Location of Repository

Upregulation of cytokeratins in the extravillous trophoblast in the basal plate of healthy and pre-eclamptic placentae

By John Ahenkorah


This research has determined which specific keratin molecular species are upregulated when comparing the chorionic villous trophoblast (CVT) to the extravillous trophoblast (EVT) in the basal plate tissues of placentae from healthy and pre-eclamptic mothers at term. Indirect immunofluorescence Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) revealed that at least 5 keratin proteins are expressed in villous trophoblast and the same 5 in extravillous trophoblast. A further 15 keratin proteins tested were undetectable in these tissues. All the specific keratins identified (K5, 7, 8, 18 and 19) in trophoblast were upregulated by over 20-fold in the EVT “percentage of pixels with high intensity”, a reflection of increased specific immunofluorescence. The statistically significant difference (P < 0.0001) of K5 for example, showed an increase from a median pixel value of 0.14% in CVT to 2.88% in the EVT whereas in the pre-eclamptic there was an increase from 0.06% in the CVT to 2.97% in the EVT. Similar patterns were obtained for K7, 8, 18, and 19. The reduction in the ratio of 4.8:1 of the percentage median pixel intensity from the healthy to pre-eclamptic CVT keratin related immunofluorescence expression was statistically significant in all 5 keratins (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in immunofluorescence pixel intensity for the EVTs at the CLSM level. At the electron microscopy level, immunogold labelling technique using anti-K7 and anti-K18 antibodies which were representatives of the two major keratin families TYPE II and TYPE I respectively, were down regulated in the CVT and EVT in pre-eclamptic compared with the healthy. On the basis of the results of these investigations the villous trophoblast in pre-eclamptic placentae may be cytoskeletally weaker through deficiency of these keratin filaments. This could be a reason why, in pre-eclampsia, trophoblast is deported in greater quantity than in healthy placenta

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7829

Suggested articles



  1. (1991). A clinical and biochemical evidence of endothelial dysfunction in pregnancy syndrome preeclampsia.
  2. (2006). A keratin cytoskeletal protein regulates protein synthesis and epithelial growth.
  3. (1992). A mutation in the conserved helix termination peptide of keratin 5 in hereditary skin blistering.
  4. (1988). A novel peptide vasoconstrictor, endothelin, is produced by vascular endothelium and modulates smooth muscle Ca 2+ channels.
  5. A potent inducer of apoptotic changes in the human placenta and possible etiological factor in preeclampsia.
  6. (2004). A Role for Thyroid Hormone in Wound Healing through Keratin Gene Expression.
  7. (2007). A role for tissue transglutaminase in stabilization of membrane-cytoskeletal particles shed from the human placenta.
  8. (1998). A structural scaffolding of intermediate filaments in Health and Disease.
  9. (1973). A study of angiotensin II presor response throughout primigravid pregnancy.
  10. (1994). A study of placental bed spiral arteries and trophoblast invasion in normal and severe preeclamptic pregnancies.
  11. (2002). ACOG Committee on Obstetric Practice:
  12. Adeno-Associated Virus-2 (AAV-2) causes trophoblast dysfunction, and placental AAV2 infection is associated with preeclampsia.
  13. (1989). Adhesive and degradative properties of human placental cytotrophoblast cells in vitro.
  14. (1983). Amino acid sequence data on glial filament acidic protein (GFA): Implications for the subdivision of intermediate filaments into epithelial and non-epithelial members.
  15. (1989). An epidermiologic study of contraception and pre-eclampsia.
  16. (1986). An immunocytochemical study of fetal cells at the maternofetal placental interface using monoclonal antibodies to keratin, vemintin and desmin.
  17. (1968). An index of syncytial growth in normal and complicated pregnancies.
  18. (1980). An ultrastructural and ultrahistochemical study of the human placenta in maternal pre-eclampsia.
  19. (1983). Antibodies to epithelial desmosomes show wide tissue and species cross-reactivity.
  20. (2000). Antibody reaction patterns in first trimester placenta: implications for trophoblast isolation and purity screening.
  21. (1985). Antigen expression by trophoblast populations in the human placenta and their immunobiological relevance.
  22. (2001). Antiplatelet drugs for prevention of pre-eclampsia and its consequences: systematic review.
  23. (2000). Aponecrosis: morphological and biochemical exploration of a syncretic process of cell death sharing apoptosis and necrosis.
  24. (2002). Apoptosis and keratin intermediate filaments.
  25. (2006). Apoptotic cells, through transforming growth factor-beta, coordinately induce anti inflammatory and suppress pro-inflammatory eicosanoid and NO synthesis in murine macrophages.
  26. (2004). Applications of an efficient method for comparing immunogold labelling patterns in the same sets of compartments in different groups of cells.
  27. (1997). as an immunohistochemical marker for intramural cytotrophoblast in human first trimester uteroplacental arteries.
  28. (1994). Aspirin and pre-eclampsia.
  29. (1999). Aspirin for preventing and treating pre-eclampsia.
  30. (1994). Association of pregnancy-induced hypertension with duration of sexual cohabitation before conception.
  31. (1989). Basement membrane heterogeneity and variation in corneal epithelial differentiation.
  32. (1995). Basic fibroblast growth factor and heparin stimulating integrin-alpha-1 expression by cytotrophoblast.
  33. (1997). Binding of antibodies against high and low molecular weight cytokeratin proteins in the human placenta with special reference to infarcts, proliferation and differentiation processes.
  34. (2000). Binding of recombinant human cytokeratin 19 to Laminin: A possible role in interaction between intermediate filament derived from epithelial cells and extracellular matrixes. Cell structure and function,
  35. (1983). Biochemical and immunological characterization of desmoplakins I and II, the major polypeptides of desmosomal plaque.
  36. (1995). Biochemical corroboration of endothelial involvement in severe pre-eclampsia.
  37. (1985). Biology of disease classification of human epithelia and their neoplasms using monoclonal antibodies to keratins: strategies, applications and limitations.
  38. (1983). Biology of disease: tumor diagnosis by intermediate filament typing: a novel tool for surgical pathology.
  39. (2003). Bosio MD MRCOG Mr Jason Waugh MRCOG Please initial boxes: I confirm that I have read and understand the information sheet dated Friday,
  40. Breaking the connection: displacement of the desmosomal plaque protein desmoplakin from cell-cell interfaces disrupts anchorage of intermediate filament bundles and alters intercellular junction assembly.
  41. (1996). Change in paternity: a risk factor for pre-eclampsia in multiparas.
  42. (1999). Change in paternity: a risk factor for pre-eclampsia in multiparous women?
  43. (1998). Changes in concentration, localization and activity of catalase within the human placenta during early gestation.
  44. (1992). Characterization of human cytokeratin 2, an epidermal cytoskeletal protein synthesized late during differentiation.
  45. (2005). Characterization of new members of the human type II keratin gene family and a general evolution of the keratin gene domain on chromosome 12q13.13.
  46. (2001). Characterization of Trophoblast Cell Isolations by a Modified Flow Cytometry Assay.
  47. (2004). Circulating angiogenic factors and the risk of preeclampsia.
  48. (1984). Classification of expression and possible mechanisms of evolution of mammalian epithelial keratins: a unifying model. In
  49. (2006). Clearance of apoptotic and necrotic cells and its immunological consequences.
  50. (1970). Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4.
  51. (1995). Cloning and characterization of multiple human genes and cDNAs encoding highly related type II keratin 6 isoforms.
  52. (2004). Confocal laser scanning microscope study of cytokeratin immunofluorescence differences between villous and extravillous trophoblast: cytokeratin downregulation in pre-eclampsia.
  53. (1997). Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy.
  54. (1987). Control of vascular reactivity in pregnancy.
  55. (2000). Correlation between oral sex and low incidence of pre-eclampsia in subsequent pregnancy.
  56. (1982). Correlation of specific keratins with different types of epithelial differentiation: monoclonal antibody study.
  57. (1991). Current topic. Pre-eclampsia and the placenta.
  58. (1992). Cytokeratin 20 in human carcinomas. A new histodiagnostic marker detected by monoclonal antibodies.
  59. (1990). Cytokeratin expression in rat mesothelial cells in vitro is controlled by the extracellular matrix.
  60. (2007). Cytokeratin markers come of age.
  61. (1984). Cytokeratins: complex formation, biosynthesis, and interactions with desmosomes. In
  62. (1992). Cytoskeleton plasma membrane interaction.
  63. (1995). Cytotrophoblast cells: a barrier to maternofetal transmission of passive immunity?
  64. (1998). Defining the interactions between intermediate filaments and desmosomes.
  65. (1985). Degradation of extracellular matrix by the trophoblastic cells of first-trimester human placentas.
  66. (2000). Delayed wound healing in keratin 6a knockout mice.
  67. (1994). Desmosomes and cytoskeletal architecture in epithelial differentiation: cell type -specific plaque components and intermediate filament anchorage.
  68. (2004). Determining tumour apoptosis and necrosis in patient serum using cytokeratin 18 as a biomarker.
  69. (1993). Developmental changes in the cell columns and trophoblast shell of the macaque placenta: an immunohistochemical study localizing type IV collagen, laminin, fibronectin and cytokeratins.
  70. (1988). Differential expression of blood-group-related carbohydrate antigens by trophoblast subpopulations.
  71. (1995). Differentiation of Human Trophoblast Population Involves Alterations in Cytokeratin Patterns.
  72. (1986). Differentiation-related expression of major 64K corneal keratin in vivo and in culture suggest limbal location of corneal epithelial stem cells.
  73. (1990). Distribution of cytokeratin polypeptides in human transitional cell carcinomas, with special emphasis on changing expression patterns during tumor progression.
  74. (1992). Distribution patterns of extracellular matrix components and adhesion receptors are intricately modulated during first trimester cytotrophoblast differentiation along invasive pathway, in vivo.
  75. (2002). Early expression of thyroid hormone deiodinases and receptors in human fetal cerebral cortex.
  76. (1985). Eclampsia at Harare maternity hospital.
  77. (1994). Eclampsia in the United Kingdom.
  78. (1983). Effect of extracellular calcium depletion on membrane topography and occluding junctions of mammary epithelial cells in culture.
  79. (2002). Effect of nicotine on intracellular adhesion molecule expression in endothelial cells and integrin expression in neutrophils in vitro.
  80. (2000). Effect of nicotine on leukocyte adhesion to uterine vasculature in pregnant rabbits as assessed by in vivo intravital microscopy.
  81. (1993). Elevated circulating thrombomodulin in severe pre-eclampsia.
  82. (1998). Endothelial dysfunction in pre-eclampsia.
  83. Endothelial oxidative stress activates the lectin complimentary pathway: role of cytokeratin 1.
  84. (1988). Endothelin: A potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells.
  85. (1991). Epidermolysis bullosa simplex evidence in two families for keratin gene abnormalities.
  86. (1996). Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during trophoblast differentiation.
  87. (1998). Epitheliod trophoblast tumour- A neoplasm distinct from choriocarcinoma and placenta site trophoblast tumour simulating carcinoma.
  88. (1998). Etiology and pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia: current concepts.
  89. (2004). Evaluation of Cytokeratin 7 as an accurate intracellular marker with which to assess the purity of human placental villous trophoblast cells by flow cytometry.
  90. (2003). Excess placental soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase (sFLtl) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and proteinuria in pre-eclampsia.
  91. (1994). Expression of adhession molecules by endovascular trophoblast and decidual endothelial cells- implication for vascular invasion during placentation.
  92. (1993). Expression of complete keratin filaments in mouse L cells augments cell migration and invasion.
  93. (1993). Expression of integrin alpha-6 beta-4 in human trophoblast and its loss from extravillous cells.
  94. (1991). Expression of simple epithelial keratins 8 and 18 in epidermal neoplasm.
  95. Expression of Simple epithelial type Cytokeratins in stratified epithelia as detected by immunolocalization and hybridization in Situ.
  96. (1996). Extracellular matrix components of the placental extravillous trophoblast: Immunocytochemistry and ultrastructural distribution.
  97. (1993). Extramatrix 5: adhesive interactions in early mammalian embryogenesis, implantation, and placentation.
  98. (2009). Factors involved in regulating trophoblast fusion: potential role in the development of pre-eclampsia.
  99. (2009). Failure to upregulate VEGF165b in maternal plasma is a first trimester predictive marker for pre-eclampsia.
  100. (1990). Fetal and placental size and risk of hypertension in adult life.
  101. (1998). Fetal growth and placental function.
  102. (1998). Fetal nicotine or cocaine exposure: which one is worse?
  103. (1993). Findings on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant function in hypertensive complications of pregnancy.
  104. (2004). First trimester placental growth factor and soluble fms-like 1 and risk of pre-eclampsia.
  105. (1965). Formation of syncytium from cytotrophoblast in human placenta.
  106. (1981). Full-term and prematurely ruptured fetal membranes.
  107. (2007). Gabor Than Award Lecture 2006: Pre-Eclampsia and Villous Trophoblast Turnover: Perspectives and Possibilities.
  108. (1999). Gestational trophoblast disease. In: Diagnostic surgical pathology.
  109. (1989). Growth factors, protooncogenes and human placental development.
  110. (2002). Hard and &quot;Soft&quot; principles defining the structure, function and regulation of keratin intermediate filaments.
  111. (2004). Healthy and pre-eclamptic placental basal plate lining cells: quantitative comparisons based on confocal laser scanning microscopy.
  112. (1996). Heterogeneous causes constituting the single syndrome of preeclampsia, a hypothesis and its implications.
  113. (1984). Heterotypic tetramer (A2D2) complexes of non-epidermal keratins isolated from cytoskeletons of rat hepatocytes and hepatoma cells.
  114. (1991). High plasma cellular fibronectin levels correlate with biochemical and clinical features of pre-eclampsia but cannot be attributed to hypertension alone.
  115. (1994). HLA-G polymorphisms in African Americans.
  116. (2003). HLA-G, Preeclampsia, Immunity and vascular events.
  117. (1982). How does the extracellular matrix direct gene expression?
  118. (1995). Human Implantation: cell biology and immunology. Cambridge:
  119. (2007). Human Placenta: de visu demonstration of interstitial Cajal-like cells.
  120. (1997). Human placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membranes impair maternal vascular endothelial function.
  121. (2003). Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy and the risk of hypertension and stroke in later life: results from cohort study.
  122. (2003). Hypoxia favours necrotic versus apoptotic shedding of placental Syncytiotrophoblast into the Maternal Circulation.
  123. (1997). Hypoxia stimulates cytokine production by villous explants from human placenta.
  124. (1990). Identification of protein IT of the intestinal cytoskeleton as a novel type I cytokeratin with unusual properties and expression patterns.
  125. (1988). Identification of the gene encoding the Endo B murine cytokeratin and its methylated, stable inactive state in mouse none epithelial cells.
  126. (2007). Immuno-electron microscopic localisation of caveolin 1 in human placenta.
  127. (1998). Immunocytochemical localisation of Caveolin-1 in human term extraembryonic membranes using confocal laser scanning microscopy.
  128. (2001). Immunocytochemical Localisation of Caveolin-1 in human term extraembryonic membranes: implications for the complexity of the materno-fatal junction.
  129. (1977). Immunogestosis: a new etiologic concept of &quot;essential&quot; EPH gestosis, with special consideration of the primigravid patient.
  130. (1994). Immunohistochemistry of two different types of placental fibrinoid.
  131. (1998). Immunolocalization of tumour necrosis factorα (TNF-α) in the placental bed of normotensive and hypertensive human pregnancies.
  132. (2006). Impaired vascular dilatation in women with history of pre-eclampsia.
  133. (2001). Implantation and the survival of early pregnancy.
  134. (1991). Implantation, trophoblast differentiation and haemochorial
  135. (2001). In vitro ischemia-reperfusion injury in term human placenta as a model for oxidative stress in pathological pregnancies.
  136. (1993). Increased expression of cytokeratin 8, 18 and vimentin in the invasion front of mucosal squamous cell carcinoma.
  137. (2001). Increased superoxide generation is associated with decreased superoxide dismutase activity and mRNA expression in placental trophoblast cells in pre-eclampsia.
  138. (2006). Inflammation and preeclampsia.
  139. (1979). Intercellular junctions in full term human placenta.
  140. (1980). Intercellular junctions in full term human placenta. II. Cytotrophoblast cells and blood vessels.
  141. (2006). Interferon-{gamma} inhibits extravillous trophoblast cell invasion by a mechanism that involves both changes in apoptosis and protease levels.
  142. (1981). Intermediate filament proteins in human placenta.
  143. (1994). Intermediate filament: structure, dynamics, function and disease.
  144. (1985). Intermediate filaments of human trophoblast and choriocarcinoma cell lines. Virchows Arch A. Pathol Anat Histopathol,
  145. (2007). Intermediate filaments: a role in epithelial polarity.
  146. (1995). Intermediate filaments: new proteins, some answers, more questions.
  147. (1990). Intermediate trophoblast: further immunocytochemical characterization.
  148. (1999). Intestinal polyposis in mice with dominant stable mutation of the beta-catenin gene.
  149. (2002). Invasive depth of extravillous trophoblast correlates with cellular phenotype- a comparison of intra- and extrauterine implantation sites.
  150. (1997). is expressed on the hepatocyte plasma membrane surface and interacts with thrombin-antithrombin complex. J.Biol chem.,
  151. (1991). Is onchofetal fibronectin a trophoblast glue for human implantation?
  152. (1981). Isolation and characterization of desmosome-associated tonofilaments from rat intestinal brush border.
  153. (1989). Keratin 19: predicted amino acid sequence and broad tissue distribution suggest it evolves from keratinocyte keratins.
  154. (2006). Keratin 5 knockout mice reveal plasticity of keratin expression in the corneal epithelium.
  155. (2001). Keratin 8 mutations in patients with crptogenic liver disease.
  156. (2003). Keratin mutation in transgenic mice predisposes to fas but not TNF-induced apoptosis and massive liver injury.
  157. (2000). Keratin-dependent, epithelial resistance to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis.
  158. (2001). Keratins and keratinocytes activation cycle.
  159. (2004). Keratins and skin disorders.
  160. (2004). Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor diversity: balancing signals in the natural killer cell response.
  161. (1997). Lack of &quot;tissue&quot; transglutaminase protein cross-linking leads to leakage of macromolecules from dying cells: relationship to development of autoimmunity in MRLIpr/Ipr mice.
  162. (1997). Laser Capture Microdissection: Molecular Analysis of Tissue.
  163. (2006). Late sporadic miscarriage is associated with abnormalities in spiral artery transformation and trophoblast invasion.
  164. (1998). Lessons from keratin 18 knockout mice: formation of novel keratin filaments, secondary loss of keratin 7 and accumulation of liver- specific keratin 8-positive aggregates.
  165. (1996). Lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies.
  166. (1989). Lipid peroxidation in pregnancy: New perspectives in pathological pregnancies.
  167. (1990). Localisation of cytoskeletal proteins in chorionic villi. In
  168. (1995). Magnesium for preeclampsia and eclampsia.
  169. (1998). Magnesium sulphate therapy in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia.
  170. (1999). Mapping binding domains of kinisogens on endothelial cell cytokeratin 1.
  171. (1999). Maternal arterial connections to the placental intervillous space during the first trimester of human pregnancy: The Boyd Collection revisited.
  172. (1992). Maternal mortality associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in
  173. (1991). Maternal plasma level of endothelin is increased in pre-eclampsia.
  174. (2003). Maternal- conceptus Cross Talk- A Review.
  175. (1990). Mechanism of trophoblast invasiveness and their control: the role of proteases and protease inhibitors.
  176. (1986). Mesenchymal-epithelial conversions induced by 5-Azacytidine: Appearance of cytokeratin Endo-A messenger RNA.
  177. (2005). Methods of Microdissection and New Technologies.
  178. (1986). Microinjection of human placenta, II: biological application.
  179. (1999). Modulation of cell proliferation by cytokeratin K10 and K16.
  180. (2002). Molecular basis of gestational trophoblast diseases.
  181. (2008). Molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia.
  182. (1981). Morphogenesis of human placental chorionic villi: cytoskeletal, syncytioskeletal and extracellular matrix proteins.
  183. (1964). Morphologic evidence from syncytial formation from the cytotrophoblastic cells.
  184. (1981). Morphological changes of spiral lineage.
  185. (1994). Mother-baby package: Implementing safe motherhood in countries.
  186. (2004). Neutrophils are stimulated by syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membranes to generate superoxide radicals in women with preeclampsia.
  187. (2006). New consensus nomenclature for mammalian keratins.
  188. (1996). Nicotine inhibits the in vitro production of interleukin 2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human mononuclear cells.
  189. (1995). Nitric oxide concentrations are increased in the fetoplacental circulation in pre-eclampsia.
  190. (2003). Nitric oxide production by decidual endothelial cells is not reduced in preeclampsia.
  191. (1996). Nitrotyrosine residue in placenta. Evidence of peroxynitrite formation and action.
  192. (1998). Normal pregnancy and preeclampsia both produce inflammatory changes in peripheral blood leukocytes akin to those of sepsis.
  193. (1990). Nuclear receptors for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone regulate transcription of keratin genes.
  194. (2007). on behalf of UKOSS.,
  195. (2000). Onset of maternal arterial blood flow and placental oxidative stress: a possible factor in human early pregnancy failure.
  196. (1996). Onset of reepithelialization after skin injury correlates with a reorganization of keratin filaments in wound edge keratinocytes defining a role for keratin 16.
  197. (2000). Oxygen and placental development during the first trimester: implications for the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.
  198. (1998). Oxygen regulates human cytotrophoblast differentiation and invasion in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.
  199. (2003). Oxygen, early embryonic metabolism and free radical-mediated embryopathies.
  200. (1985). Pair formation and promiscuity of cytokeratins:
  201. (2002). Pairwise assembly determines the intrinsic potential for self-organization and mechanical properties of keratin filaments.
  202. (1993). Paternity patterns and risk of pre-eclampsia in the last pregnancy in multipare.
  203. (2001). Pathogenesis and genetics of pre-eclampsia.
  204. (1985). Pattern of expression and organization of cytokeratin intermediate filaments. In
  205. (1989). Pemphigus and pemphigoid as paradigms of organ-specific, autoantibody-mediated diseases.
  206. (1999). Placenta site node and characterization of distinct types of intermediate trophoblast.
  207. (2006). Placenta-related disease of pregnancy: involvement of oxidative stress and implications in human evolution. Human Reproductive Update,
  208. (1991). Placental bed spiral arteries in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
  209. (2000). Placental Debris, Oxidative stress and Preeclampsia.
  210. (2000). Placental expression and serum concentrations of cytokeratin 19 in preeclampsia.
  211. (2008). Placental origin of preeclampsia: challenging the current hypothesis.
  212. (1998). Plasma contact activation: A revised hypothesis.
  213. (1992). Plasma endothelin level in preeclampsia: elevation and correlation with uric acid level and renal impairment.
  214. (1991). Point mutations in human keratin 14 genes of epidermolysis bullosa simplex patients: genetic and functional analysis.
  215. (2003). Pre-eclampsia and the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
  216. (1999). Pre-eclampsia, an excessive maternal inflammatory response to pregnancy.
  217. (2007). Pre-eclampsia: Is the immune maladaptation hypothesis still standing? An epidemiological update.
  218. (1993). Pre-eclampsia: more than pregnancy-induced hypertension.
  219. (1989). Preeclampsia and endothelial cell disorder. Am J.Obstet.
  220. (1993). Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal expression of adhesion molecules by invasive cytotrophoblasts.
  221. (2001). Pregnancy-related mortality from preeclampsia and eclampsia.
  222. (1999). Primary endothelial dysfunction:
  223. (2001). Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of preeclampsia.
  224. (2000). Primer3 on the www for general users and for biologist programmers. In
  225. (1999). Proliferation and apoptosis in villous trophoblast at 13-41 weeks of gestation (including observations on annulate lamellae and nuclear pore complexes).
  226. (1999). Prostacyclin and thromboxane changes predating clinical onset of preeclampsia: a multicenter prospective study.
  227. (2003). protection of placenta barrier function.
  228. (1983). Protein complexes of intermediate filaments: melting of cytokeratin complexes in urea reveals different polypeptide separation characteristics.
  229. (2009). Quantifying Immunogold Localization Patterns on Electron Microscopic Thin Sections of Placenta: Recent Developments.
  230. (1999). Quantitative abnormalities of fetal DNA in maternal serum in pre-eclampsia.
  231. (2007). Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy: alternative ways of assessing subcellular patterns of gold labelling.
  232. (1980). Quantitative structural differences within the normal term human placenta: A pilot study.
  233. (2008). Reducing eclampsiarelated deaths- a call to action.
  234. (1992). Regulation of keratin gene expression: The role of the nuclear receptors for Retinoic acid, Thyroid Hormone, and Vitamin D3.
  235. (1995). Retinoic receptors and keratinocytes.
  236. (2000). Risk factor for pre-eclampsia in a large cohort of Latin American and Caribbean women.
  237. (2005). Risk factors for pre-eclampsia at antenatal booking: Systematic review of controlled studies.
  238. (1994). Risk factors for severe pre-eclampsia.
  239. (1998). Role of growth factors and other placental signals in extravillous trophoblast cell function.
  240. (1992). Seasonal incidence of eclampsia, its relationship to meteorological data in Mozambique.
  241. (1999). Secondary endothelial dysfunction: hypertension and heart failure.
  242. (1998). Shedding of syncytiotrophoblast microvilli into the maternal circulation in pre-eclamptic pregnancies.
  243. (2007). Smoking and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review.
  244. (2006). Soluble endoglin and other circulating antiangiogenic factors in pre-eclampsia.
  245. (2006). Soluble endoglin contributes to the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
  246. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (sFlt-1) is increased throughout gestation in patients who have preeclampsia develop.
  247. (1995). Sonographic, stereological and Doppler flow velocimetric assessments of placental maturity.
  248. (1983). Spatial distribution of proteins specific for desmosomes and adherens junctions in epithelial cells demonstrated by double immunofluorescence microscopy.
  249. (2003). Sperm exposure and development of preeclampsia.
  250. (1974). Structure and function of intercellular junctions.
  251. (1983). Structure of human trophoblast: correlation with function.
  252. (1983). Structure of intermediate filaments.
  253. (1998). Studies reject aspirin for prevention of pre-eclampsia.
  254. (2003). Subclassification of preeclampsia.
  255. (1992). Suprabasal marker proteins distinguishing keratinizing squamous epithelium and epidermis are different.
  256. (2009). Syncytial knots, sprouts, apoptosis, and trophoblast deportation from the human placenta.
  257. (1984). syncytioskeletons in choriocarcinoma in culture.
  258. (2005). System and market failures: the unavailability of magnesium sulphate for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in Mozambique and Zimbabwe.
  259. (2007). Systemic Inflammatory Priming in Normal Pregnancy and Preeclampsia: The Role of Circulating Syncytiotrophoblast Microparticles.
  260. (1997). Techniques of advanced light microscopy and their application to morphological analysis of human extraembryonic membranes.
  261. (1982). The amino acid sequence of chicken muscle desmin provides a common structural model for intermediate filament proteins.
  262. (1982). The catalog of human cytokeratins: patterns of expression in normal epithelia, tumors and cultured cells.
  263. (2004). The confidential Enquiry into Maternal deaths in the United Kingdom.
  264. (1988). The current renaissance in light microscopy II. Blur-free optical sectioning of biological specimens by confocal scanning fluorescence microscopy.
  265. (2007). The cytotrophoblast layer of human chorionic villi becomes thinner but maintains its structural integrity during gestation.
  266. (1995). The Eclampsia Trial Collaborative Group,
  267. (1993). The effect of placental syncytiotrophoblast microvillous membrane from normal and pre-eclamptic women on the growth of endothelial cells in vitro.
  268. (2008). The fundamentals of reproduction,
  269. (2009). The human intermediate filament database: comprehensive information on a gene family in many human diseases. [online]. Available at: http://www.interfil.org/diseasesTypeInII.php; http://www.interfil.org/aboutDB.php [accessed
  270. (2008). The Human Intermediate Filament Database: Comprehensive information on a gene family involved in many human diseases.
  271. (2008). The human keratins: biology and pathology.
  272. (1970). The Human Placenta.
  273. (2004). The human type I keratin gene family: Characterization of new hair follicle specific members and evaluation of chromosome 17q21.2 gene domain.
  274. (2003). The hunman first trimester gestational sac limits rather than facilitates oxygen transfer to the foetus- a Review. Placenta, 24Suppl A,
  275. (2002). The interval between pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia.
  276. (2004). The keratin cytoskeleton in liver diseases.
  277. (2006). The killer Immunoglobulin-like receptor gene cluster: tuning the genome for defense. Annu Rev.
  278. (2002). The Magpie trial collaborative group,
  279. (1992). The maternotrophoblastic interface: Uteroplacental blood flow. In
  280. (1988). The molecular and cellular biology of intermediate filament.
  281. (2002). The myometrial junctional zone spiral arteries in normal and abnormal pregnancies: a review of the literature.
  282. (1967). The origin of intra-arterial cells in the pregnant uterus of the macaque (Macaca mulatta).
  283. (2002). The partner's role in the etiology of preeclampsia.
  284. (1967). The physiological response of the vessels of the placental bed to normal pregnancy.
  285. (1984). The role of cytoskeletal integrity in cellular transformation.
  286. (1994). The role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
  287. (1992). The role of the basement membrane in differential expression of keratin proteins in epithelial cells.
  288. (1996). The role of the placenta in fetal nutrition and growth.
  289. (1972). The role of the spiral arteries in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia.
  290. (1984). The transformed phenotype. In
  291. (1979). The uptake of tritiated thymidine in human fetal membranes during the last third of pregnancy.
  292. (1991). The use of cytokeratin as a sensitive and reliable marker for trophoblast tissue.
  293. (2006). The Uterine Spiral Arteries In Human Pregnancy: Facts and Controversies.
  294. (2008). Transgenic Angiotesin-converting enzyme 2 over expression in vessels of SHRSP rats reduces blood pressure and improves endothelial function.
  295. (2005). Translating research into policy and practice in developing countries: a case study of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia.
  296. (1995). Trophoblast and placental villous core production of lipid peroxides, thromboxane and prostacyclin in preeclampsia.
  297. (2003). Trophoblast deportation and the maternal inflammatory response in pre-eclampsia.
  298. (1999). Trophoblast Deportation in Human Pregnancy—its Relevance for Pre-eclampsia.
  299. (1991). Trophoblast deportation in preeclampsia pregnancy.
  300. (2004). Trophoblast gene expression: Transcription factors in the specification of early trophoblast.
  301. (2006). Trophoblast oxidative stress and the release of cell-free feto- placental DNA.
  302. (2007). Trophoblast Research Award Lecture: Defects in the Keratin Cytoskeleton Disrupt Normal Murine Placental Development and Trophoblast Cell Function.
  303. (1999). Trophoblastic cell lines generated from tumour necrosis factor receptor-deficient mice reveal specific functions for the two tumour necrosis factor receptors.
  304. (1980). Trophoblastic invasion of human decidua from 8 to 18 weeks of pregnancy.
  305. (1993). Tumor marker in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
  306. (1981). Two distinct classes of keratin genes and their evolutionary significance.
  307. (1997). Twohybrid analysis reveals fundamental differences in direct interactions between desmoplakin and cell type-specific intermediate filaments.
  308. (2005). Type II keratins precede type I keratins during early embryonic development.
  309. (2002). Ultrastructure of the early human feto-maternal interface co-cultured in vitro.
  310. (1991). Ultrastructure of the human placenta.
  311. (2007). Usefulness of a placental profile in high-risk pregnancies.
  312. (1983). Uteroplacental arterial changes related to interstitial trophoblast migration in early human pregnancy.
  313. (2004). Vascular endothelial growth factor: basic science and clinical progress.
  314. (1998). Villous cytotrophoblast regulation of the syncytial apoptotic cascade in the human placenta.
  315. (2006). WHO analysis of causes of maternal death: a systematic review.
  316. Why mothers die: 2000-2002 report.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.