Location of Repository

Implementing collaborative strategic reading (CSR) in an EFL context in Taiwan

By Yen-Chi Fan


The purposes of this study are to investigate the impact of Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR) on Taiwanese university students’ reading comprehension, explore the process of how they collaborate for text comprehension, and examine their perspectives of the CSR intervention. The participants were 110 students from two intact classes who had low-intermediate to intermediate level of English. This study adopted a mixed-method design and multiple types of data were collected including a standardised reading measure pre-test and post-test, the participants’ responses to a questionnaire survey, field notes, transcription data of group discussions during CSR, and group interviews. \ud The statistical results did not confirm CSR to be more effective than the traditional teacher-led reading approach which focuses on vocabulary and grammar teaching in improving the students’ reading comprehension scores. However, the findings indicated that CSR had a positive effect on the Taiwanese university learners’ reading comprehension particularly in relation to the comprehension questions on getting the main idea and finding the supporting details. A detailed analysis of qualitative data suggested that the learners with relatively homogenous English ability provided collaborative scaffolding for text comprehension through co-construction, elaboration, appeal for assistance, corrective feedback and prompts. The findings also illustrated that limited vocabulary was the key to comprehension obstacles for the EFL university learners. Although they demonstrated some degree of interactively strategic reading behaviours, dictionary consultation and translation were the most frequently used strategies to deal with the text impediments. On the whole, the participants had a positive attitude towards CSR. They acknowledged the beneficial impact of CSR on their English learning and the feasibility of CSR in the university setting. However, problems and dilemmas were also identified. Some pedagogical implications for English instruction at university level in Taiwan are provided and suggestions for future research to further validate the impact and effectiveness of CSR are proposed at the end of this study

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7555

Suggested articles



  1. (1991). A causal model on factors affecting EFL reading comprehension of two-year college students in Taiwan.
  2. (2004). A handbook for teacher research: From design to implementation.
  3. (1998). A qualitative inquiry: Strategy use by EFL students in dealing with text difficulties.
  4. (1996). A quasi-experimental validation of transactional strategies instruction with low-achieving secondgrade readers.
  5. (1990). A short course in teaching reading skills.
  6. (1987). A sociocognitive perspective on literacy. In
  7. (1992). A teacher development project in transactional strategy instruction for teachers of severely reading-disabled adolescents.
  8. (2002). A teacher's guide to classroom research (3rd ed.). Maidenhead:
  9. (1992). About cooperative learning. In
  10. (2000). Activating the ZPD: Mutual scaffolding in L2 peer revision.
  11. (1998). An introduction to qualitative research.
  12. (1984). Appendix C-2: Questionnaire (English Version) Questionnaire of EFL Learners’ Perceptions of CSR Instruction Appendix F: CSR Learning Logs Name: Class:
  13. (2000). Assessing reading. Cambridge:
  14. (2003). Assessment of reading comprehension. In
  15. (1981). Autonomy in foreign language learning.
  16. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park:
  17. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader.
  18. (1992). Beyond direct explanation: Transactional instruction of reading comprehension strategies.
  19. (2002). Challenges of implementing transactional strategies instruction for reading comprehension. In
  20. (1993). Chinese students' word-solving strategies in reading in English. In
  21. (1997). Collaboration in EFL classroom: An investigation of DFLL learners' perceptions of Jigsaw cooperative learning technique in freshman English classes.
  22. (2002). Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR): Improving secondary students' reading comprehension skills.
  23. (2001). Collaborative Strategic Reading as a means to enhance peer-mediated instruction for reading comprehension and content-area learning.
  24. (1998). Collaborative strategic reading during social studies in heterogeneous fourth-grade classrooms.
  25. (1994). Collective scaffolding in second language acquisition. In
  26. (2004). College students' difficulties and strategies in EFL vocabulary learning.
  27. (1992). Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches: An overview. In
  28. (2002). Comprehension strategies instruction: A turn-of-the-century status report. In
  29. (1997). Comprehension strategies instruction: Does it make a difference? Reading Psychology,
  30. (2000). Constructing effective questionnaires. Thousand Oaks:
  31. (1981). Cooperative peer interaction versus individual competition and individualistic efforts: Effects on the acquisition of cognitive reasoning strategies.
  32. (1991). Current developments in second language reading research.
  33. (1994). Designing group work: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom (2nd ed.).
  34. (1992). Developing expertise in reading comprehension.
  35. (1990). Developing reading strategies through small-group interaction.
  36. (1984). Direct explanation of comprehension process. In
  37. (2000). Doing discourse analysis: Methods for studying action in talk and text. Thousand Oaks:
  38. (2001). Drafting ethical guidelines for teacher research in schools. In
  39. (2006). Epistemological and methodological bases of naturalistic inquiry.
  40. (1983). Ethnography: Principles on Practice.
  41. (1992). Experiential language learning: Second language learning as cooperative learner education. In
  42. (1993). Explicit and implicit negative feedback: An empirical study of the learning of linguistic generalizations.
  43. (1987). Explicit comprehension instruction: A review of research and a new conceptualization of instruction.
  44. (2005). Explicit instruction of reading strategies at senior high school in Taiwan.
  45. (1998). Exploring a new role for teachers: Promoting learner autonomy.
  46. (1999). Exploring second language reading: Issues and strategies.
  47. (1996). Focus on research moving mainstream: Taking a closer look at teacher research.
  48. (1985). Group interviewing. In
  49. (1985). Group work, interlanguage talk, and second language acquisition.
  50. (1994). Handbook of qualitative research.
  51. (1988). Holding in the bottom: An interactive approach to the language problems of second language readers. In
  52. (1993). How to design and evaluate research in education (2nd ed.).
  53. (2002). Implications of cognitive resource allocation for comprehension strategies instruction. In
  54. (2002). Improving comprehension instruction: An urgent priority. In
  55. (2004). Insights into second language reading: A cross-linguistic approach. Cambridge:
  56. (2002). Instructional components for promoting thoughtful literacy learning. In
  57. (1998). Integrating strategic reading in L2 instruction. Reading in a Foreign Language,
  58. (1998). Interaction and second language learning: Two adolescent French immersion students working together.
  59. (1988). Interactive models for second language reading: Perspectives on instruction. In
  60. (1988). Interactive text processing: Implications for ESL/second language reading classrooms. In
  61. (2001). Interpreting qualitative data: Method for analyzing talk, text and interaction.
  62. (1999). Interviewing for social scientist: An introductory resource with examples.
  63. (1994). Interviewing: The art of science. In
  64. (1998). Introduction to social research: Quantitative & qualitative approaches.
  65. (2007). Investigating the merits of pair work in a text editing.
  66. (1995). Issues for today:
  67. (1992). Language and cognitive development through cooperative group work. In
  68. (1996). Language testing in practice. Oxford:
  69. Learner autonomy and human interdependence: Some theoretical and practical consequences of a social-interactive view of cognition, learning and language. In
  70. (1991). Learner autonomy: Definitions, issues and problems.
  71. (2000). Learner autonomy: The next phase? In
  72. (1991). Learner strategies for learner autonomy: Planning and implementing learner training for language learners.
  73. (1979). Learning lessons: Social organization in the classroom.
  74. (1985). Learning strategy applications with students of English as a second language.
  75. (1996). Middle and high school students' perceptions of how they experience text-based discussion: A multicase study.
  76. (1978). Mind in society. Cambridge:
  77. (1988). Modelling mental processes helps poor readers become strategic readers.
  78. (1988). Models of the reading process. In
  79. (1991). Moving from the old to the new: Research on reading comprehension instruction.
  80. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills:
  81. (1994). Negative feedback as regulation and second language learning in the zone of proximal development.
  82. (2005). Negotiation for meaning and peer assistance in second language classrooms.
  83. (1976). One second of reading. In
  84. (1989). Peer interaction and learning in small groups.
  85. (2004). Practitioner research and professional development.
  86. Professional development in reading comprehension. In
  87. (2000). Promoting learner autonomy through the curriculum: Principles for designing language courses.
  88. (2003). Promoting reading comprehension ability and vocabulary learning through Collaborative Strategic Reading.
  89. (1999). Promoting reading comprehension, content learning, and English acquisition through Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). The Reading Teacher,
  90. (1994). Qualitative data analysis (2nd ed.). Beverly Hills:
  91. (2005). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks:
  92. (2001). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences (4th ed.). Needham Heights:
  93. (1988). Quantity and quality in social research.
  94. (1979). Quasi-experimentation: Design & analysis issues for field settings.
  95. (1992). Questionnaire design, interviewing and attitude measurement.
  96. (2003). Questionnaires in second language research: Construction, administration, and processing. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
  97. (1996). Reading alone, talking together: The role of discussion in developing literary awareness. The Reading Teacher,
  98. (2005). Reading challenge 3.
  99. (1991). Reading development in a second language theoretical, empirical, and classroom perspectives.
  100. (2004). Reading for the real world 2.
  101. (2006). Reading instruction that works: The case for balanced teaching (3rd ed.).
  102. (2007). Reading strategy training for the development of Chinese EFL reading comprehension.
  103. (1976). Reading: A Psycholinguistic guessing game. In
  104. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.).
  105. (1988). Reassessing the term "interactive". In
  106. (1990). Reciprocal teaching improves standardized reading comprehension performance in poor comprehenders.
  107. (1984). Reciprocal teaching of comprehensionfostering and comprehension-monitoring activities.
  108. (1996). Reciprocal teaching of reading comprehension strategies for students with learning disabilities who use English as a second language.
  109. (1994). Reciprocal teaching: A review of the research.
  110. (2002). Reconceptualizing reading comprehension. In
  111. (1997). Research decisions: Quantitative and qualitative perspectives (2nd ed.).
  112. (1994). Research design: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks:
  113. (2002). Research-based comprehension practices that create higher-level discussions. In
  114. (2002). Scaffolding student talk: One teacher's role in literature discussion groups.
  115. (1988). Schema theory and ESL reading pedagogy. In
  116. (1980). Schemata: The building blocks of cognition. In
  117. (2001). Social research methods.
  118. (1994). Social-cognitive dimensions of interaction in L2 peer revision.
  119. (1999). Socio-cognitive functions of L1 collaborative interaction in the L2 classroom.
  120. (1988). Some causes of text-boundedness and schema interference in ESL reading. In
  121. (2001). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using SPSS. Buckingham:
  122. (1991). Strategies for developing English reading comprehension skills at college level.
  123. (1993). Strategies for inferring word-meanings in context: A cognitive model. In
  124. (2002). Strategy instruction from a sociocognitive perspective.
  125. (2003). Structuring co-operative learning experiences in primary school. In
  126. (2003). Struggling for small-group discussion in EFL.
  127. (1999). Taiwanese university freshmen's difficulties with reading in English. Reading in a Foreign Language,
  128. (2000). Task-based second language learning: The uses of the first language.
  129. (2002). Teaching and Researching Reading.
  130. (1996). Teaching reading skills in a foreign language.
  131. (1998). Teaching reading strategies in an ongoing EFL university reading classroom.
  132. (2001). Teaching reading strategies: ‘It takes time!’. Reading in a Foreign Language,
  133. (2003). Teaching strategic processes in reading.
  134. (1991). The development of strategic reading. In
  135. (2005). The effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading and direct instruction in persuasion on sixth-grade students' persuasive writing and attitudes. Unpublished doctoral thesis,
  136. (2008). The effects of Collaborative Strategic Reading on junior high school students' English reading.
  137. (2008). The effects of modified Collaborative Strategic Reading on EFL learners’ reading comprehension.
  138. (1996). The effects of strategy instruction on the comprehension performance of at-risk students.
  139. (2000). The helping behaviours of fifth graders while using Collaborative Strategic Reading during ESL content classes.
  140. (1995). The nature of fourth graders' sociocognitive conflicts in peer-led and teacher-led discussions of literature.
  141. (2000). The output hypothesis and beyond: Mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In
  142. (1981). The role of collaboration in problem-solving in children. Unpublished doctoral thesis,
  143. (1992). The role of the teacher in the cooperative learning classroom. In
  144. (1976). The role of tutoring in problem solving.
  145. (1988). The short circuit hypothesis of ESL reading – or when language competence interferes with reading performance. In
  146. (1986). The teacher as researcher. In
  147. (1994). Theoretical framework: An introduction to Vygotskian approaches to second language research.
  148. (1995). Theoretical issues in examining learner-learner interactions.
  149. (2004). Think to win: An inquiry-based approach via Collaborative Strategic Reading technique to teach English reading in a senior high EFL classroom. Unpublished MA dissertation,
  150. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading.
  151. (1977). Toward an interactive model of reading.
  152. (1980). Toward an interactive-compensatory model of individual differences in the development of reading fluency.
  153. (1971). Understanding reading.
  154. (1987). Using discussion to promote reading comprehension.
  155. (2000). Using group work in an EFL classroom: A Taiwanese teacher's experience.
  156. (1993). Using small groups for response to and thinking about literature.
  157. (2001). Using surveys in language programs. Cambridge:
  158. (1990). Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development, and peer collaboration: Implications for classroom practice. In
  159. (1996). Vygotsky's sociohistorical perspective on learning and its application to western literacy instruction.
  160. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In
  161. (2004). Whither the future of quantitative literacy research?
  162. (1983). Why strategy instruction is so difficult and what we need to do about it. In
  163. (2000). Words and mind: How we use language to think together.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.