Evidence of a PPARγ-mediated mechanism in the ability of Withania somnifera to attenuate tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of morphine

Abstract

Notwithstanding the experimental evidence indicating Withania somnifera Dunal roots extract (WSE) ability to prolong morphine-elicited analgesia, the mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. With the aim of evaluating a PPARγ-mediated mechanism in such WSE effects, we verified the ability of the PPARγ antagonist GW-9662 to modulate WSE actions. Further, we evaluated the influence of GW-9662 upon WSE / morphine interaction in SH-SY5Y cells since we previously reported that WSE hampers the morphine-induced μ-opioid receptor (MOP) receptor down-regulation. Nociceptive thresholds / tolerance development were assessed in different groups of rats receiving vehicles (control), morphine (10 mg/kg; i.p.), WSE (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and PPARγ antagonist GW-9662 (1 mg/kg; s.c.) in acute and chronic schedules of administration. Moreover, the effects of GW-9662 (5 and 10 μM) applied alone and in combination with morphine (10 μM) and/or WSE (0.25 and 1.00 mg/mL) on the MOP gene expression were investigated in cell cultures. Data analysis revealed a functional effect of the PPARγ antagonist in attenuating the ability of WSE to prolong morphine analgesic effect and to reduce tolerance development after repeated administration. In addition, molecular experiments demonstrated that the blockade of PPARγ by GW-9662 promotes MOP mRNA down-regulation and counteracts the ability of 1.00 mg/mL of WSE to keep an adequate MOP receptor availability. In conclusion, our results support the involvement of a PPARγ-mediated mechanism in the WSE effects on morphine-mediated nociception and the likely usefulness of WSE in lengthening the analgesic efficacy of opioids in chronic therapy

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Archivio istituzionale della ricerca - Università di Cagliari

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oaioai:iris.unica.it:1158...Last time updated on 4/19/2019

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