Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Museums visiting and social inclusion: the geography of school visits to museums

By Anna Lucy Woodham

Abstract

This thesis takes as a starting point the results of three large scale evaluations of museum education programmes, which presented an unexpected and potentially highly significant geography of school visits to museums, with 46% of school visits in one evaluation made by schools located in areas classified among the 20% most deprived areas in England. These research findings appear to challenge the wide-spread popular perception of museums as rather elitist and exclusionary, drawing attention towards the potential for museums to contribute to social inclusion. The findings also chimed well with contemporary government social inclusion agendas.\ud The study combines both quantitative and qualitative investigations to examine and explain the social geography of school visits to museums. Application of the Townsend index and Experian MOSAIC to the original datasets suggests that the pattern of school visits remains broadly similar when each of these measures are used. Pupil postcodes and free school meal (FSM) data are also used to address the ecological fallacy, concluding that analysis at school level is useful to appreciate school contexts at a finer spatial level. Through further quantitative analysis it is concluded that the location and size of museums is particularly significant, emphasising the importance of the local.\ud An interpretive framework based on the concepts of economic, social, cultural and emotional capital is also used to consider the impacts that museums may have on teachers and pupils, which might contribute to social inclusion. Analysis of qualitative data reveals the interplay of the different forms of capital, particularly how each form influences and conditions school visits. It is concluded that in the museum setting social, cultural and emotional capital are potentially more likely to be acquired. It is argued that discussions presented in the research substantiate the results of the original evaluations and help to move discussions beyond the shorthand thinking of museums as either elitist or non-elitist

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7894

Suggested articles

Citations

  1. (2004a) ‘Changing Values in the Art Museum: Rethinking Communication and Learning’,
  2. (2008a) 'Why do researchers integrate/combine/mesh/blend/mix/ merge/fuse quantitative and qualitative research?'
  3. (2008a) ‘Introduction: Whither Mixed Methods’,
  4. (2001). (eds) New Labour in Government,
  5. (1991). (eds) The Foucault Effect Studies in Governmentality, Chicago:
  6. (forthcoming 2009) ‘Book review: Culture,
  7. (2002). 70m settlement means only a few regions will set up hubs next year’,
  8. (2001). A challenge to the new orthodoxy’, in J. Appleton, Museums for ‘The People’? Conversations in print, London: Institute of Ideas,
  9. (1997). A Common Wealth: Museums in the Learning Age,
  10. (2002). A Context for the Development of Learning Outcomes
  11. (2000). A useful extension of Bourdieu’s conceptual framework? Emotional capital as a way of understanding mothers’ involvement in their children’s education?’ The Sociological Review,
  12. (1961). Adolescent Society: the social life of the teenager and its impact on education,
  13. (1992). Affective Learning, Affective Experience: What Does it Have to do with
  14. (2000). Against Reflexivity as an Academic Virtue and
  15. (2006). Agents of Social Change: Achieving Government access and Inclusion Objectives through Temporary exhibitions in the UK National and Local Authority Museums, unpublished MA thesis,
  16. (1991). All About LMS, What You Need to Know, Why You Need to Know It,
  17. (1974). An Approach to Environmental Psychology,
  18. (1988). An Economic Approach to the Measurement of Poverty’,
  19. (1998). An Inclusive Society, strategies for Tackling Poverty, London: Institute for Public Policy Research.
  20. (1992). An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology,
  21. (2009). and Schools: Nurturing an indispensable relationship’, in K. Bellamy & C. Oppenheim (eds) Learning to Live Museums, young people and education, London:
  22. (2004). Annex to Regional Museum Hub Two Year Plan 2004-2006: Education Programme Delivery Plan,
  23. Anonymous (2000a) ‘Museums pack a punch in the local economy’,
  24. Anonymous (2000b) ‘Museums prove their worth to South West economy’,
  25. (2003). Another 'Guggenheim effect'? The generation of a potentially gentrifiable neighbourhood in Bilbao’,
  26. (1998). Anthony Giddens and Modern Social Theory,
  27. (1995). Area Measures of Deprivation: A Study of Current Methods and best practices in the identification of poor areas in Great Britain, Birmingham: Centre for Urban and Regional Studies,
  28. (2002). Art as a means of alleviating social exclusion: does it really work? A critique of instrumental cultural policies and social impact studies in the UK’,
  29. (1999). Art for the nation, Manchester:
  30. (2001). At the heart of civic society’, in J. Appleton, Museums for ‘The People’? Conversations in print, London: Institute of Ideas,
  31. (2007). Audience knowledge digest, Why people visit museums and galleries, and what can be done to attract them, Renaissance North East.
  32. (2003). Barriers, Boxes and Catapults Social Exclusion and ‘everyday life’, in
  33. (1993). Becoming Privileged: The role of Family Processes,
  34. (2005). Beggars, freaks and heroes: museum collections and the hidden history of disability’,
  35. (2008). Behind the Policy Mantra of the Inclusive Museum: Receptions of Social Inclusion and Exclusion
  36. (1999). Beveridge revisited: a welfare state for the 21st century’
  37. (1991). Beyond the glass case, The Past, the Heritage and the Public in Britain. Leicester:
  38. (2000). Beyond the New Public Management? Modernizing Public Services,
  39. (1995). Beyond the Threshold,
  40. (2001). Birmingham accused of giving a raw deal to private schools’,
  41. (2005). Birmingham Museum and Art gallery, Focus group Wednesday
  42. (2004). Bonding and Bridging. Understanding the Relationship between Social Capital and Civic Action’,
  43. (1998). Bourdieu and cultural reproduction: Mothers’ involvement in their children’s primary schooling.
  44. (1995). Bowling Alone: America’s declining social capital’,
  45. (2000). Bowling alone: the collapse and revival of American community,
  46. (1998). Building Bridges: Guidance for Museums and Galleries on Developing New Audiences, Museums and Galleries Commission,
  47. (2002). Buried in the footnotes: the absence of disabled people in the collective imagery of our past’,
  48. (2004). Buried in the Footnotes: The Representation of Disabled People
  49. (2006). Business Plan Summary,
  50. (1994). By popular demand: a strategic analysis of the market potential for museums and art galleries in the UK, London: Museums and Galleries Commission.
  51. (1985). By the Gains of Industry, Birmingham Museums and Art Gallery 1885-1985, Birmingham: Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery.
  52. (2001). Call for social inclusion’,
  53. (2003). Can Social Exclusion Provide a New Framework for Measuring Poverty? Social Policy Research Centre Discussion Paper,
  54. (2008). Can the pupil premium work?’
  55. (2004). Capital and the evaluation of the museum experience’,
  56. (2004). Capitals, Ethnic Identity and Educational Qualifications’, Cultural Trends,
  57. (2004). Capturing Cultural Value, How culture has become a tool of government policy,
  58. (2003). Case Study Research Design and Methods, Third Edition,
  59. (2005). Case-study: Lifestyle analysis and new
  60. (2001). Census, http://casweb.mimas.ac.uk/ DCSF
  61. (2000). Centres for Social Change: Museums, Galleries and Archives for All,
  62. (2009). Challenging emotions’,
  63. (1996). Changing Highbrow Taste: From Snob to Omnivore’,
  64. (1967). Children and their primary schools, Report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England). Vol.1, The report, London: DES, available from www.dg.dial.pipex.com/documents/plowden00.shtml (accessed 21.09.09).
  65. Children, Schools and Families (2009a) Every Child Matters, Teenage Pregnancy, www.everychildmatters.gov.uk/teenagepregnancy (accessed 15.07.09).
  66. (1995). Civilizing Rituals, inside public art museums,
  67. (2009). Classification through consultation: public views of the geography of the e-society’,
  68. (2006). Classifying neighbourhoods for reassurance policing’,
  69. (2007). Classifying pupils by where they live: how well does this predict variations in their GCSE results?
  70. (2000). Combating social exclusion: looking in or looking out?’ in
  71. (2005). Combining multilevel analysis with national valueadded data sets - a case-study to explore the effects of school diversity’,
  72. (2001). Coming to Terms with London: Middle-Class Communities in a Global City’,
  73. Communities and Local Government (2006) The Dynamics of Local Economies and Deprived Neighbourhoods, www.communities.gov.uk/documents /communities/pdf/150913.pdf (accessed 17.07.09).
  74. (1992). Community Psychology, Theory and Practices,
  75. (2004). Conflict and Complement: An Exploration of the Discourses Informing the Concept of the Socially Inclusive Museum in Contemporary Britain.
  76. (1987). Consensual Approaches to Poverty Lines and Social Security’,
  77. (2005). County Council
  78. (2007). Creative Explorations, new approaches to identities and audiences,
  79. (2004). Cultural Capital and Cultural Policy’,
  80. (2006). Cultural Capital and Inequality: Policy Issues and Contexts’, Cultural Trends,
  81. (1982). Cultural capital and school success: The impact of status culture participation on the grades of U.S.
  82. (2003). Cultural capital in educational research: A critical assessment’,
  83. (2002). Cultural capital, gender and school success: The role of habitus’,
  84. (1976). Cultural deprivation: a commentary on the Sociology of Knowledge,
  85. (1998). Cultural Diversity: attitudes of ethnic minority populations towards museums and galleries, London: Museums and Galleries Commission.
  86. (2008). Cultural mapping and sustainable communities planning for the arts revisited’,
  87. (1973). Cultural reproduction and social reproduction’,
  88. (2006). Cultural Theory and Museum Studies’,
  89. (2004). Culturally tuned emotional intelligence: an effective change management tool?’
  90. (2006). Culture Vultures: is UK arts policy damaging the arts? London: Policy Exchange.
  91. (2004). Culture-led urban regeneration and the revitalisation of identities in Newcastle, Gateshead and the North East of England’,
  92. (1999). Culture, Media and Sport
  93. (1998). Culture: a Reformer’s Science,
  94. (1995). Customer targeting, geodemographics and lifestyle approaches’,
  95. (2000). DCMS launches inclusion policy for museums’,
  96. (1992). Deconstructing the qualitative-quantitative divide’,
  97. (2009). Deference and Humility: The Social Values of the Country House’,
  98. (1998). Definitions of Concepts for the Perceptions of Poverty and Social Exclusion’, in
  99. Department for Work and Pensions, Department for Children, Schools and families (2008) Ending child poverty, everybody’s business, London: HM Treasury. www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/bud08_childpoverty_1310.pdf (accessed 21.04.09).
  100. (1991). Deprivation and health in
  101. (1990). Deprivation and health in Scotland’,
  102. (2002). Deprivation, ill health and the ecological fallacy,’
  103. (1989). Deprivation: Explaining differences in mortality between Scotland and Wales’,
  104. (1996). Deprived people or deprived places? Exploring the ecological fallacy in studies of deprivation and with the samples of anonymised records’,
  105. (2001). Desperately seeking relevance’, The Spectator
  106. (2002). Developing a scheme for finding evidence of the outcomes and impact of learning in museums, archives and libraries: the conceptual framework, Leicester: RCMG, www.le.ac.uk/ms/research/pub1110.html (accessed 10.03.09).
  107. (2001). Digimap Ordnance Survey Postcode Query, http://digimap.edina.ac.uk English Government Office Regions boundary file, http://edina.ac.uk/ukborders/ English Super Output Areas (Lower Layer)
  108. (2005). Dimensions of Sociological Theory,
  109. (1991). Dingy places with different kinds of bits’ An attitudes survey of London museums amongst non visitors, London: London Museums Service.
  110. (1984). Distinction: a social critique of the judgement of taste,
  111. (2007). Diversify Special’,
  112. (2006). Diversify work placement scheme could be rolled out’,
  113. (1999). Ecomuseums: a sense of place, Leicester:
  114. (1994). Economies of signs and space,
  115. (2009). Editorial: Mapping the Field of Mixed Methods Research’,
  116. (2007). Editorial: The New Era of Mixed Methods,
  117. (1996). Educating the Able (special needs in ordinary schools),
  118. (2004). Education and Skills
  119. (2001). Education and Training: Tensions at the Heart of the British Third Way,
  120. (2009). Emotion, Place and Culture,
  121. (1998). Emotion, Social Theory, and Social Structure, A Macrosociological Approach, Cambridge:
  122. (2007). Emotional Capital and Education: Theoretical Insights from Bourdieu’,
  123. (1998). Emotional Capital,
  124. (2005). Emotional Geographies,
  125. (1996). Emotional Intelligence why it can matter more than IQ,
  126. (2004). Emotionally intelligent research’,
  127. (2004). Encounters with Contemporary Art
  128. (2007). Engage, learn, achieve, the impact of museum visits on the attainment of secondary pupils the East of England 2006-2007,
  129. (2007). Engage, learn, achieve. The impact of museum visits on the attainment of secondary pupils in the East of England 2006-2007,
  130. (2008). envision: a handbook,
  131. (1997). Evaluating qualitative research in social geography: establishing ‘rigour’ in interview analysis’,
  132. (2002). Evaluating the social impact of participation in arts activities’,
  133. (1998). Exclusion, Poverty
  134. (2007). Exhibitions of Power and Powers of Exhibition, an introduction to the politics of display’,
  135. (2007). Experiences of gifted and talented enrichment cluster for pupils aged five to seven’,
  136. (2001). Extremism is the enemy’ in J. Appleton, Museums for ‘The People’? Conversations in print, London: Institute of Ideas,
  137. (2007). Feeling, thinking, doing: emotional capital, empowerment, and women’s education,
  138. (1993). Finding a voice for the researcher: using photographs in evaluation and research’,
  139. (1997). Finding Flow,
  140. (2006). Foucault’s museum: difference, representation, and genealogy’,
  141. (1995). From human ecology to customer targeting: the evolution of geodemographics’,
  142. (2007). Gender, Class, Emotional Capital and Consumption
  143. (2008). Gendered capital: Emotional capital and mother’ care work in education’,
  144. (2004). Gendering Bourdieu’s concept of capitals? Emotional capital, women and social class’,
  145. (2006). Geographic Information Systems for the Social Sciences, Investigating Space and Place,
  146. (2006). Geographies of Welfare and Exclusion: Social Inclusion and exception’,
  147. (2002). Globalization from below:
  148. (2002). Ground Rules for Good Research, a 10 point guide for social researchers,
  149. (2005). Habitus: A Sense of Place second edition,
  150. (2005). Harborough Museum Audience Development Plan, 2005-2010, Leicestershire County Council, www.leics.gov.uk/market_harborough_museum _audience_development_plan.pdf (accessed 13.07.09).
  151. (2000). Horses for discourses: poverty, purpose and closure in minimum income standards policy, in
  152. (1993). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, 3rd edition,
  153. (2006). Hybridizing Habitus and Reflexivity: Towards an
  154. (1983). Identification of underprivileged areas’,
  155. (2009). Identity crisis’,
  156. (2001). Improving the take up of free school meals,
  157. (2008). In defence of instrumentality’,
  158. (2008). In the city but not of the city? Telegraph Hillers and the making of a middle-class community’,
  159. (1995). In what sense is poverty multidimensional?’
  160. (1999). Index of Deprivation
  161. (2004). Inspiration, Identity, Learning: The Value of Museums. The evaluation of the impact of DCMS/DfES
  162. (2003). Institutionalist Theory, Social Exclusion and Governance’,
  163. (2008). Instrumental death of a reductionist’,
  164. (1990). Internal versus external control of reinforcement: A case history of a variable’,
  165. (2002). Interpreting the new museology’,
  166. (2008). Introduction: Resilience and Social Exclusion’,
  167. (2007). Is Free School Meals a Valid Proxy for Socioeconomic Status (in
  168. (2003). Is Targeting Deprived Areas an Effective Means to Reach Poor People? An assessment of one rationale for area based funding programmes, London School of Economics CASE paper 70,
  169. (2006). It’s a hard job’,
  170. (1988). Knowing Children, Participant Observation with Minors,
  171. (1996). Knowing our visitors, market survey, 94/95, East Midlands Museum Service.
  172. (1991). Language and Symbolic Power, Cambridge: Polity Press in association with
  173. (1977). Learning to Labour: how working class kids get working class jobs,
  174. (2004). Let’s Hear it for Humpty: Social Exclusion, the Third Way and Cultural Capital’, Cultural Trends,
  175. (2001). Libraries, Museums and Archives for All: co-operating across the sectors to tackle social exclusion, www.culture.gov.uk /PDF/libraries_archives_for_all.pdf (accessed 20.09.09).
  176. (2008). List of Museums with Full Registration or Accreditation, www.mla.gov.uk/what/raising_standards/~/media/Files/pdf/2008/accreditation_list_j uly08.ashx (accessed 17.09.09).
  177. (2003). Living in the Bubble: Gentrification and its ‘others’ in North London’,
  178. (2003). Local authority museums and the modernizing government agenda in England’,
  179. (2004). Locating and explaining area based urban initiatives: New Deal for Communities in England’, Environment and Planning C,
  180. (2003). London Calling: the middle classes and the remaking of inner London,
  181. (2007). London Councils (no date) Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)
  182. (2003). Lone Mothers, social exclusion and depression’,
  183. (2007). Looking for a better future: Identity construction in socio-economically deprived 16-year olds considering a career in medicine’,
  184. (2004). Loosing our cool? Following Williams and Grossberg on emotions’,
  185. (2005). Measure for measure: Evaluating the evidence of culture's contribution to regeneration’,
  186. (2004). Measuring Learning Outcomes in Museums, Archives and Libraries: The Learning Impact Research Project (LIRP)’,
  187. (2008). Measuring Museum Visitor Preferences Towards Opportunities for Developing Social Capital: An Application of a Choice Experiment to the Discovery Museum’,
  188. (2003). Measuring neighbourhood deprivation: a critique of the Index of Multiple Deprivation’, Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy,
  189. (2002). Measuring social value’,
  190. (2002). Measuring the economic and social impact of the arts: a review, London: Arts Council England.
  191. (1992). Mixing Methods: qualitative and quantitative research.
  192. (2001). Modernising Government,
  193. (1999). Modernising Government, White Paper CM 4310, London: The Stationary Office.
  194. (1991). Modernity and Self-identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age.
  195. (2007). Multicultural tensions in England, France and Canada, contrasting approaches and consequences’,
  196. (2006). Museum Learning Survey
  197. (2005). Museums Alive! For Schools, providing a comprehensive Service to Schools, Yorkshire Museums Libraries and Archives Council (YMLAC).
  198. (1988). Museums and ‘the people’’,
  199. (2007). Museums and Education, purpose, pedagogy, performance,
  200. (2008). Museums and Galleries Yearbook,
  201. (2002). Museums and Modernity, art galleries and the making of modern culture,
  202. (2000). Museums and Social Inclusion, The GLLAM Report, Leicester: RCMG & The Group for Large Local Authority Museums.
  203. (2000). Museums and the Interpretation of visual culture,
  204. (1992). Museums and the Shaping of Knowledge,
  205. (1994). Museums and their Visitors,
  206. (1998). Museums as
  207. (2000). Museums as agents of social inclusion’,
  208. (2001). Museums for ‘The People’? Conversations in Print, London: Institute of Ideas.
  209. (2005). Museums, Affect and Cognition: The View From Another Window’,
  210. (2008). Museums, professionalism and democracy’,
  211. (2009). Museums, schools and geographies of cultural value’,
  212. (2009). Museums, Young People and Social Justice’, in K. Bellamy & C. Oppenheim (eds) Learning to Live Museums, young people and education, London:
  213. (2007). Must we be either idiots or eggheads?’ The Times,
  214. (2002). Neighbourhood Effects and Cultural Exclusion’,
  215. (1991). Neighbourhood Effects on Educational Attainment: a Multilevel Analysis’,
  216. (2004). Neighbourhood inequalities in the pattern of hospital admissions and their application to the targeting of health promotion campaigns, CASA Working paper 90, London: Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis.
  217. (2000). New Labour, new language?
  218. (1990). New Visions for Independent Museums in The UK, West Sussex: Association of Independent Museums.
  219. (1998). New Visions for Museums in the 21st Century, West Sussex: Association of Independent Museums.
  220. (2001). News Bulletin, www.aimmuseums.co.uk/aim-bulletin/bulletin-digest/december-2001.htm (accessed 20.03.08).
  221. (2006). North East Regional Museum Hub Two Year Plan
  222. (2004). Office of the Deputy Prime Minister
  223. (2005). Online References AEA Consulting
  224. (2007). Open Air Museums, The history and future of a visionary idea, Sweden: Carlssons,
  225. (2004). Open Minds, Evaluation of the Harewood House Trust Heritage Lottery Fund Education Project,
  226. (2006). Ouch! Is this the direction our museums have to go?’ The Times online,
  227. (2005). Our Tyne’: Iconic Regeneration and the Revitalisation of Identity in Newcastle Gateshead’, Urban Studies,
  228. (1977). Outline of A Theory of Practice, Cambridge:
  229. (2000). Parental cultural capital and educational attainment in the Netherlands: A refinement of the cultural capital perspective’,
  230. (2004). Pasts beyond memory: evolution, museums, colonialism,
  231. (2007). Personality, Individual Differences and Intelligence,
  232. (2002). Piachaud (eds) Understanding Social Exclusion, Oxford:
  233. (2002). Pierre Bourdieu revised edition,
  234. (1999). Pierre Bourdieu: Habitus and the Logic of Practice,
  235. (1996). Place and Identity Processes’,
  236. (2002). Place Identification, Social Cohesion and Environmental Sustainability’,
  237. (2005). Places on the Margin: The Spatiality of Exclusion’,
  238. (2005). Places, ‘cultural touchstones’ and the ecomuseum’,
  239. (2002). Placing Social Capital’, Progress in Human Geography,
  240. (2005). Policing neighbourhoods: exploring the geographies of crime, policing and performance assessment’,
  241. (2006). Postscript: Cultural Capital and Inequality: Refining the Policy Calculus’,
  242. (1996). Poverty the facts, London: Child Poverty Action Group.
  243. (1922). Poverty: a study of town life,
  244. (2004). Presumption, Policy and Practice’,
  245. (2001). Preventing Social Exclusion, Report by the Social Exclusion Unit, London: Social Exclusion Unit/Cabinet Office, www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/media/ cabinetoffice/social_exclusion_task_force/assets/publications_1997_to_2006/preventi ng.pdf (accessed 21.04.09).
  246. (2002). Preventing Social Exclusion: Education’s contribution,
  247. (2004). Pupils ideas about museum experiences,
  248. (1996). Qualitative Researching,
  249. (1992). Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration’,
  250. (1967). Race, community and conflict: study of Sparkbrook,
  251. (1999). Raising Expectations’,
  252. (2001). Reading education action zones’,
  253. (2002). Real World Research, second edition,
  254. (2003). Recognising ‘recognition’: social justice and the place of the cultural in social exclusion policy and practice’,
  255. (2005). Reflections of Birmingham Focus Group, West Midlands Phase 1 Hub, Primary teachers,
  256. (2000). Reflections on the fate of Tippoo’s Tiger. Defining cultures through public display,
  257. (1990). Reflexivity and Emotions’,
  258. (2005). Renaissance
  259. (2006). Renaissance in the Regions
  260. (2002). Renaissance in the Regions A New Vision for England’s museums, Criteria for Hub application,
  261. (2002). Renaissance in the regions criteria published by Resource’,
  262. (2005). Renaissance in the Regions, Final National Report,
  263. (2004). Renaissance in the Regions, National Report, Research Study Conducted for The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council,
  264. (2001). Renaissance in the Regions: a new vision for England’s Museums,
  265. (2007). Renaissance in the Regions: a review of the history of the programme, unpublished paper prepared for MLA Board meeting 21.03.07.
  266. (2009). Renaissance Revelations: hub museums and online documentation’, Cultural Trends,
  267. (2009). Renaissance Review Advisory Group
  268. (2008). Renaissance: Results for 2006-7,
  269. (1991). Report on a Survey on Arts and Cultural Activities
  270. (2002). Representing lesbians and gay men in British social history museums’,
  271. (2003). Research Design, Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approaches, second edition.
  272. (1990). Responses to social exclusion: social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, depression and low self-esteem’,
  273. (2008). Rethinking Disability Representation in Museums and Galleries,
  274. (2002). Rethinking heritage: Cultural Policy and Inclusion’.
  275. (2005). Review and Consultation on the implementation of Renaissance in the Regions, A Report for MLA, Part one’, www.mla.gov.uk/documents/ren_review_rep.doc (accessed 23.11.05).
  276. (2003). Save our souls,’
  277. (2005). School and College Visits to Tyne and Wear Museums 2003-2005, unpublished internal report.
  278. (2008). School Participation Database, MLA London, http://www.mlalondon.org.uk/uploads/documents/LondonSchoolPartReport.pdf (accessed 16.09.09).
  279. (2007). Schools, Pupil Behaviour and Yong Offenders’,
  280. (2003). Science Museum embarks on journey to Middle Earth’, The Guardian,
  281. (2000). Share and share alike’,
  282. (1995). Sightseeing in the UK 1994: a survey of the usage and capacity of the United Kingdom's attractions for visitors, London: English Tourist Board.
  283. (1996). Social and Emotional Capital in Education: Cultures of Support for At Risk Students’,
  284. (2005). Social Capital and the Cultural Sector, Literature Review prepared for the Department for Culture,
  285. (1988). Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,’
  286. (2003). Social Capital,
  287. (2001). Social Capital, Gentrification and Neighbourhood Change in London:
  288. (1998). Social Capital: Its Origins and Applications in Modern Sociology’,
  289. (1998). Social Exclusion amongst Adolescent Girls Their self-esteem and coping strategies’,
  290. (2002). Social Exclusion and children: A European view for a US debate, CASE paper 51, Centre for the Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics.
  291. (2002). Social Exclusion and Children: A European view for a US debate, Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion,
  292. (1997). Social Exclusion Unit
  293. (2007). Social Exclusion, Experian’s views on identifying and addressing social exclusion’, Experian, www.eurim.org.uk/activities/tgdialogues/experiansocial_exclusion_paper.pdf (accessed,
  294. (2002). Social exclusion, social isolation and the distribution of income’,
  295. (1973). Social Justice and the City,
  296. (2001). Social Justice and the City: The New ‘Liberal Formulation’,
  297. (2004). Social Sciences: Interest in GIS grows, www.esri.com/news/arcnews /spring04articles/social-sciences.html (accessed 07.09.09).
  298. (1996). Sociological perspectives on identity formation: the culture-identity link and identity capital’,
  299. (1993). Sociology in Question,
  300. (2009). Sources (Last accessed on 10th
  301. (2006). Spaces of Social Exclusion,
  302. (2001). Spatial Variations in School Performance: a Local Analysis Using Geographically Weighted Regression’,
  303. (2003). Strategic Commissioning 2003/04: National Regional Partnerships Project details, unpublished internal document.
  304. (2003). Strategic Commissioning 2003/4: National Regional Partnerships,
  305. (2003). Strategic Commissioning 2003/4: National/Regional Partnerships Guidance Notes, London: DCMS, unpublished guidance notes.
  306. (2005). Strategic Plan 2005-2010, London: Victoria and Albert Museum, www.vam.ac.uk/files/file_upload/13138_file.pdf (accessed 13.07.09).
  307. (2000). Strategies for Social Inclusion: Promoting Social Cohesion or Social Justice? In P. Askonas & A. Stewart (eds) Social Inclusion Possibilities and Tensions,
  308. (2006). Studying Visitors’,
  309. (2002). Supporting the Renaissance’,
  310. (1971). Systems of Education and Systems of Thought’,
  311. (2003). Teacher Perceptions of Field-Trip Planning and Implementation’,
  312. (2000). Techniques for defining school catchment areas for comparison with census data’,
  313. (2007). The best, the worst and the average: secondary school choice and the education performance in East London’,
  314. (1986). The Black Report and the health divide,
  315. (1988). The Definition and Measurement of Poverty’,
  316. (2003). The Effect of Group-level Influences on Pupils'
  317. (2005). The Engaging Museum, Developing Museums for Visitor Involvement,
  318. (1986). The Forms of Capital’,
  319. (1991). The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality, Chicago:
  320. (2002). The good enough visitor’,
  321. (2003). The Good Research Guide for small-scale social research projects, second edition,
  322. (2007). The Governance of Educational Inequalities: The Limits of Area Based Initiatives,
  323. (2002). The Great Debate’,
  324. (2007). The impact of poverty on young children’s experience of school,
  325. (2005). The Inclusive Society? Social Exclusion and New Labour, Second Edition,
  326. (2004). The Index of Multiple Deprivation
  327. (2005). The informed muse: the implications of ‘The New Museology’ for museum practice’,
  328. (1993). The International Analysis of Poverty, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.
  329. (2004). The Legal Context’, in
  330. (1990). The Logic of Practice,
  331. (1991). The Love of Art,
  332. (2003). The Modifiable areas unit problem: segregation between school and levels of analysis’,
  333. (2004). The Mosaic Approach and Research with Young Children’,
  334. (1996). The Museum and The Citizen’, in
  335. (1978). The Museum of Modern Art as Late Capitalist Ritual’, Marxist Perspectives,
  336. (1971). The Museum, a Temple or the Forum?’
  337. (2009). The Museums, Libraries and Archives Council’s response to the independent Review of Renaissance,
  338. (1968). The Participant Observer as Human Being: observations on the Personal Aspects of Fieldwork’,
  339. (1985). The Past is a Foreign Country, Cambridge:
  340. (1997). The poetics and the politics of exhibiting other cultures,’
  341. (2002). The politics of data collection: Gathering, analysing and using data about the subsidised cultural sector in England’,
  342. (2008). The Politics of Self Definition: the monitoring of Sikh identity and culture’,
  343. (2000). The Politics of the Arts in Britain,
  344. (2005). The Public Art Museum
  345. (2003). The reflexive journey: mapping multiple routes’, in
  346. (1993). The restorative experience as a museum benefit’,
  347. (2003). The Roadmap to Renaissance’,
  348. (2007). The role of education in providing opportunities for South Asian Women, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, http://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/files/jrf/1997-education-ethnicity-poverty.pdf (accessed 30.11.09).
  349. (2001). The role of residence in school segregation: placing the impact of parental choice in perspective’,
  350. (2001). The Social Body, Habit, identity and desire,
  351. (2005). The Sociology of Emotions, Cambridge:
  352. (1997). The spectacle of the ‘other’,
  353. (2000). The Strategic Significance of Workforce Diversity in Museums’,
  354. (2002). The therapeutic potential of museums as pathways to inclusion’,
  355. (2001). The Unfulfilled Promise of Cultural Capital Theory’,
  356. (1998). The utopics of social ordering –Stonehenge as a museum without walls’, in S. Macdonald & G. Fyfe (eds) Theorizing museums: representing identity and diversity in a changing world,
  357. (1997). The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital’,
  358. (2001). The Well-being of Nations: The Role of Human and Social Capital.
  359. (2008). Theoretical Perspectives in New Labour’s Cultural Policy: Art Museums as Vehicles for Social Inclusion’,
  360. (1993). Thinking about the visitor’s thinking’,
  361. (2001). Towards a geography of people poverty and place poverty’,
  362. (2007). Transitions, Networks and Communities: The Significance of Social Capital in the Lives of Children and Young People’,
  363. (2000). Transport and Social Exclusion in London’,
  364. (2005). Tyne and Wear Museums, Bristol’s Museums, Galleries & Archives, Social Impact Assessment,
  365. (1984). Underprivileged areas: validation and distribution of scores’
  366. (1992). Understanding Audience Segmentation: From Elite and Mass to Omnivore and Univore’,
  367. (2002). Understanding Bourdieu,
  368. (2007). Understanding Cultural Omnivorousness: Or,
  369. (2005). Understanding Elementary Teacher Motivations for Science Fieldtrips,
  370. (2006). Understanding Poverty, Third Edition,
  371. (2007). Understanding Social Inequality,
  372. (2005). Understanding the Future: Museums and 21st Century Life. The Value of Museums,
  373. (2005). Understanding the social impact of museums, galleries and heritage through the concept of capital,’
  374. (2006). Unreliable evidence: the rhetorics of data collection in the cultural sector’,
  375. (1975). Urban Deprivation: Definition, Measurement and Spatial Qualities’,
  376. (2006). Uses of Heritage,
  377. (2005). Visiting with suspicion. Recent perspectives on art museums’,
  378. (1995). Visitor Meaning-making in museums for a new age’,
  379. (2005). We are not a Government Poodle, Museums and social inclusion under New Labour’,
  380. (1995). We know who you are and we know where you live’: The instrumental Rationality of Geodemographic systems’,
  381. (2006). What did you learn at the museum today? Second Study. Evaluation of the outcome and impact of Learning through the implementation of the Education Programme Delivery Plan across nine Regional Hubs
  382. (2006). What did you learn at the Museum today? Second Study. Evaluation of the outcomes and impact of the Education Programme Delivery Plan across nine Regional Hubs
  383. (2004). What did you learn at the museum today? The evaluation of the impact of the Renaissance
  384. (2002). What difference do museums make? Producing evidence on the impact of museums’,
  385. (2000). What is social exclusion? In
  386. (1995). What is special about a “social exclusion” approach?’
  387. (2003). What works for gifted and talented pupils: a review of recent research,
  388. (1991). Which deprivation? A comparison of selected deprivation indices’,
  389. (2007). Why do our trend-chasing Museums make such an exhibition of themselves?’ The Times, May 2nd 2007, www.timesonline.co.uk (accessed 26.06.08).
  390. (2004). Why Emotional Capital Matters in Education and Labour? Toward an optimal exploitation of human capital and knowledge management,
  391. (1981). Women in Public Life in Austria,
  392. (2006). Working class mothers and school life: exploring the role of emotional capital’,
  393. (2005). Young Bangladeshi people’s experience of transition to adulthood, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, www.jrf.org.uk/sites /files/jrf/1859352723.pdf (accessed 21.04.09).
  394. (2000). Youth Transitions and Social Exclusion: Developments in Social Capital Theory’,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.