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The Effects of Youth Unemployment on the Transition from School

By A.J. Furlong

Abstract

Much of the literature on the transition of young people from school was undertaken at a time when employment opportunities for young people were quantitively and qualititavely different from the 1980's. This thesis uses data collected in a longitudinal study in order to examine the youth transition in the 1980's. The young people whose experiences are studied, follow various post-sixteen routes. Not all the young people in this study have direct personal experience of unemployment, yet high levels of youth unemployment in a local labour market are shown to have far reaching consequences.\ud On an empirical level, this thesis makes a number of contributions to sociological and social-psychological knowledge of the transitional period. It examines the relationship between schooling and the local labour market, paying particular attention to the development of occupational aspirations. It looks at the development of work attitudes and shows how young people may develop "image maintenance" strategies in order to maintain their aspirations in the face of adversity.\ud On a theoretical level, the thesis enhances sociological understanding by using an experiencial dimension to bridge the gap between the structural approaches which are often neglectful of the effects of human action and interpretive approaches which are sometimes guilty of neglecting the very real constraints on action. In doing so, it goes some way towards bringing together theoretical traditions which have long been seen as irreconcilable

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 1987
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7938

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Citations

  1. (1f has left this job) Why did you leave this job ?
  2. (Ask for jobs other than first job) Are there any skills that you use in this job which you learnt in a previous job ?
  3. (Girls only) Do you think your parents see education as being just as important for girls as for boys ?
  4. (Girls only) If you get married will you continue working ?
  5. (If 'yes) Why ?
  6. (If accepted a job other than that originally wanted ) what made you change your mind ?
  7. (If currently unemployed) Do you ever hear of any jobs ?
  8. (If currently unemployed) What type of work are you looking for ?
  9. (If currently working) Would you have returned to school in September if you hadn't a job to go to ? XIII Section 1: 4 (To be answered by everyone)
  10. (If friends are working) What sort of jobs do they have ?
  11. (If hard) How was that ?
  12. (If has not applied for any jobs) If you had seen a suitable job, would you have applied for it ?
  13. (If has talked to a carees officer at all) Looking back now, how good do you think the careers advice you got was ?
  14. (If in full-time Further Education) Why is it that you decided to go to college rather than stay on at school ? Section 1: 2 (To be answered by all those who are still in full-time education.
  15. (If in the same stream for all or most subjects) What stream/set was this ?
  16. (If left school) Have you had any contact with the Careers Officer since you left school ?
  17. (If left school) How much board, if any, do you have to give your parents?
  18. (If left) When did you leave school ?
  19. (If no) What made you change your mind ?
  20. (If no) What made you change your mind ? xxv
  21. (If no) Why did you refuse the previous offer ?
  22. (If no) Why do you think that was ?
  23. (If no) Why was that ?
  24. (If not working in aspired job) When we first met, you said you would like to work as a, do you still want to do that ?
  25. (If not) Who is it you think is treated unfairly ?
  26. (If not) Why did you change your mind ?
  27. (If not) Why do you think that is ?
  28. (If original aspiration not mentioned) At one time you wanted to work as a0. would you still like to do this ?
  29. (If restrictions) What time must you be in by ?
  30. (If unemployed for a second or subsequent time) Is/was being unemployed any different the second time around ?
  31. (If working) What sort of work do they do ?
  32. (If yes) Did you apply for any of the jobs they told you about ?
  33. (If yes) Did you contact them or did they contact you ?
  34. (If yes) Did you try to go back to school or go to college ?
  35. (If yes) From whom ?
  36. (If yes) How ?
  37. (If yes) How did they help you ?
  38. (If yes) how hard would you say you've been looking ?
  39. (If yes) How many jobs have you applied for ?
  40. (If yes) How much ?
  41. (If yes) How was that ?
  42. (If Yes) In what way ?
  43. (If yes) In what way ? XVII
  44. (If yes) Were you in the same stream or set for all subjects, in the same one for most subjects, or in a mixture of streams ?
  45. (If yes) What ? 4T. Are you considering moving to a similar job in another firm or to a different job altogether ?
  46. (If yes) What are they ?t xx' SCHEMES. Section 4: 1 (Those who have started on the Youth Training Scheme)
  47. (If yes) What do you think your chances are ?
  48. (If yes) What do you think your chances are of finding this type of work ?
  49. (If yes) What have they told you about it ?
  50. (If yes) What is that ?
  51. (If yes) What is that ? XXIV Section 1: 3 (To be answered by everyone who is still in full time education}
  52. (If yes) What position do you think you could be promoted to ?
  53. (If yes) What sort of clubs are these ?
  54. (If yes) What sort of job is that ?
  55. (If yes) What sort of training is that ? (probe)
  56. (if yes) what sort of work ?
  57. (If yes) What time do you have to be in by ?
  58. (If yes) What type of class ?
  59. (If yes) What was the job(s) which you applied for ? 11O. Have you ever thought about doing any other work apart from ? (Job given at 079)
  60. (If yes) Which job/s was that ?
  61. (If yes) Which job/s was that for ? XII
  62. (If yes) Which ones ?
  63. (If yes) Who ?
  64. (If yes) Who ?. IXVIII Section 2: 3 (To be answered by all who have had a job)
  65. (If Yes) Who is that ?
  66. (If yes) Why did you accept this job
  67. (If yes) Why did you not take it up ?
  68. (If yes) Why do you think that is ?
  69. (If yes) Why is it that you chose to go on a scheme ?
  70. (If yes) Why is that ? General Questions Section 5: 1 t. Some people say that if a person is clever enough and works hard at school, they can get any job they like. Do you think this is true?
  71. (If yes)Is that full-time or part-time ?
  72. (If yes)What sort of jobs ?
  73. (If yes)Who do you think gave you the most encouragement, your mother or your father, or was it about the same ?
  74. 00 you talk with your friends much about your future jobs ?
  75. 1s there anything you dislike about the scheme ? Section 4: 2 (To be answered by those who have left a scheme}
  76. accept the first job you were offered when you left school
  77. agree with what they said to you or not ?
  78. Are all your friends still at school, or are any of them working ?
  79. Are any of your friends out of work at the moment ?
  80. Are any of your friends unemployed, or have any of them been unemployed ?
  81. Are there any advantages in being unemployed ?
  82. Are there any jobs you would like, but have been unable to apply Section 3: 1 (To be answered by those who have been unemployed} 1, Have you ever been out of work at all ? (IF YES...
  83. Are there any members of the opposite sex at work who do the same work as yourself ?
  84. Are they mainly males or females ?
  85. Are you a member of a trade union ?
  86. Are you a member of any clubs or societies ?
  87. Are you an : -(read out) Employee Self emp, no employees Self emp, with employee
  88. Are you going to any other school or college at the moment ?
  89. Are you married yet, or have you any plans to get married ?"
  90. Are you satisfied with your pay ?
  91. Are you still at school, or have you now left ? (If still at school go to 06)
  92. Are you treated any differently by your parents since you left school/went to college ?
  93. As a result of talking to the Careers Officer have you changed your mind at all about the sort of job you expect to get ?
  94. Can you go out with them as often as you like ?
  95. Did anyone help you make up your mind to stay at school/go to college ?
  96. Did he/she give you any other information at all ?
  97. Did he/she suggest to you a job that he/she thought you may like to try for ?
  98. Did he/she think that you should go on a Youth Training Scheme ?
  99. Did that person work in the same firm ?
  100. Did the advice help in any other way ?
  101. Did the advice you got from the Careers Officer help you to make your mind up about what sort of job you'll be doing.
  102. Did the Careers Officer ever mention to you a type of job which you thought of as mans/womans work ?
  103. Did the Careers Officer talk to you about Youth Training Schemes at all ?
  104. Did they give you any advice or have anything to say about it ?
  105. Did you consider staying at school ?
  106. Did you ever think about going back to school or going to college instead of going on a scheme ?
  107. Did you ever think about going on a Youth Training Scheme ?
  108. Did you expect to do better or worse ?
  109. Did you find this job before or after you left school ?
  110. Did you get any interviews ?
  111. Did you get any O'levels ?
  112. Did you get to learn of any jobs which you'd not thought of doing before ?
  113. Did you register as unemployed ?
  114. Did you think that work would be different to what you have experienced ?
  115. Did your parents encourage you to stay at school/go to college ?
  116. do any other courses after this one ?
  117. Do they ever blame you for it ?
  118. Do you ever hear about other jobs ?
  119. Do you expect to be unemployed for very long ?
  120. Do you get any training on the scheme ?
  121. Do you think that teachers treat all their pupils equally ?
  122. Do you think that they have influenced you at all ?
  123. Do you think trade unions are useful ?
  124. Do you think you'll get a job like that ?
  125. Does anyone you know have the same job as you ?
  126. Does your money last you the whole week ?
  127. During the summer holidays did you look for a permanent job at all ?
  128. E's at school ?
  129. education). How well do you think that the school prepared you for the outside world ?
  130. Given the choice. what sort of job would you like to do ?
  131. Grade: (General labourers, industrial Metal Working Craftsmen, cleaners, labourers). Woodworkers, Butchers). Manufacturing: Lower Grade: (General labourers, industrial Metal Working Craftsmen, cleaners, labourers).
  132. Has anyone in your family ever been out of work ?
  133. Has the Careers Officer talked to you at all yet ?
  134. Has your experience of unemployment changed your attitude towards the unemployed
  135. Has your social life changed much since you left school/college/went into sixth form ? 10-(If yes) In what way ?
  136. Have any of your friends been out of work ?
  137. Have any of your friends, or anyone else you know, been on a Youth Opportunities Programme or a Youth Training Scheme ?
  138. Have they told you about any jobs that have been going ?
  139. have to be in by a certain time, or can you come in when you like ?
  140. Have you always intended to stay on ?
  141. Have you any friends you see regularly ?
  142. Have you applied for any jobs at all ?
  143. Have you applied for any jobs yet ?
  144. Have you attended any classes since you left school ?
  145. Have you been looking for a job at all ?
  146. Have you done anything about it ?
  147. Have you ever considered doing a job that is mainly carried out by members of the opposite sex ?
  148. Have you ever felt sorry that you left school/college when you did ?
  149. Have you ever felt that the teachers don't really care about you as a person ?
  150. Have you ever thought of leaving or changing your job ?
  151. Have you found it useful ?
  152. Have you had any contact with a Careers Officer since we last talked ?
  153. Have you had any job interviews since last year/ you last became unemployed ?
  154. Have you talked to your parents at all about what you want to do when you leave school ?
  155. How did you feel about leaving school ?
  156. How did you feel about your results ?
  157. How did you find out about this job ?
  158. How do you feel about that ?
  159. How do you feel about this ? xx
  160. How good do you think the training you get is ?
  161. How is that ?
  162. How long did it take you to learn this job ?
  163. How long do you think you will stay in this job ?
  164. How long do you think you'll stay in education ?
  165. How many friends do you see regularly ?
  166. How many hours a week do you work ?
  167. How much money do you take home.?
  168. If you have children will you (read out) stop working altogether stop until they go to school continue working. but go part time continue working full time
  169. If you were offered another job, is there anyone you would talk to about it first ?
  170. If you won enough money to keep you in luxury for the rest of your life, would you still go to work ?
  171. In some schools, people are put into different streams according to how good the teacher thinks they are at their school work. Did this happen at your school ?
  172. Is that important to you ?
  173. Is there a training scheme ?
  174. Is there anyone who helped you decide to leave school ?
  175. Is there anything which would have made you decide to stay at school/college 7
  176. Is there anything which would have made you leave ?
  177. Is there anything you regret doing or not doing over the last two years ?
  178. Is this full or part time ?
  179. Is this the same sort of job that you wanted when you left school ?
  180. Is this what you'd like ideally, or is it a second best ?
  181. Knowing what you know now, do you think joining the scheme was worthwhile ?
  182. Oid anyone help you to find this job.
  183. Oo you call into the Jobcentre at all ?
  184. (1986). Shades of Prison House: Working Class Resistance to State Intervention in the Established Transition from School to Work",
  185. Since you have been unemployed, have you been in contact with the careers office ?
  186. Since you've been out of work, have you been expected to do any jobs around the house ?
  187. Since you've returned, do you think that you're treated any differently than you were in the Fifth Form ?
  188. tell me what your closest friends are doing now ? (Limit to three)
  189. think that being on the scheme has affected the type of job you want to do ?
  190. think that being on the scheme helped you get a job ?
  191. think that education is just as important for girls as for boys ?
  192. think that there was anything that you could have done to avoid it ?
  193. think that unemployment has made you more willing to accept any job ?
  194. think that you'd still be at school if there were more jobs available ?
  195. think there is any chance of promotion in your present job ?
  196. think you'd fit in better to another sort of job ?
  197. think your qualifications were important in getting you the job ?
  198. Was that a help to you ?
  199. Was this voluntary or compulsory ?
  200. went for the job, did you talk about it with anyone in your family ?
  201. Were there any opportunities you feel you were not given ? 37-What was that ?
  202. Were you offered any of these jobs ?
  203. What are the main problems you've come across since you've been out of work ?
  204. What courses are you doing at the moment ?
  205. What do you dislike about it ? "
  206. What do you like about this job ?
  207. What do you think you gained from being on the scheme ?
  208. What do you think you've gained from the scheme ?
  209. What do you think your chances are of doing that ?
  210. What do you think your chances are of moving into this type of work ?
  211. What do your parents think about you being out of work ?
  212. What does the firm make or do ? xvi
  213. What doldid your parents think about this job ?
  214. What exactly do/did you do ?
  215. WHat form does the training take ?
  216. What is that ?
  217. What is the name of the job you do/did ?
  218. What job would you like to do when you finish ?
  219. What jobs have you applied for ? (note job titles and industries) Job Sheets. (The following questions to be asked of everyone who has had a job) (If they have had more than one job, fill in an additional job sheet for first job and the longest held job)
  220. What made you decide to stay at school/go to college ? ?. What exams will you be working towards ?
  221. What made you think about doing this type of work ?
  222. What sort of information was that ?
  223. What sort of job do you think you'll end up in ?
  224. What sort of job is this ?
  225. What sort of skills are these ? (probe)
  226. What sort of thing did he/she say about them ?
  227. What sort of thing did he/she think you should do on it ?
  228. What sort of things do you talk about ?
  229. What sort of work was that ?
  230. What sort of work was that ? xv Employment.
  231. What type of job do you expect to get after leaving the scheme ?
  232. What type of job was that ?
  233. What were the jobs that you applied for ? (Note job title/s and industry/s)
  234. When you go out do you have to be back by a certain time ?
  235. While you've been on the scheme have you been looking for work at all, or will you wait until its finished ? . 22. What do/did, you think of the scheme ? XXII
  236. Who do you think influenced you the most, your mother or your father ?
  237. Why did you leave the scheme ?
  238. Why do you think it is/was that you are/were unemployed ?
  239. Why do you think that is ?
  240. Why do you think that is ? 5T. Some people think teachers are out of touch with the people they teach. Do you think that this is true ?
  241. Why do you think that was
  242. Why do you think that was ?
  243. Why is that ?
  244. Why is that ? Section 1: 2 (If left full time education} 1O. Why did you leave school/college ?
  245. Why is that ? xIv
  246. Why was it that you accepted this job ?
  247. Would you have stayed if there were more jobs available ?
  248. would you say that you are staying at school because you quite enjoy it, or do you think it is important to get some more qualifications ?
  249. Would you say that you fitted in to this kind of work easily or did you find it fairly hard to slot into ?
  250. Would your parents have been happy for you to stay on at school longer ?

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