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Juvenile sex offending: an investigative perspective

By Jessica Ann Woodhams

Abstract

The first chapter of the thesis critically reviews the research on juvenile violent and\ud sexual offending and highlights the heterogeneity of such offenders in terms of those\ud that persist and those that assault different types of victim. Research on juvenile\ud stranger sex offenders and their offence characteristics is explored. Chapter 2 presents\ud empirical research on the behavioural consistency and distinctiveness of juvenile\ud stranger sex offending and whether case linkage can accurately identify the crimes of\ud serial offenders. Calls from personality psychologists to consider the context of\ud behaviour when investigating behavioural consistency are responded to with\ud preliminary research into incorporating context in case linkage. Evidence for\ud behavioural consistency and distinctiveness is reported for serial juvenile stranger sex\ud offenders, however evidence for consistency in ‘if(victim behaviour)-then(offender\ud behaviour)’ contingencies is less convincing. Chapter 3 investigates ways of\ud prioritising sex offences for crime analysis. Whether juvenile serial stranger sex\ud offenders escalate in their use of physical aggression is investigated with few\ud “increasers” being identified. Preliminary findings suggest some characteristics on\ud which increasers vs. non-increasers differ that might inform investigative risk\ud assessment. However, escalation appears largely related to learning behaviour and\ud progression to more elaborate sexual assaults. Preliminary findings suggest some\ud offence behaviours that appear more characteristic of offences occurring later in a\ud series. Chapter 4 investigates and contrasts group rape by juvenile and adult\ud perpetrators. How applicable social psychological theories of group violence are to\ud group rape is tested with findings suggesting that theories of group dynamics as well as\ud social convergence are relevant. Further, aggression in group rapes appears both\ud expressive and instrumental in purpose. Roles adopted by group members are\ud investigated. Evidence of distinct leaders and followers in group rapes is identified\ud using both Porter and Alison’s (2001) Scale of Influence and through the use of\ud pragmatics theory. Additional roles are discussed

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7869

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Citations

  1. (1987). A conditional approach to dispositional constructs: The local predictability of social behavior.
  2. (1991). A facet approach to offender profiling:
  3. (2001). A similar behaviour “Arguing” was included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  4. Accepts apology Victim accepts the suspect’s apology.
  5. Accepts guilt E The offender showing some sort of remorse for his actions was included by Grubin et al. (2001) in their Escape domain.
  6. Accepts Guilt Offender recognises the seriousness of his behaviour.
  7. Acknowledges suspect’s threat Victim verbally acknowledges the suspect’s threat that has been made.
  8. (2001). Affection shown” is a behaviour included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  9. Agrees action to get rid of suspect. Victim makes the decision to comply with the suspect’s non-sexual request to get rid of him.
  10. Alcohol Offender consumed alcohol with victim.
  11. Allows Action Offender allows the victim/witness to engage in a behaviour.
  12. Allows action St This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it indicates the offender is viewing the victim as a person.
  13. (2001). Anal penetration was included by Grubin et al.
  14. (2007). and the Journal of Investigative Psychology and Offender Profiling (‘Incorporating Context in Linking Crimes: An Exploratory Study of Situational Similarity and If-Then
  15. Answers with question Victim answers the suspects question by posing a question hence not answering the question.
  16. Apologies Offender apologises to the victim.
  17. Apologises for non-compliance. Victim apologises to the suspect for not complying with his wishes. 7%
  18. Apologises for noncompliance. Victim apologises to the suspect for not complying with his wishes.
  19. Appendix 2: Frequency of Offence Behaviour Checklist Items within the Total Offender Dataset and Broken Down into the Subgroups of Serial and Non-Serial Matched Offenders.
  20. Argues Victim argues with the suspect or contradicts him. 14%
  21. Arousal Offender refers to victim’s arousal or enjoyment of sexual acts.
  22. Asks for date to continue contact” was included by Grubin et al. (2001) in their Escape domain, however in this sample of sexual assaults this behaviour was at no point necessary to conduct the offence and was therefore included in the Style domain.
  23. Asks if finished. Victim asked suspect if he has finished assaulting her.
  24. Asks personal question Victim asks the suspect a personal question about himself.
  25. (2003). Assessment of criminal recidivism risk with adolescents who have sexually offended.
  26. Attracts attention Offender tries to attract the victim’s attention.
  27. Attracts attention St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because it was unnecessary to the commission of the offence.
  28. Avoids looking Victim avoiding looking at the suspect.
  29. (2004). Behavioural coherence in violent group activity: An interpersonal model of sexually violent gang behaviour.
  30. (2005). Behavioural linking of stranger rapes.
  31. (2001). Behaviours associated with the offender making a safe escape were included by Grubin et al.
  32. (2001). Behaviours concerned with the offender hiding his identity were included by Grubin et al.
  33. Bicycle Offender was on a bicycle.
  34. Binding Offender restrains victim using binding.
  35. Bites Victim bites the suspect.
  36. Bites Victim bites the suspect. 7%
  37. Blocks escape Offender blocks escape of victim.
  38. Blocks nostrils Victim squeezes the suspect’s nostrils so he can’t breathe. 7% Appendix 9: The Line Graphs for Offender Aggression and Victim Resistance for all 14 Group Rapes Line Graph for
  39. Boasts Offender boasts to his co-offender(s).
  40. Breast Offender touches or kisses the victim’s breast or chest area.
  41. Breasts Offender masturbates himself using victim’s breasts.
  42. Broke In Offender broke into the victim’s house.
  43. Can’t help Offender indicates he can’t help the victim.
  44. Can’t help St This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it occurred when the offender was engaged in conversation with the victim and was unnecessary for the commission of the offence.
  45. Ceases-put off E This behaviour was placed in the Escape domain since it relates to the offender ceasing his actions and quitting the scene.
  46. Chapter Conclusion Chapter 4: The Sexual Offending of Groups
  47. Clarification Offender seeks clarification from the victim about what she means.
  48. Clean Offender concerned with cleaning away semen.
  49. Cleans Victim cleans or washes herself. 7%
  50. Co-Off Offender asks co-offender a personal question.
  51. co-offender Victim asks offender a personal question about his co-offender. 7%
  52. Co-offenders develop plan together.
  53. Comments on a conversational topic Victim comments on a neutral conversational topic either initiating or maintaining a neutral conversation.
  54. Comments on a conversational topic Victim comments on a neutral conversational topic either initiating or maintaining a neutral conversation. 29%
  55. Complain Offender complains to the victim.
  56. Complies Offender complies with victim’s directive.
  57. Complies with Co-Off Offender complies with co-offender’s wishes.
  58. Complies with cooffender. Offender complies with co-offender’s wishes.
  59. Compliment Offender compliments victim.
  60. (2001). Compliments were included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  61. con Offender moves the victim’s location through a con.
  62. Concern Offender shows concern for victim’s comfort/security or safety.
  63. Condom Offender uses or shows intention to use a condom.
  64. Contradicts Offender contradicts or argues with victim.
  65. Cooffender Offender asks his co-offender a sexual question.
  66. Cries out in pain Victim cries out
  67. Cries out in pain Victim cries out in pain.
  68. Cries Victim cries.
  69. Criticises Offender criticises victim.
  70. Crosses road Victim crosses to the other side of the road.
  71. Cunnilingus Offender performed oral sex on the victim.
  72. Cut wires Offender cut the telephone wires or unplugs phone.
  73. Declines Cooffender’s offer Offender declines the offer of his co-offender.
  74. (2001). define the control domain as including behaviours associatd with how the victim was approached/ targeted. This behaviour was therefore included in the Control domain.
  75. (2001). define the control domain as including behaviours associated with how the victim was approached/ targeted. This behaviour was therefore included in the Control domain.
  76. (2001). define the control domain as including behaviours associated with how the victim was approached/targeted. This behaviour was therefore included in the Control domain.
  77. Demonstrates Offender demonstrates to the victim the act he wants her to perform.
  78. Denigrates suspect Victim denigrates or puts down the suspect’s behaviour or his suggestion.
  79. Depart-quick Offender departs the scene quickly.
  80. Departs-calmly Offender calmly departs scene.
  81. (2001). didn’t consider group offences this behaviour seems to best fit within the Control domain since it relates to the offender exerting control over others.
  82. (2001). didn’t include group rapes in their study however this behaviour seems most associated with offenders wanting to avoid detection and hence was located within the Escape domain.
  83. Didn’t scream Victim did not scream but this was a conscious and independent decision.
  84. Didn’t scream Victim did not scream but this was a conscious and independent decision. 7%
  85. (2001). Digital penetration was included by Grubin et al.
  86. Direct co-offender Offender directs the behaviour of his co-offender.
  87. Direct non-sexual C This behaviour was included in the Control domain since this behaviour was related to maintaining control over the victim (as per Grubin et al.’s (2001) definition) in the offences in the dataset.
  88. Direct non-sexual Offender directs the victim/witness to engage in a non-sexual behaviour.
  89. Direct Position Offender directs the victim to position herself in a particular way.
  90. Direct Redress Offender directed the victim to redress.
  91. Direct Sexual Offender directs the victim to perform a sexual behaviour.
  92. Direct-position Offender directs the victim to position herself in a particular way.
  93. Direct-quiet Offender orders the victim to be quiet.
  94. Direct-redress Offender directed the victim to redress.
  95. Direct-resist Offender directs the victim not to physically resist.
  96. Direct-sexual Offender directs the victim to perform a sexual behaviour.
  97. Direct-stay Offender directs victim to stay put.
  98. Direct-undress Offender directs the victim to undress.
  99. Directing the victim to be quiet was included in the Escape domain because it related to the offender trying to avoid detection, part of Grubin et al.’s (2001) definition for this domain.
  100. Directing the victim to stop their resistance was included in the Control domain because it related to the offender trying to maintain control over the victim, part of Grubin et al.’s (2001) definition for this domain.
  101. Directly declines Victim directly declines the suspect’s offer, request or suggestion (can also involve a degree of justifying her behaviour but this would be coded separately).
  102. Directly declines Victim directly declines the suspect’s offer, request or suggestion (can also involve a degree of justifying her behaviour but this would be coded separately). 64%
  103. Disclose Intimate Offender discloses something intimate to the victim.
  104. Disclose-criminal Offender discloses something to the victim about his criminal behaviour or that of his co-offender.
  105. Disclose-intimate Offender discloses something intimate to the victim about himself or his co-offender.
  106. Disclose-personal Offender discloses information about himself or his co-offenders.
  107. Discloses intent Offender discloses to the victim/co-offender his intentions.
  108. (2001). Discloses intent St Making announcements of intention was included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  109. Does not return smile. Victim does not return the suspect’s smile.
  110. Don’t believe Victim indicates to the suspect that she doesn’t believe what he has said.
  111. Don’t report E Behaviours associated with ensuring the victim did not report the offence were included by Grubin et al. (2001) in their Escape domain.
  112. Drops bags/belongings Victim drops her bags and belongings automatically, not consciously to attract attention and not to position herself less vulnerably.
  113. Drugged victim Offender drugged the victim.
  114. Drugs and Alcohol-Related Incapacitation
  115. Drugs Offender consumed drugs with victim.
  116. Drugs Offender consumed drugs with victim/co-offender.
  117. Educates Offender educates the victim on a topic.
  118. Ejaculation Offender ejaculates.
  119. Elbows Victim elbows the suspect.
  120. Encourages offender in a less severe sexual behaviour Victim tries to encourage offender to continue with a lesser sexual act to avoid a more severe attack.
  121. Erection Offender has an erection.
  122. Escorts suspect out. Victim escorts suspect out of a property.
  123. (2001). Excuses and justifications were included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  124. Excuses Offender excuses/justifies his actions.
  125. Exposure Offender exposes his penis (not for purposes of further sexual assault).
  126. Expresses disbelief Victim expresses her disbelief.
  127. Expresses disgust Victim expresses her disgust for what the suspect is suggesting.
  128. Expresses intention to do something. Victim tells the suspect what she intends to do but she is informing him rather than assuring him.
  129. Expresses shock Offender expresses his shock.
  130. Expresses shock St This was included in the Style domain since it was a behaviour which required the offender to engage with the victim and thus view her as a person, and because it was unnecessary for the offence to be committed.
  131. Expressive violence Offender is spontaneously violent towards the victim..
  132. Extends time Offender doesn’t quit the scene but stays in the vicinity unnecessarily.
  133. (2001). Extends time St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because a similar behaviour “Continues with date request” is included here by Grubin et al.
  134. Fakes unconsciousness Victim pretended she was unconscious.
  135. Falls asleep Victim fell asleep through exhaustion.
  136. Feet Offender caressed or kissed victim’s feet.
  137. Feet Offender masturbates himself using the victim’s feet.
  138. Fellatio Offender forces victim or attempts to force victim to perform fellatio.
  139. Fingerprints Offender wipes for fingerprints.
  140. force Offender moves the victim’s location using force or the fear of force.
  141. force Offender moves the victim’s location using force or the threat of force.
  142. Freezes Victim reports freezing and being unable to act.
  143. Fulfilled promise St This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it was unrelated to the commission of the offence.
  144. Gag hand Offender gags the victim with his hand/arm.
  145. Gag Offender gags the victim with an object (not with hand).
  146. Gags/chokes Victim gagged or choked.
  147. Gags/chokes Victim gagged or choked. 7%
  148. Gathers up belongings Victim gathered up her belongings.
  149. Gives an order. Victim gives the suspect an order.
  150. Gives an order. Victim gives the suspect an order. 71%
  151. Gloves Offender was wearing gloves.
  152. Grab Offender grabs the victim with the purpose of controlling her.
  153. Grubin et al (2001) include a range of disclosures in their Style domain.
  154. Grubin et al (2001) included changes of location within their Control domain.
  155. Hides property Victim hides her property from the suspect.
  156. Hit with object. Victim hits suspect with an object.
  157. Hits/slaps (with open hand) Victim hits/slaps suspect with her open hand.
  158. Hits/slaps (with open hand) Victim hits/slaps suspect with her open hand. 7%
  159. Hold hand Offender holds the victim’s hand.
  160. (2001). Holds hand St “Affection shown” is a behaviour included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  161. Hug Offender hugged the victim (not for restraint).
  162. Hug Offender hugged the victim.
  163. Ignores co-offender directive Offender ignores the directive from his co-offender. This is different from refusing it which would come within Offenders Argued.
  164. Ignores request Offender ignores victim’s request.
  165. (2001). Ignores request St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because the opposite behaviour of “Compromises” is located in this domain by Grubin
  166. In the population of offences this behaviour related to avoiding detection and so was included in the Escape domain.
  167. (2001). included a similar behaviour “Requests or takes money”
  168. (2001). included behaviours associated with fondling and touching in their Sex domain.
  169. (2001). included behaviours associated with the offender’s erectile state in their Sex domain.
  170. (2001). included behaviours associated with undressing in the Sex domain.
  171. (2001). included behaviours within this category in their Control domain.
  172. (2001). included concern about fingerprints in their Escape domain.
  173. (2001). included deliberate damage to the victim’s clothing in their Sex domain.
  174. (2001). included expressive forms of violence in their Control domain.
  175. (2001). included fondling and kissing in their Sex domain.
  176. (2001). included gagging within their Control domain.
  177. (2001). included how the offender approached the victim within their Control domain.
  178. (2001). included instrumental physical abuse within their Control domain.
  179. (2001). included kissing behaviours in their Sex domain.
  180. (2001). included masturbation by the offender in the Sex domain.
  181. (2001). included methods of physically restraining the victim in their Control domain.
  182. (2001). included prowling within their Control domain.
  183. (2001). included requests for sexual behaviours in their Sex domain.
  184. (2001). included site of approach in their Control domain.
  185. (2001). included telling the victim not to look at the offender in their Escape domain.
  186. (2001). included the behaviour “Mention of victim enjoying”
  187. (2001). included the behaviour “Victim asked to undress” within their Sex domain.
  188. (2001). included the behaviour “Victim required to respond” in their Sex domain.
  189. (2001). included the behaviour “weapon” within their Control domain.
  190. (2001). included the victim being made to masturbate the offender in their Sex domain.
  191. (2001). included the victim being put in fear within their Control domain.
  192. (2001). included using a Blindfold within their Control domain they also included behaviours associated with the offender hiding his identity from the victim in their Escape domain therefore this behaviour was included in the Escape domain.
  193. Indicates can’t help Victim informs the suspect that she can’t help him.
  194. Indicates they don’t like what suspect is doing. Victim tells the suspect that she doesn’t like what he is doing.
  195. Indirectly declines Victim indirectly declines the suspect’s offer, request or suggestion (can also involve a degree of justifying her behaviour but this would be coded separately).
  196. Indoor Offender sexually assaults the victim indoors.
  197. Innocence Offender protests his innocence.
  198. Instrumental violence Offender is violent towards the victim to control her.
  199. Introduces Introduces victim to witnesses/offender.
  200. Intrudes Offender intrudes into the victim’s dwelling.
  201. Intrudes Offender intrudes into the victim’s house.
  202. Investigating sex offending: The nature of group rape
  203. Justifies behaviour Victim explains or justifies her verbal or physical behaviour to the suspect.
  204. Justifies behaviour Victim explains or justifies her verbal or physical behaviour to the suspect. 36%
  205. (2004). Juvenile sexual delinquents: contrasting child abusers and peer abusers.
  206. Knees suspect Victim knees the suspect between the legs.
  207. Leaves weapon E This behaviour was placed in the Escape domain since it occurred after the offender had wiped the weapon for fingerprints and seems related to the offender avoiding detection by leaving the weapon behind.
  208. Leaves Weapon Offender leaves weapon behind on purpose.
  209. Less vulnerable positioning. Victim moves her body into a position where she is able to be more mobile and less vulnerable.
  210. (2001). Lie-protect ID E Behaviours concerned with the offender protecting his identity were included by Grubin et al.
  211. Lie-upset Offender tells the victim lies to upset her.
  212. Look Out Offender acts as look-out.
  213. Look-out Offender acts as look-out.
  214. Looks at suspect. Victim looks at the suspect.
  215. Lying Offender communicates that he believes the victim is lying.
  216. Makes assurances that won’t report. Victim assures the suspect that she won’t report the offence.
  217. Makes assurances to comply with wishes. Victim assures the offender that she will comply with his demands.
  218. Makes assurances to stay Makes assurances to the suspect that she’ll stay where she is.
  219. Masked victim’s screaming. Offender masked the victim’s screaming.
  220. Minimises Actions Offender minimises his actions (but doesn’t justify them).
  221. (2001). Minimises actions St A similar behaviour Excuses/Justifications was included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  222. Mocked Offender laughed at/mocked the victim.
  223. Moves away Victim tries to put distance between herself and the suspect by moving away from him.
  224. Moves to let pass Victim moved to let the suspect pass by her.
  225. (1988). Multiple paraphilic diagnoses among sex offenders.
  226. Name calling Victim calls the suspect a name or insults him. 7%
  227. Name calling Victim calls the suspect a name or swears at him.
  228. Negotiation Offender tries to or does negotiate with the victim.
  229. (2001). Negotiation St A similar behaviour “Compromise” was included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  230. Negotiation Victim negotiates with offender to comply with his wishes but in some way on her terms.
  231. NK Offender attempts or digitally penetrates the victim (orifice unknown).
  232. Obeys wishes Victim complies with the suspect’s wishes and either engages in or stops a behaviour.
  233. Obeys wishes Victim complies with the suspect’s wishes and either engages in or stops a behaviour. 71%
  234. Observed Offenders observed the sexual assault.
  235. Offender approached the victim suddenly and without any verbal interaction.
  236. Offender approached the victim using verbal interaction.
  237. Offender blindfolds the victim using his hands.
  238. Offender cut the telephone wires.
  239. Offender departs the scene quickly.
  240. Offender digitally penetrates the victim’s vagina.
  241. Offender directs the victim to be quiet.
  242. Offender directs the victim to undress.
  243. Offender directs the victim/witness to engage in a nonsexual behaviour.
  244. Offender directs victim not to report the assault.
  245. Offender directs victim to stay put.
  246. Offender forces victim to touch his penis/masturbate him.
  247. Offender gags the victim with his hand/arm.
  248. Offender holds the victim’s hand.
  249. Offender implies he’s seen victim before.
  250. Offender implies that his aggression is conditional on the victim’s behaviour.
  251. Offender offers the victim something.
  252. Offender penetrated or attempted to penetrate the victim’s anus with his penis.
  253. Offender penetrated or attempted to penetrate the victim’s vagina with his penis.
  254. Offender reminded victim he’d fulfilled his promise.
  255. Offender restrains victim in a manner so she can’t see him.
  256. Offender shows the victim pornography.
  257. Offender styled victim’s hair.
  258. Offender tells the victim lies to upset her.
  259. Offender threatens the victim implying physical violence (unconditional).
  260. Offender touched victim’s stomach area.
  261. Offender touches victim’s buttocks or bottom area.
  262. Offender tries to or does kiss the victim on the face or neck.
  263. Offender uses a car.
  264. Offender uses his body weight to restrain the victim.
  265. Offenders Argued Offenders argued with one another.
  266. Offenders argued St This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it was not necessary for the offence to have been committed.
  267. Offers assistance Offender offers to assist the victim or does assist her.
  268. (2001). Offers assistance St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because a similar behaviour “Consideration” was included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  269. Offers gift Offender offers the victim something.
  270. Offers gift St This behaviour was placed in the Style domain since it was unnecessary for the offence to be committed.
  271. On Foot Offender was on-foot.
  272. On-foot Offender was on-foot.
  273. Outdoor Offender sexually assaults victim outdoors.
  274. Partial compliance Victim does not fully comply with suspect’s demand but does so partially.
  275. Partial compliance Victim does not fully comply with suspect’s demand but does so partially. 14%
  276. Pen Offender attempts or penetrates the victim’s vagina with his penis.
  277. Pen Offender digitally penetrates the victim’s vagina.
  278. (2001). Personal questions posed to the victim were included in the Style domain by Grubin
  279. (2001). Personal questions were included by Grubin et al.
  280. Physical distraction Victim tries to distract the suspect through a physical behaviour. 0
  281. Physical help-seeking Victim tries to get help from witnesses through physical means.
  282. Physical threat Offender physically threatens the victim.
  283. Positions Offender forces the victim into a desired position.
  284. Positions Offender forces the victim into a position he wants.
  285. (1998). Predicting the criminal record of a stranger rapist. Special Interest Series Paper 12. London: Home
  286. Pretends can’t comply Victim pretends that she can’t comply with suspect’s request.
  287. Pretends witness nearby. Victim lies to the suspect telling him that a witness is nearby or will be arriving shortly.
  288. (2001). Prevents look E Behaviours concerned with the offender hiding his identity were included by Grubin et al.
  289. Promise reminder Victim reminds the suspect of what he promised her earlier.
  290. Property Offender takes the victim’s property.
  291. Protect Identity Offender tells victim lies to protect identity.
  292. Provides way out Victim tries to give the suspect a way out of the situation.
  293. Provokes Offender tries to provoke the victim into action.
  294. Pursues Offender pursues the victim in a concerted manner.
  295. Pursues/prevents escape Victim pursues the suspect and/or prevents his escape.
  296. Pursues/prevents escape Victim pursues the suspect and/or prevents his escape. 7%
  297. Pushes Past Offender pushes past the victim.
  298. Pushes past St This behaviour was placed in the Style domain since it was unnecessary for the offence to be committed.
  299. Put off Offender stops assaulting victim because he is put off by something other than the victim (e.g. arrival of witnesses).
  300. put off Victim tries to put the suspect off by pointing out her age to him. 0
  301. put off Victim warns suspect that his behaviour will get him in trouble.
  302. Queries intentions Victim queries the suspect’s intentions.
  303. Queries intentions Victim queries the suspect’s intentions. 14%
  304. Question-personal Offender asks victim for personal information.
  305. Question-security Offender asks victim question with goal of maintaining his security/escape.
  306. Question-sexual Offender asks victim sexual question (not about enjoyment/arousal).
  307. Quickens pace Victim quickens her walking pace.
  308. (2005). Rape reporting after reforms: Have times really changed?
  309. Re-dress/cover self Victim tries to redress herself or cover herself.
  310. Re-dress/cover self Victim tries to redress herself or cover herself. 36%
  311. Re-Dressed Offender redressed himself.
  312. reason to leave. Victim pretends she has to leave the suspect’s company and gives a reason why this is.
  313. Reassures Offender reassures the victim: includes minimisation and commitments.
  314. Reassures Offender reassures the victim. His reassurance can be truthful or false.
  315. Recognises Victim tells the suspect that she recognizes him.
  316. Redressed Offender redressed himself.
  317. Redressed victim Offender redressed the victim.
  318. Refuses answer Offender refuses to answer victim’s question.
  319. Refuses answer St This behaviour was placed within the Style domain since it was unrelated to the commission of the offence and seemed to reflect the victim being used as a vehicle.
  320. Refuses request Offender refuses victim’s request
  321. (2001). Refuses request St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because the opposite behaviour of “Compromises” is located in this domain by Grubin et al.
  322. Refuses to speak Victim does not speak in a situation where she might be expected to respond verbally
  323. Refuses to speak Victim does not speak in a situation where she might be expected to respond verbally. 7%
  324. Released the suspect Victim released the suspect.
  325. Releases Offender releases the victim.
  326. Releases Offender releases the victim. This is not a result of victim resistance, or third party interruption, it’s a conscious choice made by the suspect.
  327. (2001). Remove blindfold St This behaviour was included within the Style domain because it related to behaviours such as Consideration which were included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  328. Removes blindfold Victim removes her blindfold.
  329. Removes Gag Offender removes the victim’s gag.
  330. (2001). Removes gag St This behaviour was placed in the Style domain because it is similar to the behaviour “Consideration” placed in this domain by Grubin et al.
  331. Removes hat Victim tries to remove the suspect’s hat.
  332. Reports can’t breathe Victim tells the suspect that she can’t breathe.
  333. Reports frightened Victim tells the suspect that she is frightened or worried.
  334. Reports suspect’s behaviour to witness Victim reports the suspect’s behaviour to a witness.
  335. Reports suspect’s behaviour to witness Victim reports the suspect’s behaviour to a witness. 14%
  336. Requests behaviour from suspect Victim requests something of the suspect.
  337. Requests help Offender requests assistance from the victim
  338. Requests help St This behaviour was included in the Style domain because it was unnecessary to the commission of the offence and because this domain also contained other behaviours where the offender was seeking something (non-sexual) from the victim.
  339. Requests permission to act. Victim asks permission from the suspect to engage in a behaviour.
  340. resistance Offender gives up trying to assault the victim due to resistance.
  341. Responds to greeting. Victim greets the suspect in response to his greeting.
  342. Responds to greeting. Victim greets the suspect in response to his greeting. 7%
  343. Restrain-body Offender uses his body weight to restrain the victim.
  344. Restrains Arms Offender restrains victim’s arms or hands.
  345. Return Home Offender returns victim home.
  346. Returns home E This behaviour was included in the Escape domain since its apparent purpose was to indicate to the victim that the offender knew where she lived and could find her should she report the offence.
  347. Returns property Offender returns previously taken property/or when has stolen other items.
  348. Returns property St Behaviours relating to the taking of property were included within Grubin et al.’s (2001) style domain.
  349. Rips clothes Offender intentionally rips victim’s clothing.
  350. Roles within criminal and non-criminal groups
  351. Roles Within Organised Criminal Groups
  352. Runs away Victim runs away from the suspect. Not the same as running towards people specifically to get help as this would be physical help-seeking.
  353. Runs away Victim runs away from the suspect. Not the same as running towards people specifically to get help as this would be physical help-seeking. 7%
  354. Safe location Victim tries to get into or does get into a safe location such as her house.
  355. Safe location Victim tries to get into or does get into a safe location such as her house. 7%
  356. Says farewell to suspect/signals end of conversation. Victim attempts to end the conversation or expresses her intention to leave the suspect, either way signalling an end to their interaction.
  357. Scratches Victim scratches the suspect.
  358. Scripting Offender forces victim to say specific phrases.
  359. Seeking understanding of why Victim is asking the offender why they were attacked but this seems more introspective rather than the victim actually looking for an answer.
  360. Seeks clarification Victim seeks to clarify what the suspect has said sometimes because they think they have misheard them.
  361. Seeks clarification Victim seeks to clarify what the suspect has said sometimes because they think they have misheard them. 14%
  362. Seeks help verbally from witnesses Victim verbally tries to get help from witnesses.
  363. Seeks help verbally from witnesses Victim verbally tries to get help from witnesses. 36%
  364. Self Image Offender lies to protect his self image.
  365. (2001). self image St This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it was related to the offender maintaining his image in a similar manner to Boasting which was included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  366. Sexual noises Offender makes noises of sexual pleasure.
  367. Sexual Noises Offender makes sexual noises at the victim.
  368. Sexual noises S Whilst not present in Grubin et al.’s (2001) study, this is a sexual behaviour and so was placed in the Sexual domain.
  369. Sexual Offender asks victim sexual question (not about enjoyment/arousal).
  370. (2001). Sexual questions were included by Grubin et al.
  371. Simulated intercourse Offender simulated intercourse with victim.
  372. Simulated sex S Whilst not present in Grubin et al.’s (2001) study, this is a sexual behaviour and so was placed in the Sexual domain.
  373. Sits Offender sits/lies next to victim.
  374. Spits Offender spits at the victim.
  375. Spits semen Victim spits semen away.
  376. Spontaneously gives property. Victim spontaneously gives the suspect her property.
  377. Stalks Offender follows, surveils or watches victim.
  378. (2001). stated that the control domain includes behaviours directed towards gaining control of the victim. This behaviour was therefore included in the Control domain.
  379. Stays still Victim doesn’t move but isn’t frozen. She is not resisting the suspect.
  380. Stays still Victim doesn’t move but isn’t frozen. She is not resisting the suspect. 14%
  381. Stops co-offender hurting victim. Offender stops or tries to stop his co-offender from hurting the victim.
  382. Struggles Victim physically struggled with the suspect. This includes trying to shake the suspect off and pushing them away. 57%
  383. Styled hair St This was included in the Style domain since it was unrelated to the commission of the offence.
  384. Suggests location change Victim suggests to the suspect they change their location as a stalling tactic.
  385. Suspect orders the victim not to report his behaviour.
  386. Suspect refers to victim’s arousal or enjoyment of sexual acts.
  387. Takes drugs Victim voluntarily takes drugs with suspect.
  388. Takes Weapon Offender tries to take weapon from victim
  389. Takes weapon Victim takes or tries to take the suspect’s weapon away from him.
  390. Taxi home Victim took a taxi home.
  391. Tears suspect’s clothes Victim tears suspect’s clothes.
  392. Tells suspect already obeyed order. Victim tells the suspect she already done what he demanded.
  393. Tells suspect it hurts Victim tells the suspect that he is hurting her.
  394. Tells suspect it hurts Victim tells the suspect that he is hurting her. 14%
  395. The destruction of physical evidence or precautions being taken with regards to physical evidence were included by Grubin et al. (2001) in their Escape domain.
  396. (1996). The development of offending.
  397. (2001). The manner in which the offender departed the crime scene was included in the Escape domain since Grubin et al.
  398. (2001). The offender showing concerns about making a safe escape were included within the Escape domain by Grubin et al.
  399. The offender showing some sort of remorse for his actions was included by Grubin et al. (2001) in their Escape domain.
  400. (2001). The purpose of control behaviours were, as defined by Grubin
  401. (2001). The purpose of control behaviours were, as defined by Grubin et al.
  402. (2001). The telling of lies about his intentions was included in the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  403. The use of violence within group rapes
  404. This behaviour has not been recorded before but its function seemed to be to avoid apprehension by the offender protesting that he had not been involved in the assault. It was therefore placed within the Escape domain.
  405. This behaviour related to how the offender could escape the scene and therefore was placed within the Escape domain.
  406. (2001). This behaviour was included in the Style domain because a similar behaviour “Consideration” was included in this domain by Grubin
  407. (2001). This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it is similar to Consideration which was included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  408. This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it reflects a willingness by the offender to interact with the victim as a person.
  409. (2001). This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it shares similarities with arguing with the victim and is the opposite to complimenting the victim which was placed here by Grubin et al.
  410. This behaviour was included in the Style domain since it was not necessary for the offence to have been committed.
  411. This behaviour was included within the Sex domain since it related to an offender trying to make the victim engage in a sexual behaviour but due to her apparent lack of knowledge it first had to be demonstrated.
  412. This behaviour was placed in the Escape domain since it relates to the offender ceasing his actions and quitting the scene.
  413. This behaviour was placed in the Style domain since it was unnecessary for the offence to be committed.
  414. This behaviour was placed in the Style domain since it was unrelated to the commission of the offence.
  415. (2001). This behaviour was placed within the Style domain because it is similar to because such as Compromise, which were included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  416. (2001). This behaviour wasn’t necessary for the offence to be committed and shares similarity with “Swore” included within the Style domain by Grubin et al.
  417. (2001). This was included in the Style domain because this domain contains a similar behaviour labelled “Arguing” by Grubin et al.
  418. This was included in the Style domain since it was unnecessary for the commission of the offence.
  419. This was included in the Style domain since it was unrelated to the commission of the offence.
  420. Threatens suspect Victim threatens the suspect with a consequence if he doesn’t comply with her wishes.
  421. Throws weapon away. Victim throws the suspect’s weapon a distance away.
  422. Touch bottom Offender touches victim’s buttocks or bottom area.
  423. Touch penis Offender forces victim to touch his penis/masturbate him.
  424. Touch vaginal Offender touches victim’s vaginal area.
  425. Touched Leg Offender touched victim’s leg or
  426. Tries to find weapon Victim tries to find a weapon she can use against the suspect.
  427. Tries to get out of enclosed space. Victim tries to get out an enclosed space.
  428. Tries to speak to the suspect Victim tries to talk to the suspect.
  429. Truthful response to personal question Victim discloses something about herself after the suspect has asked her a question. (Often minimal information is given perhaps related to politeness but protecting self).
  430. Turns around Victim tries to or does turn around to see who is behind her.
  431. Turns around Victim tries to or does turn around to see who is behind her. 7%
  432. Undresses self Offender undresses himself.
  433. Undresses victim Offender undresses the victim or interferes with her clothing.
  434. Undresses-self Offender undresses himself.
  435. (2001). Use of gloves was included by Grubin et al.
  436. (2001). Vaginal penetration was included by Grubin et al.
  437. Vague disclosure Victim answers suspect’s question in a deliberately vague manner.
  438. Verbal abuse Offender swears at the victim or verbally abuses her.
  439. (2001). Verbal abuse St This was included in the Style domain since it is similar to the behaviour “Swore” included in this domain by Grubin et al.
  440. Verbal Threat Offender implies he will use physical violence (unconditional).
  441. Victim confronts the suspect about his behaviour indicating that it is inappropriate.
  442. Victim discloses to the suspect that she has a disease which is untrue with the aim of putting the suspect off.
  443. Victim does not comply with the suspect’s demands.
  444. Victim does not comply with the suspect’s demands. 36%
  445. Victim does not stop the suspect kissing her but keeps her lips and mouth closed.
  446. Victim does not stop the suspect kissing her but keeps her lips and mouth closed. 7%
  447. Victim draws parallels between herself and women within the suspect’s life.
  448. Victim expressed her indifference to the suspect. 7%
  449. Victim expressed her indifference to the suspect’s warning.
  450. Victim finds her house keys.
  451. Victim gives the suspect some advice.
  452. Victim helps the suspect.
  453. Victim helps the suspect. 7%
  454. Victim kicks or tries to kick the suspect. 7.7
  455. Victim pulls the suspect’s hair.
  456. Victim punches or tries to punch the suspect.
  457. Victim punches or tries to punch the suspect. 7%
  458. Victim queries the journey/route that the suspect is taking.
  459. Victim queries the journey/route that the suspect is taking. 7%
  460. Victim refers to the presence of her child.
  461. (1986). Victim responses by rapist type: An empirical and clinical analysis.
  462. Victim tries to block the suspect’s access to her.
  463. Victim tries to or does find her mobile phone.
  464. Victim tries to or does hail a bus. 0 2.6 1.3 Appendix 4: Offender Behaviours, Domains and Justifications for
  465. Victim tries to walk around the suspect.
  466. Walks/cycles away Victim walks, cycles away from the suspect.
  467. Walks/cycles away Victim walks, cycles away from the suspect. 50%
  468. Weapon Offender implies having or has a weapon in his possession.
  469. Wearing a mask was included in Grubin et al.’s (2001) Escape domain.
  470. (2001). Whilst not a behaviour in Grubin
  471. (2001). Whilst this behaviour did not emerge in Grubin et al.

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