Location of Repository

Smart X-ray optics for large and small scale applications

By Charlotte Hannah Feldman

Abstract

The Smart X-ray Optics project is a UK based consortium of eight institutions investigating\ud active/adaptive X-ray optics for both large and small scale applications.\ud The consortium is funded by a basic technology grant from the Engineering and\ud Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC).\ud The large scale application is aimed towards future high angular resolution, large\ud X-ray telescopes for X-ray astronomy. The first prototype mirror incorporates piezoelectric\ud devices to a standard X-ray shell to enable the surface to be actively deformed.\ud The aim is to achieve an angular resolution better than that currently\ud available (e.g. Chandra 0.5”). The initial design is based on a thin nickel ellipsoid\ud segment on the back of which a series of thirty, curved piezoelectric actuators have\ud been bonded.\ud The small scale application is aimed at providing an X-ray focusing device, capable\ud of producing a focused spot of ∼10μm, the same size as an average biological cell\ud for cancer research and studies. Current small scale devices, zone plates, are limited\ud by their focal length and aperture, and cannot be used at energies greater than\ud 1keV . In order to increase the workable X-ray energies, whilst still providing small\ud spot sizes over short distances, a new optic was designed. Micro Optical Arrays are\ud based on polycapillary or Micro Channel Plate optics (MCPs) and consist of a series\ud of parallel channels, etched into silicon wafers. By the attachment of piezoelectric\ud devices, a device with a variable focal length can be created.\ud The work presented within this thesis describes the design, metrology, modelling\ud and X-ray testing of the first large adaptive X-ray optic and the theory, modelling\ud and X-ray testing of the small scale optic. Summaries, conclusions and future work\ud are also outlined

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7833

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2007). Active X-ray mirror development at UCL: preliminary results”, Advanced Optical Manufacturing and Testing Technologies: Large Mirrors and Telescopes, doi
  2. (2004). IMTEK: Institut fur Mikrosystemtechnik. http://www.imtek.de/microoptics/content/upload/projekt/2005/mirror photo.jpg,
  3. (2009). The Centre for X-ray Optics.
  4. (1948). Formation of optical images by x-rays. doi
  5. (1985). X-ray telescopes. doi
  6. information. http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/ 155429main chandra 330x255.jpg.
  7. The Chandra observatory image gallery. doi
  8. ESA XMM-Newton image gallery. http://xmm.esac.esa.int/external/ xmm science/gallery/images/ngc4258 lrg.jpg.
  9. The XMM satellite schoolpage.
  10. ESA XMM-Newton image gallery. http://xmm.esac.esa.int/external/ xmm science/gallery/images/xmm mirror.gif.
  11. Caltech: NuSTAR Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. doi
  12. Inc. Aerospace Materials: Upilex Foam.
  13. (1999). Improvements in the accuracy and the repeatability of long trace profiler measuements. doi
  14. (1993). X-ray science and technology.
  15. (2006). A novel moems based adaptive optics for x-ray focusing. doi
  16. (2009). Active micro-structured optical arrays of grazing incidence reflectors. doi
  17. (1987). Scattering from X-ray mirrors.
  18. (2005). Proof of concept, research on smart x-ray optics. submitted to EPSRC,
  19. (2000). The penguin dictionary of Physcis. Penguin, third edition,
  20. (2007). NASA Student site and The electromagnetic spectrum. http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html,
  21. (2009). Adaptive optics: a breakthrough in astronomy. Experimental astronomy astrophysical instrumentation and methods, doi
  22. (2004). Performance of an adaptive u-focusing kirkpatrick-baez system for high-pressure studies at the advanced photon source. doi
  23. (1987). The ornl beamline at the national synchrotron light source. National synchrotron radiation instrumentation conference, doi
  24. (1971). Piezoelectric ceramics.
  25. (2000). Fundamental understanding of piezoelectric strain sensors. doi
  26. (2001). Routes to net shape electroceramic devices and thick films. doi
  27. (2006). Manufacture and characterization of high activity piezoelectric fibres. doi
  28. (1962). The optical principles of the diffraction of X-rays, doi
  29. (1935). X-rays in theory and experiment. doi
  30. (1993). X-ray interactions: Photoabsorption, scattering, transmission and reflection at e=50-30,000ev, z=1-92. Atomic data and nuclear data tables, doi
  31. (1963). The scattering of EM waves from rough surfaces. Pergamon press,
  32. (1951). Reflection of electromagnetic waves from slightly rough surfaces. doi
  33. (1986). Shadow: A synchrotron radiation ray tracing program. Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research, doi
  34. (2009). Oriented Programs. doi
  35. (1997). Wave-front propagation: design code for synchrotron radiation beam lines. doi
  36. (2007). Transverse coherence properties of x-ray beams in third-generation synchrotron radiation sources. doi
  37. Research: Oslo Optical Design Software.
  38. Multiphysics Modeling and Simulation. doi
  39. (2008). On-orbit adjustment calculation for the generation-x x-ray mirror figure. doi
  40. (1997). Companion to the cosmos.
  41. (1960). A ’telescope’ for soft x-ray astronomy. doi
  42. (2003). The chandra x-ray observatory: an overview. doi
  43. (2001). Xmm-newton observatory. Astronomy and Astrophysics, doi
  44. (2008). International x-ray observatory (ixo).
  45. (2004). Constellation-x to generation-x: Evolution of large collecting area, moderate resolution grazing incidence x-ray telescopes to larger area, high resolution, adjustable optics. doi
  46. (1952). Generalized schwarzschild mirror systems with glancing incidence as optics for x-rays.
  47. (1968). Study of x-ray images of the sun at solar minimum. doi
  48. (1979). The einstein (heao2) x-ray observatory. doi
  49. (1971). The einstein /heao 2/ x-ray observatory. doi
  50. (2002). Speybroeck. An overview of the performance and scientific results from the chandra x-ray observatory. Publications of the astronomical society of the pacific, doi
  51. (2009). Generation-x mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics. doi
  52. Gen-X science Harvard Center for Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysics group.
  53. (2001). Xmm-newton observatory, 1. the spacecraft and operations. doi
  54. (2005). The swift x-ray telescope. Space science reviews, doi
  55. (2009). Manufacture of mirror glass substrates for the nustar mission. doi
  56. (2009). Techniques for the manufacturing of stiff and lightweight optical mirror panels based on slumping of glass sheets: concepts and results. doi
  57. (2009). Stacking of silicon pore optics for ixo. doi
  58. (2009). The mercury imaging x-ray spectrometer: instrument overview. doi
  59. (1989). X-ray detectors in astronomy. doi
  60. (2008). Future high-resolution x-ray telescope technologies: prototype fabrication methods and finite element analysis. doi
  61. (2002). White light interferometry. doi
  62. (1983). Bieren. Interferometry of wave fronts reflected off conical surfaces. doi
  63. (2001). Moxi: a novel microfabricated zoom lens for x-ray imaging. doi
  64. (2003). Novel micro-structured adaptive x-ray optics. doi
  65. (2005). Design and fabrication of micro optical system for x-ray analysis of biological cells. doi
  66. (1973). Geometrical and Physical Optics. Longman, third edition,
  67. (2006). Understanding radiation damage to cells using microbeams. doi
  68. (2007). Nanotechnology Clearinghouse. http://www.memsnet.org/mems /processes/etch.html,
  69. (2008). Blazed highefficiency x-ray diffraction via transmission through arrays of nanometer-scale mirrors. doi
  70. (1995). Advanced silicon etching using high-density plasmas. doi
  71. (1999). Recent advances in silicon etching for mems using the ase process. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, doi
  72. (2003). Applicaions and advances in polycapillary optics. X-ray spectrometry, doi
  73. (2002). Hard x-ray imaging with microchannel plate optics. doi
  74. (1993). X-ray focusing using cylindricalchannel capillary arrays, doi
  75. (1994). Geometric optics of arrays of reflective surfaces. doi
  76. (2009). Progress on the development of active micro-structured optical arrays for x-ray optics. doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.