physical and psychosocial work conditions on attempted and completed suicide among their children.
  300. (2001). The impact of involuntary job loss on subsequent alcohol consumption by older workers:
  301. (2004). The National Service Framework (NSF) for children, young people and maternity services: Developing the evidence base. Child: Care, Health and Development,
  302. (2000). The neighbourhood they live in: The effects of neighbourhood residence on child and adolescent outcomes.
  303. (1996). The NIMH diagnostic interview schedules for children version 2.3 (DISC-2-3): Description, acceptability, prevalence rates and performance in the MECA study.
  304. (1989). The Ontario Child Health Study: correlates of disorder.
  305. (1999). The prevalence and association of psychiatric disorders in children in Kerla south India.
  306. (2005). The prevalence of child-psychiatric disorders among 8–9-year-old children in Danish mainstream schools.
  307. (2008). The prevalence of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders among 7 to 10 year old Yemeni schoolchildren. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  308. (2006). The prevalence of mental health problems in Ethiopian child laborers.
  309. (2000). The prevalence, classification and treatment of mental disorders among attenders of native faith healers in rural Pakistan. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  310. (2003). The primary mental health worker within child and adolescent mental health services.
  311. (2004). The problem of non-response in sample surveys.
  312. (2004). The relative importance of child, family, school and neighbourhood correlates of childhood psychiatric disorder. Social Psychiatry Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  313. (2004). The reliability and validity of Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Present and Lifetime Version- Korean version (K-SADS-PL-K).
  314. (2001). The role of community advisory boards: involving communities in the informed consent process.
  315. (2000). The role of economic pressure in the lives of parents and their adolescents: The family stress model.
  316. (2003). The role of father involvement in children's later mental health.
  317. (2004). The role of parental burden in child mental health service use: longitudinal study.
  318. (2003). The school: The front line of mental health development?
  319. (2000). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents.
  320. (2003). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version.
  321. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note.
  322. (2004). The Strengths and Difficulties Self-Report Questionnaire as a screening instrument in Norwegian community samples.
  323. (1999). The Structure of Social Disparities in Education: Gender and Wealth. Policy research report on gender and development working paper 5.
  324. (2008). The transition to middle school is associated with changes in the developmental trajectory of ADHD symptomatology in young adolescents with ADHD.
  325. (2001). The treatment of child and adolescent mental health problems in primary care: A systematic review.
  326. (1997). The Virginia twin study of adolescent behavioural development: influences of age, sex and impairment of rates of disorders.
  327. (2003). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American condition? World Psychiatry,
  328. (2008). Tier 4 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) - Inpatient care, day services and alternatives:
  329. (2005). Training CAMHS professionals in developing countries: An Indian case study.
  330. (2007). Training health professionals for child and adolescent mental health care in Nigeria: A qualitative analysis.
  331. (2005). Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of assessment instruments used in psychological research with children and families.
  332. (2003). Translation and cultural adaptation of health questionnaires.
  333. (1996). Translation and cultural adaptation of the survey instruments.
  334. (2002). Translation, Validation and Cross-cultural Adaptation into Portuguese Language of the ‘King’s Health Questionnaire.’ Heidelberg: International continence society annual conference.
  335. (2007). UN Millennium Project 2000, Overview Report.
  336. (1995). Unemployment and mental health.
  337. (1996). Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality.
  338. (1988). Urbanism and child mental health.
  339. (1992). Use of ROC analysis in psychiatry. Revue de psychiatrie clinique biologique et thérapeutique,
  340. (2003). Using sex differences in psychopathology to study causal mechanisms: unifying issues and research strategies.
  341. (2000). Using Strength and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders in a community sample.
  342. (1997). Validity parameters of the Children's Depression Inventory in pre-adolescent outpatients (abstract),
  343. (1989). Videotape reliability of the third edition of the K-SADS.
  344. (1984). Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. Circle Pines Mumesota,
  345. (2008). Weighting the social surveys Economic and Social Data Service (ESDS). Retrieved
  346. (2004). What are effective strategies to support pupils with emotional and behavioural difficulties (EBD) in mainstream primary schools? Findings from a systematic review of research.
  347. (1996). What if we could eliminate child poverty? The theoretical effect on child psychosocial morbidity. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology,
  348. (2003). When adolescents disagree with their mothers: CBCL–YSR discrepancies related to maternal depression & adolescent self-esteem, Child: Care, Health, and Development,
  349. (2003). Where Next? New Directions in In-patient Mental Health Services for Young People.
  350. (2006). WHO child atlas project.
  351. (2004). Women's mental health in Pakistan.
  352. (2005). World Health Organization
  353. (2007). World Population Highlights: Key Findings from PRB's 2007. World Population Data Sheet. Retrieved 1st
  354. (2009). Youth mental health in a populous city of the developing world: Results from the Mexican Adolescent Mental Health Survey.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.