Location of Repository

Implementing information technology in education in Hong Kong primary schools: an evaluative case study in policy analysis

By Hiu-Keung (Derek) Chow


This is an evaluative case study in policy formulation and implementation in Hong\ud Kong. The main aim of the research was to investigate the impact of the Information\ud Technology in Education (ITEd) Strategy (EMB, 1998a; EMB, 2004a) on practice in\ud primary schools in Hong Kong and the factors which influenced the implementation\ud of the strategy. The four-stage Policy Development Model developed by Bell and\ud Stevenson (2006) was used as the conceptual framework for the research together\ud with a pedagogical framework devised by Hirumi (2002). The study focussed on the\ud use of Information Technology (IT) to support a paradigm shift in learning from a\ud largely textbook based teacher centred approach to a more interactive and learner\ud centred approach. The researcher used both a questionnaire survey and\ud semi-structured interviews to seek the perception of Principals in Hong Kong primary\ud schools. The research concluded that there was tension between the formulation of the\ud ITEd Strategy and its implementation in schools. Despite the principals’ support for\ud the visions of the strategy, the potential of IT to transform learning was not fully\ud realised. This was because of the failure of the Hong Kong Government to anticipate\ud the extent of the challenge and to provide sufficient guidance and support to overcome\ud barriers to change which arose during the implementation phase. These barriers\ud involved value systems, psychological and practical factors and they affected both\ud principals’ and teachers’ attitude to change. The findings imply further action that\ud might be taken by the Hong Kong Government to provide appropriate support for the\ud development of IT in Hong Kong primary schools

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7883

Suggested articles



  1. (2000). A Comparative Discussion of the Notion of Validity in Qualitative and Quantitative Research’, The Qualitative Report,
  2. (1995). A Conceptual Framework of the Implementation Process’
  3. (2008). A Critical Approach to Researching Social Justice and School Leadership in England’,
  4. (1996). A Critique of the Neglected Epistemological Assumptions of Educational Research’
  5. (1999). A Framework of Using
  6. (1981). A Guide for Use in Planning and Conducting Research Projects,
  7. (2000). A Model for the Effective Management of IT Development
  8. (1989). A Scientific Methodology for MIS Case Studies’,
  9. (1993). A Teacher’s Life’,
  10. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes’,
  11. (1995). Action and Research Open Web’, The
  12. (1993). Action Research for Education Managers,
  13. (1995). Advanced Educational Psychology for Educators, Researchers and Policymakers,
  14. (2000). AMEE Guide No 20: The Good Teacher is More Than a Lecturer - The Twelve Roles of the Teacher’,
  15. (1995). An Examination of Computing Styles Among Teachers
  16. (2002). An Introduction to Qualitative Research’,
  17. (2001). An Investigation Into The Relationship Between Effective Administrative Leadership Styles and
  18. (1994). Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow:
  19. (1998). Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study – Country Report, Working Paper Series, Regional Office for Asia and the
  20. (2005). Assumptions and Hidden Agendas in ICT Materials: How Does Autonomization Come In?’
  21. (2003). Authenticity – Reliability, Validity and Triangulation’
  22. (1997). Barriers to the Effective Use of Technology in Education’,
  23. (1994). Beginning Qualitative Research: A Philosophic and Practical Guide, London :
  24. (2001). CALL Innovation in the ELT Curriculum’,
  25. (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings,
  26. (1984). Case Study Research: Design and Methods,
  27. (2003). Case Study Research’
  28. (2000). Changing Classrooms and Changing Schools: A Study of Good Practices
  29. (1999). Children’s Participation in Evaluating the Role of New Information and
  30. (1991). Choosing Appropriate Information Systems Research Approaches: A Revised Taxonomy’
  31. (1993). Commonalities and Distinctive Patterns in
  32. (1994). Completing Paradigms in Qualitative Research’
  33. (1994). Computers in Primary and Secondary Education: The Interest of an Individual Teacher or a School Policy?’,
  34. (1984). Conceptual and Theoretical Issues’
  35. (2005). Conceptualising Research
  36. (1992). Conditions for an Effective Integration
  37. (2000). Constructivism, Instructional Design, and Technology: Implications for Transforming
  38. (1959). Convergent and Discriminate Validation by the Multitrait-multimethod Matrix’,
  39. (1989). Critical Introduction: Ideology and the State in Educational Policy’
  40. (1998). De Student als Junior Medewerker,
  41. (1996). Defining Pedagogy’,
  42. (2000). Determining Sample Size’,
  43. (1995). Diffusion of Innovations,
  44. (1987). Doing Your Research Project, Milton Keynes:
  45. (1997). Education for an Information Age: Teaching in the Computerised Classroom,
  46. (2006). Education for an Information Age: Teaching in the Computerized Classroom,
  47. (2001). Education for Technology Readiness: Prospects for Developing Countries’,
  48. (2009). Education News’,
  49. (2000). Education News’, Singtao Newspaper,
  50. (1975). Education Policy Making’ cited in
  51. (1976). Education Policy: Analysis, Structure, and Justification,
  52. (1997). Education, Globalisation and Economics’
  53. (1992). Educational Leadership in the Age of Technology: The New Skills’,
  54. (2003). Ethic of Research
  55. (1984). Evaluating a Research Report’,
  56. (1999). Examining How Teachers Adjust to the Availability of Portable Computers’,
  57. (2000). Executive Education Department
  58. (2001). Exploring Current Issues
  59. (2000). Factors Affecting Teachers’ Use of Information and Communications Technology: A Review of the Literature’,
  60. (2002). Factors Contributing to Successful Implementation of IT’,
  61. (1976). Foundations of Social Research,
  62. (2000). From Practice Fields to Communities of Practice’
  63. (1998). Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China
  64. (1996). How to Research, Buckingham,
  65. (2000). ICT as a Tool for Learning to Learn’
  66. (1998). ICT en Onderwijs,
  67. (2006). ICT in Education Unit’, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific,
  68. (1995). Implementatie van Communicatie- en Informatietechnologie in Het Onderwijs, Enschede: OCTO,
  69. (2001). Individual Characteristics Influencing Teachers’ Class Use of Computers’,
  70. (1992). Inquiry Paradigms’
  71. (1996). Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing,
  72. (1997). Introduction to Case Study’, The Qualitative Report,
  73. (1979). Introduction to Measurement Theory,
  74. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods,
  75. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches,
  76. (1996). Introduction’ in P.F. Murphy and C.V. Gipps (eds) Equity in the Classroom: Towards Effective Pedagogy for Girls and Boys,
  77. (1983). Is Science Marketing’,
  78. (2003). Issues of ICT, School Reform and Learning-centered School Design’,
  79. (1998). IT in Learning (Chinese Version), Hong Kong: Chung Tai Publishers.
  80. (1999). Levels of Information Technology Competency, Core Course Elements and Assessment Tools for Teacher Training
  81. (1998). Mail Surveys’
  82. (1995). Management of Educational Innovations: ‘The Six-A’ Process Model’
  83. (2003). Manual or Electronic? The Role of Coding in
  84. (1983). Marketing, Scientific Progress, and Scientific’,
  85. (1983). Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action’
  86. (1996). Nature and Function of Educational Research’
  87. (2002). Non-formal Learning: Mapping the Conceptual Terrain,
  88. (2004). Paradigm for Junior Secondary Design and Technology in Hong Kong’,
  89. (1997). Perspectives on Policy Analysis’
  90. (1993). Policy Analysis: Models and Approaches’
  91. (1990). Politics and Policy-making in Education,
  92. (1999). Preparing to Implement Learning Outcomes in Technology:
  93. (2003). Program Evaluation: Alternative Approaches and Practical Guidelines,
  94. (2006). Public Policy Grantmaking Toolkit’,
  95. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, 2nd ed., Thousand Oaks, Calif:
  96. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education. An Introduction to Theory and Methods,
  97. (2007). Questionnaire Design -
  98. (1992). Reforming Education and Changing Schools,
  99. (1996). Reliability and Validity
  100. (2003). Research Methods for Business Students,
  101. (1993). Research Methods,
  102. (2002). Rethinking Learning in the Digital Age,’
  103. (2004). Revised Ethical Guidelines for Educational Researcher,
  104. (2001). School Leaders and Organisational Change in Turbulent Times’, Occasional Papers in Education, Leicester:
  105. (2003). Social Policy: An Introduction,
  106. (2000). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Thousand Oaks,
  107. (1999). Sociocultural Aspects of Assessment’
  108. (1987). Some Notes on the Terms ‘Validity’ and ‘Reliability’’,
  109. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences, 2nd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  110. (2001). Student Teachers’ Perception and Practice of the Teacher’s Role When Teaching with Computers’,
  111. (2002). Student-Centred, Technology-Rich Learning Environments (ScenTRLE): Operationalizing Constructivist Approaches to Teaching and Learning’,
  112. (1983). Subject Departments and the Implementation of National Curriculum Policy: An Overview of the Issues’,
  113. (2006). Supporting Self-regulated Learners for a While and What Computers Can Contribute’,
  114. (1988). Survey Research Methods in Education’
  115. (1993). Survey Research Methods,
  116. (1978). Survey Research Practice,
  117. (1990). Teacher Beliefs and Practices Part 1: Patterns of Change. The Evolution of Teachers'
  118. (1987). Teacher Receptivity a Systemwide Change in the Implementation Stage’,
  119. (1996). Teachers are the Key’,
  120. (1997). Teachers, Computers and the Internet: the First Stage of a Community-initiated Project for the Integration of Technology Into the Curriculum’,
  121. (2001). Teaching and Learning Mathematics with Interactive Spreadsheets’,
  122. (1997). Teaching with Technology; Creating Pupil-centred Classrooms,
  123. (2000). Teaching With the Internet,
  124. (1997). Technology-Based Training,
  125. (1995). The Art of Case Study Research,
  126. (1987). The Case Research Strategy in
  127. (1997). The Case Study as a Research Method’,
  128. (2006). The Centre for Educational Policy Analysis,
  129. (1980). The Computer in the School: Tutor,
  130. (1977). The Essential Tension: Selected Studies in Scientific Tradition and Change,
  131. (1998). The Landscape of Qualitative Research,
  132. (1996). The Logic of Reliable Inquiry,
  133. (2005). The Mad Dash to Compute’
  134. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change,
  135. (1994). The Philosophy of Research Design’,
  136. (1973). The Policy Implementation Process’, Policy Sciences,
  137. (1953). The Political System’ in
  138. (2003). The Principal as Technology Leader,
  139. (1970). The Research Act in Sociology: a Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods,
  140. (1978). The Research Act,
  141. (2000). The Research Interview,
  142. (2007). The Research Methods Knowledge
  143. (2000). The Role of Assessment in a Learning Culture’,
  144. (2003). The Role of ICT
  145. (2003). The Transformation of the Teachers’ Role at the End of the Twentieth Century: New Challenges for the Future’,
  146. (2007). The Unsolicited Electronic Message Ordinance: An Industry Guide, Office of the Telecommunications Authority,
  147. (1999). The Validity Chain: Rigour in Interview Data’,
  148. (1999). Third Millennium Schools: Prospects and Problems for School Effectiveness and Improvement’
  149. (1980). Towards a Science of the Singular: Essays About Case Study
  150. (1992). Triangulation in Research: Two Confusions’,
  151. (1998). Understanding Public Policy,
  152. (2002). Understanding Unit and Item Nonresponse in Business Surveys’
  153. (2008). University’s Research Ethics Code of Practice,
  154. (1996). Using Computers in the Mathematics Classroom: The Role of the Teacher’,
  155. (2000). Using Technology to Increase Student Learning,
  156. (1977). Values in Adolescent Life: Towards a Critical Description’, unpublished Ph.D. thesis,
  157. (2005). What is a Paradigm Shift?’,
  158. (2006). What is Policy? Texts, Trajectories and Toolboxes’, Education Policy and Social Class, London: Routledge Taylor and Francis Group,
  159. (2001). Why are Most Teachers Infrequent and Restrained Users of Computers in Their Classrooms?’
  160. (2003). Working with ICT Perceptions of Australian Principals’,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.