Location of Repository

Technology applications in education: Electronic systems (E-systems) to improve curriculum management

By Nouhad Rizk


Leaders need alternative programs to support the rapid development of curriculum and teachers need online learning activities to support their classroom teaching. This dissertation reports an initial study in a long-term research agenda for developing an online curriculum.\ud The primary purpose of the study is to explore student and faculty perceptions of an online curriculum to help decision-makers and researchers determine whether they would pursue the use of such a tool to support online curriculum development. The secondary purpose of the study is to generate design knowledge to inform future development of, and research on, this or similar curriculum development. The methodology of this study includes three components: development research, rapid prototyping, and qualitative methods. Development research and rapid prototyping provided a three-stage framework for this study: conceptualization, development, and research.\ud I synthesized the literature to create conceptual models of an Online Curriculum Framework (OCF) at the conceptualization stage, built a prototype to implement the models at the development stage, and conducted research to evaluate the prototype at the research stage. Qualitative methods guided data gathering and analysis. To gather the data, I followed a two-step data collection process: pre-intervention email and group interviews, and post-intervention online questionnaire. Key themes identified through a constructivist approach to grounded theory were used as the basis of analysis of interview responses and the generation of theory.\ud This study found that on one hand, faculty members might use an OCF, because they perceived that this tool could support their classroom teaching. On the other hand, however, their perceived decision to use an OCF would also be influenced by the perceptions of the usefulness and usability of the tool. The study identified the initial evidence supporting an OCF as an online learning resource and the challenges involved in developing and implementing such a solution. It provides a 3D-E-Learning model as a base for decision-makers and departmental leaders to determine whether they should adopt this tool. It also offers some design guidance for those who do want to pursue this solution to curriculum development

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2007
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7535

Suggested articles



  1. (1996). (eds), CSCL: Theory and Practice of an Emerging Paradigm,
  2. (2004). A development research agenda for online collaborative learning.
  3. (2004). A Draft Model Curriculum for Programs of Study
  4. (2004). A dual perspective on an online university course.
  5. (2005). A Framework for Evaluating Qualitative Research Methods in Computer Programming Education. In
  6. (1998). A Hardware/Software Prototyping Environment for Dynamically Reconfigurable Embedded Systems.
  7. (2003). A hidden curriculum: mapping cultural competency in a medical programme.
  8. (2002). A Mobile Scaffolding-AidBased Bird-Watching Learning system.
  9. (2000). A Professional Development School Partnership: Conflict and Collaboration. West Port: CT:
  10. (2000). A reflection on pedagogy.
  11. (2003). A retrospective on twenty years of education technology policy,
  12. (2001). A Science and Technology Studies Lens for Studying Teacher Practice. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
  13. (2004). A second look at learning sciences, classrooms, and technology: Issues of implementation: Making it work in the real world. In
  14. (2003). A Tool-Mediated Cognitive Apprenticeship Approach for a Computer Engineering Course,
  15. (1998). A Transition for Community Colleges: Teaching Institutions to Learning Institutions.
  16. (2000). A Virtual Conference Attracts Scholars from Throughout the Middle East. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
  17. (2005). A World of Change
  18. (1976). About Behaviourism.
  19. (2000). Academic Restructuring: Organizational Change and Institutional Imperatives.
  20. (2003). Accelerating advancement in school and work.
  21. (2004). Accessed
  22. (1999). Accessibility in the virtual library: Creating equal opportunity Web sites.
  23. (2000). Advances in pedagogy: Finding the instructor in post-secondary online learning. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association,
  24. (2006). Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research, Forum:
  25. (2003). Alternative approaches to assessing student engagement rates.
  26. (1999). An Analysis of the Use of Virtual Delivery of Undergraduate Lectures,
  27. (2004). An Assessment of The Learning Benefits of Using a Web-Based Learning Environment When Teaching Accounting. Paper presented at presentation at the European Accounting Association Annual Conference
  28. (1998). An Evaluation of Technology Integration in Teacher Education for Bilingual and English as a Second Language Education Majors.
  29. (2002). An examination of types of learner interactivity in an online professional development course.
  30. (2004). An integrated approach to developing and implementing learning-centred curricula.
  31. (2001). An introduction to learning technology within tertiary education in the UK.
  32. (2000). An Introduction to the Evaluation of Learning Technology.
  33. (1999). Analyzing & interpreting ethnographic data.
  34. (2005). Analyzing student search strategies: Making a case for integrating information skills into the curriculum.
  35. (2004). Are Curriculum and Instruction Actually Changing? Confusing Content with Curriculum. Massachusetts University Online: http://www.mascd.org /docs/pasquale.htm. Accessed
  36. (1999). Army Learning & Training Effectiveness Symposium. Final Report,
  37. (1998). Assessing Lifelong Learning Technology (ALL-Tech): A Guide for Choosing and Using Technology for Adult Learning.
  38. (1998). Assessing Service Quality.
  39. (1999). Assessing the New Competitive Landscape.
  40. (1994). Augmentation of the intellect: Network tools and environments for learning. Online: http://www.cudenver.edu/~mryder/augment.html. Accessed
  41. (2002). Barriers to adopting emerging technologies in education.
  42. (1992). Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis. Mill Valley,
  43. (2005). Been there, done that”: Teacher leaders' knowledge, power and practices.
  44. (1995). Being Digital,
  45. (2000). Belief change towards self-directed learning in student teachers: Immersion in practice or reflection on action.
  46. (2002). Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course.
  47. (1998). Blood, sweat, and TEARS: 50 years of technology implementation obstacles.
  48. (2004). Building faculty learning communities.
  49. (1999). Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom.
  50. (2002). Building Towards an E-Learning Environmnet
  51. (2005). But first there are the communication skills.
  52. (2000). Campus Computing 2000: the
  53. (1999). Can Colleges and Universities Survive in the Information Age?
  54. (2000). Can Human Factor Concept be Taught? An Preliminary Institutional Survey and Report.
  55. (1993). CASE Tools as Organizational Change: Investigating Incremental and Radical Changes in Systems Development,
  56. (1993). Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational Reform.
  57. (1999). Change forces: The sequel.
  58. (2004). Changing University Culture through Introducing Technology.
  59. (2001). Characteristics of support initiatives to stimulate professional development on ICT.
  60. (1997). Choosing Qualitative Research: A Primer for Technology Education Researchers.
  61. (2004). Classroom teaching changes in web-enhanced courses: A multiinstitutional study.
  62. (1988). Cognition in Practice: Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life.
  63. (2006). Collaborative Research Tools for Students, Staff, and Faculty.
  64. (2003). Collecting behavioural data using the World Wide Web: considerations for researchers.
  65. (2004). Colleges Information Systems Association.
  66. (1998). Complexity and Postmodernism.
  67. (2003). Complexity Theory & Curriculum Reforms in Hong Kong.
  68. (1997). Computer Support for Curriculum Development. A study on the potential of computer support in the domain of formative curriculum evaluation. Doctoral dissertation. Enschede:
  69. (2004). Computer-mediated discourse analysis: An approach to researching online behavior. In:
  70. (2003). Computer-mediated negotiated interaction: An expanded model.
  71. (1997). Computers and Classrooms: the status of technology in US Schools. Princeton: Educational Testing Service.
  72. (2000). Conceptions of information literacy: New perspectives and implications.
  73. (2003). Conducting qualitative research on-line in student affairs.
  74. (2000). Connect adult learning with student learning. Results,
  75. (2003). Connecting Research and Practice: Education for Sustainable Development.
  76. (2005). Connectivism: A Learning Theory for the Digital Age.
  77. (2000). Constructivist-compatible beliefs and practices among U.S.
  78. (1998). Contextual design: Defining customer-centered systems.
  79. (2000). Contextual prototyping of user interfaces.
  80. (2002). Contrasts in learning: a collaborative evaluation by practitioners and students,
  81. (2002). Converstional Learning: An Experiential Approach to Knowledge Creation.
  82. (2002). Converting a Comprehensive High School Into Small Learning Communities. Small Schools Project.Online: http://www.smallschools project.org.
  83. (2000). Creating an Accessible Curriculum. The Challenge for Higher Education,
  84. (2003). Creativity in the Information Technology Curriculum Proposal.
  85. (2006). Credibility, authenticity and voice: dilemmas in webbased interviewing. Qualitative Research in Education.
  86. (2005). Critical Issue: Using technology to improve student achievement. Online: http://www.ncrel.org /sdrs/areas/issues/methods /technlgy/te800.htm. Accessed
  87. (1998). Curriculum evaluation.
  88. (2003). Curriculum Integration – what‘s in it for students and teachers?
  89. (2001). Curriculum Planning,
  90. (2004). Curriculum reform in contemporary China: seven goals and six strategies.Curriculum Studies,
  91. (2000). Curriculum theory and practice. The encyclopedia of informal education.
  92. (2003). Curriculum today.
  93. (2003). Curriculum: Action on Reflection (4th edition). Sydney NSW:
  94. (2003). Curriculum: Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues (3rd Ed).
  95. (2001). Cyberpl@y: communicating online.
  96. (1999). Cyberspace Textuality: Computer Technology and Literary Theory.
  97. (2006). Deconstructing Diversity Discourses in the Field
  98. (1994). Definitions of curriculum: An introduction.
  99. (1999). Delivering Staff and Professional Development Using Virtual Learning Environments,
  100. (2001). Designing and Building an On-ling Community: The struggle to support sociability in the Inquiry Learning Forum,
  101. (2002). Designing collaborative learning contexts. Theory into Practice.
  102. (2002). Designing Learning.
  103. (1998). Designing the user interface: Strategies for effective human computer- interaction (3rd ed.).
  104. (2003). Detecting Technology‘s Effects in Complex School Environments.
  105. (2000). Determinants of student evaluations of global measures of instructor and course value.
  106. (2003). Developing a case-based reasoning knowledge repository to support a learning community - An example from the technology integration community.
  107. (2004). Developing a Method to Measure the Metacognitive Effects of a
  108. (1999). Developing and Evaluating a University-wide Online Distributed Learning System: The Experience at RMIT
  109. (2000). Developing students' reasoning with multimedia cases and online discussion. Case study submitted to the International Online Tutoring Skills (OTiS) e-workshop,
  110. (2000). Developing Tacit and Codified Knowledge and Subject Culture within a Virtual Learning Environment,
  111. (2001). Dilemmas of education reform in Taiwan: Internationalization or localization? In
  112. (2006). Discussion Paper for eLearning. Online: http://www.usyd.edu.au/learning/governance/elearning_docs/elearning_discussion_pap er_pedagogy_infrastructure%20_2_4.pdf. Accessed
  113. (1999). Distance Learning: Promise or Threat?
  114. (2004). Distributed leadership and the culture of schools: Teacher leaders' strategies for gaining access to classrooms.
  115. (2000). Distributed Properties: A New Architecture for Leadership,
  116. (1993). Do students go to class? Should they?
  117. (1998). Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussions.
  118. (2002). E-commerce Curriculum Development and Implementation.
  119. (2003). E-learning and E-teaching in initial and further teacher training.
  120. (2003). E-learning as a Process of Knowledge Construction.
  121. (2000). E-Learning for schools steals the show at NSBA technology conference. eSchool News. Online: http://www.eschoolnews.org/news /showStory .cfm?
  122. (2003). E-learning in the 21st entury: A Framework for Research and Practice.
  123. (2006). E-Learning Maturity Model: Process Descriptions.
  124. (2001). E-learning: Strategies for delivering knowledge in the digital age.
  125. (2002). E-Learning: The Second Wave.
  126. (2000). E-Moderating: The key to teaching and learning online.
  127. (1994). Education by Engagement and Construction: Can Distance Education be Better than Face-to-Face? Online: http://www.hitl.washington.edu /scivw/EVE/distance.html. Accessed
  128. (1998). Education in the internet--linking theory to reality. Online: http://www.oise.on.ca /~kdavidson/cons.html. Accessed
  129. (2001). Educational choice: A grounded theory study.
  130. (1998). Educational Psychology and Technology: A Matter of Reciprocal Relations.
  131. (1990). Educational Psychology: A Realistic Approach.
  132. (2000). Effective Learning and the Virtual Learning Environment.
  133. (1993). Effective Teaching in Higher Education.
  134. (1983). Effects of Teacher Enthusiasm Training on Student on-Task Behaviour and Achievement.
  135. (2003). Electronic communities—current issues and best practices.
  136. (2003). Electronic survey methodology: A case study in reaching hard-to-involve Internet users.
  137. (2001). Email Survey Response Rates: A Review.
  138. (2004). Embedding Staff Development in ELearning in the Production Process and using Policy to Reinforce its Effectiveness,
  139. (2001). Empowering Students by Increasing Competition Among Universities.
  140. (2004). Enabling teachers to make successful use of ICT.
  141. (1990). Endogenous technological change.
  142. (2005). Engaging Learning: Designing Simulation Games.
  143. (2004). Engaging the Online Learner: Activities and Resources for Creative Instruction. San Francisco:
  144. (2000). Enhancing Interactivity in Web-based Instruction: A review of the literature.
  145. (2003). Enhancing learning outcomes,
  146. (2005). Enhancing Lifelong Learning Opportunities for Adult Workers. Report published by the Heldrich Center for Workforce Development.
  147. (1996). Enriching Computer-Mediated Group Learning by Coupling Constructivism with Collaborative Learning,
  148. (2002). Enriching our understanding of student effectiveness.
  149. (2004). Ensuring alignment in the curriculum: Aligning policies, processes and practice. Learning and Teaching Institute,
  150. (2006). Equity bargaining in the new economy.
  151. (1995). Ethical issues of e-mail research.
  152. (2005). Ethics and Information Technology. ONLINE: http://www.nyu.edu/projects /nissenbaum /projects_ethics.html. Accessed
  153. (1991). Evaluating constructivistic learning.
  154. (1996). Evaluating factors influencing student class attendance and performance.
  155. (2004). Evaluating integrated e-learning.
  156. (2001). Evaluating interactive learning.
  157. (1997). Evaluating What Really Matters in Computer-Based Education,
  158. (2000). Everyone gets hooked, Exploring ICTs in low income neighbourhoods, Community Development Foundation, for the Social Exclusion Unit‘s Policy Action Team.
  159. (2001). Examining the reflective outcomes of asynchronous computer-mediated communication on in service teacher development.
  160. (2005). Experience based Learning Systems,
  161. (2005). Experiences with international online discussions: Participation patterns of Botswana and American students
  162. (2003). Experiential Learning Theory Bibliography.
  163. (1999). Experiential Learning Theory: Previous Research and New Directions .
  164. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
  165. (2005). Facing dilemmas: teacher-educators' ways of constructing a pedagogy of teacher education.
  166. (2000). Faculty engagement and support in the new learning environment.
  167. (1999). Faculty Guide for Moving Teaching and Learning to the Web. League for Innovation in the Community College.
  168. (2001). Faculty involvement in planning for the use and integration of instructional and administrative technologies.
  169. (1998). Failure to Connect: How computers affect our children’s mindsand what we can do about it.
  170. (1999). FAQs on online research.
  171. (2005). Field experiences: A guide to reflective teaching (6th ed).
  172. (2003). Flying the KITE (Knowledge Innovation for Technology in Education) through a case-based reasoning knowledge repository. On the Horizon - The Strategic Planning Resource for Education Professionals,
  173. (2004). Focus group interviews as a data collecting strategy.
  174. (1996). Focus groups as alternative research practice,
  175. (1993). Focus groups in distance nursing education.
  176. (1996). Focus groups in mental health research: enhancing the validity of user and provider questionnaires.
  177. (1990). Focus groups: Theory and practice.
  178. (2000). for Higher Education.
  179. (1999). for Technology in Education (ISTE)
  180. (2000). Forget the Old-style Milk Run, Find the Cream On-line, The Times Law Supplement,
  181. (2002). Foundations of Student Affairs Practice.
  182. (2000). From ‗Computers in the Classroom‘ to the Critical Radical Adaptation of Educational Systems to the new Emerging ICT Culture,
  183. (2000). From a Technological Focus To a Human Emphasis: Re-Introducing The End-User In
  184. (1998). From Familiarisation to Adaptation: Teachers‘ responses to the introduction of communications technology in the classroom. Paper presented at IN-TELE 98,
  185. (2000). From Practice Fields to Communities of Practice. In
  186. (2001). From Strategy to Change: Implementing the Plan in Higher Education.
  187. (1995). From Teaching to Learning – a new paradigm for undergraduate education,
  188. (2002). Getting ahead by getting online.
  189. (1999). Global Challenge and National Response: Notes For An international Dialogue on Higher Education.
  190. (1995). Global Knowledge: Superhighway or Super Gridlock?
  191. (2002). Global Reform Trends in Higher Education.
  192. (2002). Globalisation, citizenship and technology.
  193. (1996). Grounded theory as scientific method:
  194. (1990). Grounded Theory research: Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria.
  195. (2000). Growing Up Digital: How the Web Changes Work, Educations, and the Ways People Learn.
  196. (2000). Helping Teachers Integrate Technology With Curriculum: A Professional Development Model Using Concepts From Knowledge Management.
  197. (1999). High-tech Heretic.
  198. (2001). Higher Education in the Digital Rapids The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World. The Teaching Exchange.
  199. (1991). Higher education in the Third World: status symbol or instrument for development?
  200. (2005). Higher Education Report for the 2004 to
  201. (2004). Higher Learning in the Digital Age: An Update on a National Academies Study. Speaking notes,
  202. (2000). Hong Kong‘s School Reform: Importing Western Policy Into Asian Culture.
  203. (2004). How and what teachers learn: A shifting perspective.
  204. (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school.
  205. (1998). How Students Learn: Reforming Schools Through Learner-Centered Education.
  206. (2001). How Teachers Learn Technology Best.
  207. (2002). How to Sample in Surveys. Thousand Oaks,
  208. ICT and E-learning in further education: embedded technology, evolving practice.
  209. (2000). Identifying and Overcoming Obstacles to Learner-Centered Approaches in Tertiary Accounting Education: A Field Study and Survey of Accounting Educators‘ Perceptions, Accounting Education:
  210. (2005). Implementing best practices in online learning.
  211. (1999). Implementing computer mediated communication in an undergraduate course: A practical experience.
  212. (2000). Implementing Online Delivery: A Study of Change Management,
  213. (1996). Implementing the seven principles: Technology as lever.
  214. (2002). Implications of missed opportunities for learning and assessment
  215. (2002). Improving continual professional development in the use of ICTs,
  216. (2001). In search of instructional design principles for online learning in higher education.
  217. (2002). Incentives and Accountability: Instruments of Change in higher education.
  218. (1998). Individual and Social Aspects of Learning.
  219. (2005). Induction into learning communities.
  220. (1997). Inequities in access to technology documented,
  221. (2000). Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and Developing Countries: Towards a knowledge-based Economy. Paper presented at International
  222. (2003). Information Communication Technology and the New University: A view on eLearning.
  223. (2002). Infrastructure for embracing e-technology in an academic department.
  224. (1995). Innovation in professional education.
  225. (2001). Institutional management and the regional embeddedness of higher education institutions: collective learning in HEI-industry relations in Norway.
  226. (2001). Instructional Strategies: How to Teach for Rigor and Relevance International Center for Leadership in Education.
  227. (1999). Instructional-Design Theories and Models, Volume II: A new paradigm of instructional theory,
  228. (2003). Integrating a virtual learning environment into an introductory accounting course: determinants of student motivation.
  229. (2004). Integrating knowledge management systems, electronic performance support systems, and learning technologies: A conceptual model.Unpublished manuscript.
  230. (2004). Integrating Technology for Meaningful Learning.
  231. (2002). Integrating Technology into Instruction in Higher Education.
  232. (2005). Integration of ICT in Science Teaching. Recent Research Developments in Learning Technologies.
  233. (2002). Interaction online: Above and beyond requirements of assessment.
  234. (1999). Interactional Coherence in CMC.
  235. (2003). Interactive Learning Systems Evaluation. Englewood Cliffs,
  236. (2004). Internet Communication as a Tool for Qualitative Research.
  237. (2003). Internet research Methods.
  238. (1999). Interviewing for Social Scientists, Sage Publications.
  239. (1998). Interviewing: The art of science.
  240. (2002). Interviews and Focus Groups in Shurmer-Smith,
  241. (2003). INTIME: Integrating new technologies into the methods of education.
  242. (1995). Introducing focus groups.
  243. (2001). Inventing a Better Mouth Trap: The Development and Implementation of Forum Software at Charles Sturt University.
  244. (2004). Investigating how a blended learning approach can support an inquiry process within a faculty learning community. Doctoral dissertation,
  245. (1999). Investing in Online Learning: Potential Benefits and Limitations.
  246. (2002). Is Education in the New Millennium: Determining the ‗Right‘ Curriculum. In
  247. (2002). Is Teaching or Technology: Who‘s Driving the Bandwagon. In Dadashzadeh
  248. (1998). Is the revolution now over, or has it just begun? A year of the Internet
  249. (1997). Is the Web a Secure Environment for Electronic Commerce?
  250. (2001). Is Your Organization a ―Learning Organization‖? Home Health Care Management Practice,
  251. (2001). Juggling multiple social worlds: distance students online and offline.
  252. (2004). Key factors for determining student satisfaction in online courses.
  253. Keynote address at the 2000 European Universities Information Systems Congress,
  254. (2003). Knowledge building for use of the internet in education.
  255. (2005). Labour law and new forms of corporate organization.
  256. (1999). Large scale early reading assessment: Challenges, strategies, and implications. Paper presented at the National Reading Conference,
  257. (1994). Leadership styles and organizational effectiveness in Chinese-Japanese joint-ventures,
  258. (2004). Leadership That Gets Results. Harvard Business Review.MarApr
  259. (2000). Learner-centered Assessment on College Campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning.
  260. (2005). Learners and learning in the twenty-first century: What do we know about students‘ attitudes towards and experiences of information and communication technologies that will help us design courses?
  261. (2005). Learning and Instruction: Theory into Practice, fifth edition, Upper Saddle River,
  262. (2002). Learning and Strategy Selection in Probabilistic Environments.
  263. (1996). Learning as a Way of Being.
  264. (2004). Learning by Heart.
  265. (2004). Learning communities: Reforming undergraduate education. Josey-Bass Publishers,
  266. (1999). Learning Online: Extending the Meaning of Community. A Review of Three Programs from the South-Eastern United States. Philadelphia: National Center on Adult Literacy, University of Pennsylvania.
  267. (2002). Learning styles and adaptive flexibility: Testing experiential learning theory.
  268. (2003). Learning styles and learning spaces: enhancing experiential learning in higher education.
  269. (1991). Learning with media.
  270. (2003). Learning, not teaching, the key to education in 21st century.
  271. (2005). learningcircuits.com /2003/sep2003/singh.htm. Accessed
  272. (1995). Lecture in McCain Auditorium.
  273. (2003). Leveraging Mobile and Wireless Internet.
  274. (2003). Lifelong Learning in Action.
  275. (2001). Literacy and the new technologies in school education: Meeting the L(IT)eracy challenge. In H. Fehring & P. Green (eds), Critical Literacy: A collection of articles from the Australia Literacy Educators'
  276. (2001). Looking for jobs beyond the age of manufacturing,
  277. (2000). Mail and Internet Surveys: The Tailored Design Method.
  278. (2003). Management Decision Making in Early Stage Companies. The Outlook Venture,
  279. (2003). Managing Change to Improve Learning. In
  280. (2001). Managing Curriculum Change in Schools. London: Learning and Skills Development Agency.
  281. (2000). Managing technological change.
  282. (2005). Mandatory Internet access: a student centered approach to policy implementation.
  283. (2001). Manufacturing Technology, Applied Quality Science Option, To Become Quality Systems Specialization. Technology Systems Department. Bowling
  284. (2000). Measuring Usability: Are Effectiveness, Efficiency, and Satisfaction Really Correlated.
  285. (2000). Meeting the Equity Challenge in Higher Education. A Review of International Experience. A Short Version
  286. (1978). Mind in Society.
  287. (2002). Missed connections can be instructive.
  288. (1998). Model-based user interface design: Successive transformations of a task/object model.
  289. (1999). Models of curriculum Intergartion. Online: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu /ejournals/JOTS/ Summer-Fall-1999/Loepp.html. Accessed
  290. (2004). Models of growth — towards fundamental change in learning environments.
  291. (2002). Models of Technology and Change.
  292. (2006). Moderation, response rate, and message interactivity: Features of online communities and their effects on intent to participate.
  293. (2000). Modern Sampling Theory: Mathematics and Applications.
  294. (2003). Moodle: using learning communities to create an open source course management system. Online: http://dougiamas.com/writing /edmedia2003. Accessed
  295. (2004). Motivation and Learning Strategies for College Success: A SelfManagement Approach
  296. (2000). Narrative Enquiry: Experience and Story inQualitative Research.
  297. (2006). New Blooms in Established Fields: Four Domains of Learning and Doing.
  298. (2006). New Directions: The Learning Organization. Online: http:// www.moyak.com /researcher/resume/papers/var21mkm.html. Accessed
  299. (2002). New pedagogies in the knowledge society: why this challenge is an epistemological one. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research,
  300. (2000). New Technologies, Students and Curiculum.
  301. (1998). New Technology in Higher Education: Understanding the innovation process.
  302. (2002). Novice and award-winning teachers' concepts and beliefs about teaching in higher education: Effectiveness, efficacy and evaluation.
  303. (2004). Now is the time to start studying the Internet Age.
  304. (2000). Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age.
  305. (2003). On undergraduate education.
  306. (2005). Online Chat for English Learning. The
  307. (1999). Online education: Myth or reality? The Stanford Online Experience,
  308. (2002). Online Hypertext Learning and the Transformation of Higher Education: Perspectives from Global Information Ethics.
  309. (2005). Online interviewing and the research relationship.
  310. (2005). Online learning as information delivery: Digital myopia.
  311. (2002). Online surveys in marketing research: Pros and cons.
  312. (2001). Online technology pushes pedagogy to the forefront.
  313. (2006). Online: http://horizon.unc.e du/TS/commentary/1999-02.asp. Accessed
  314. (2004). Online: http://web.cocc.edu/cbuell/theories /cognitivism.htm. Accessed
  315. (2004). Online: http://www.dest.gov.au/archive/research/fellowship/docs /Alan_Reid/ AlanReid _March03.rtf. Accessed
  316. (2004). Online: http://www2.wgbh.org /mbcweis/ltc/alri/21c.html. Accessed
  317. (2004). Organizing Problem Solving Activities for Synchronous Collaborative Learning of Design Domains.
  318. (2001). Oversold and underused: Computers in the Classroom.
  319. (2005). PBL Approach: A Model for Integrated Curriculum.
  320. (2005). Pedagogy Strategy. Australia –
  321. (1996). Phi Delta Kappa‘s young leaders of 1980 tackle today‘s issues.
  322. (2000). Pillars of Economic Growth and Sustained Human-Centred Development.
  323. (1976). Planning for Higher Education: Background and Application.
  324. (1997). Preparing for Baby Boomers.
  325. (2005). Preparing the Academy of Today for the Learner of Tomorrow.
  326. (1999). Principles and methods of development research. In
  327. (1999). Privacy Issues in Internet Surveys.
  328. (2001). Professional development activities of career technical teacher educators.
  329. (2002). Professional Development: It's about time.
  330. (2004). Providing access to students with disabilities in online distance education: Legal and technical concerns for higher education.
  331. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Iinstruction.
  332. (2004). Public Attitudes on Higher Education: A Trend Analysis,
  333. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists.
  334. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded source book (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
  335. (1999). Qualitative Generalizability.
  336. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks,
  337. (2002). Qualitative Researching (2nd Ed). Thousand Oaks,
  338. (2007). Qualities of Effective Teachers (2nd). Association for Supervision & Curriculum Deve. Kellogg (eds),
  339. (2004). Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education, Online: http://www.qaa.ac.uk . Accessed
  340. (1998). Quality Assurance for Distance Learning in a Global Society.
  341. (2002). Quality Issues in Qualitative Inquiry.
  342. (2000). Quality on the line: Benchmarks for success in Internet-based distance learning.
  343. (2002). Quality, cost and access: The case for redesign.
  344. (1995). Questioning the questions of instructional technology research.
  345. (1997). Rapid collaborative prototyping as an instructional development paradigm. In
  346. (2003). Reconceptualising Dominant Approaches to the Official Curriculum.
  347. (2002). Recovering Curriculum Practice: Continuing the Conversation.
  348. (2000). Reflection: Issues related to improving professors‘ teaching and students‘ learning.
  349. (2002). Reforming the hidden curriculum: The Key Abilities Model and four curricular forms, Curriculum Perspectives,
  350. (1998). Reframing Our Classrooms, Reframing Ourselves: Perspectives from a Virtual Paladin. The Technology Source: Vision. Online: http://horizon.unc.edu /TS/vision/1998-04.asp. Accessed
  351. (1998). Relate-Create-Donate: An educational philosophy for the cyber-generation.
  352. (1995). Renewal in the age of paradox.
  353. (2003). Research as design.
  354. (2002). Research into the effectiveness of online learning in higher education: Survey findings. Paper presented at the
  355. (1999). Research methodology: Taming the cyber frontier.
  356. (2005). Researching Internet-based populations: Advantages and disadvantages of online survey research, online questionnaire authoring software packages, and web survey services.
  357. (2002). Responding to diversity? An initial investigation into multicultural education in Jewish schools in the United Kingdom. In
  358. (1999). Response rate in academic studies: A comparative analysis .
  359. (2002). Restructuring Higher Education institutions in Europe: The case of virtual learning environments.
  360. (1999). Results: The key to continuous improvement (2nd ed.).
  361. (2005). Rethinking Access to Learning.
  362. (1999). Rethinking Development Theory and Policy. A Human Factor Critiques.
  363. (2000). Rethinking online adventure.
  364. (2000). Returns to education in low income countries, evidence for Africa. Online:http://www.hwwa.de/projects/res_programmes/rp/development_ processes /vfs_el_2000_rev2.pdf. Accessed
  365. (2001). Review of Teachers and technoliteracy: Managing technology and learning in schools.
  366. (1999). Revitalizing Liberal Values in a globalizing World, third Annual Senetor Keith Davey
  367. (1999). Sampling for Internet surveys: An examination of respondent selection for Internet research.
  368. (1993). Schools for Thought: A Science of Learning in the Classroom.
  369. (2000). Schools That Learn. London: Nicholas Brealey.
  370. (2005). Science, Technology and Innovation Policy for Lebanon,
  371. (1998). Searching for constructivist, learner-centered and sociocultural components for collaborative educational learning tools. In
  372. (1999). Selecting instructional technology media for the marketing classroom.
  373. (1997). Selecting samples for research studies requires knowledge of the populations of interest.
  374. (1997). Shaping the College Curriculum.
  375. (2003). Share and Share Alike: the E-knowledge transformation comes to campus.
  376. (1995). Situated Learning Perspectives.
  377. (1990). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation.
  378. (1998). Six Elements for Technology Integration in a multicultural classroom,
  379. (2002). SmartMobs: the next social revolution,
  380. (2000). So This Is University? A Survey of
  381. (2001). Sociability and usability in online communities: Determining and measuring success.
  382. (1992). Social administration: A client-centered Approach.
  383. (2000). Social bonds found to be crucial in online education.
  384. (2001). Social Research Methods.
  385. (1992). Staff development for ABE and ESL teachers and volunteers.
  386. (1998). Strategic Choices for the Academy: How Demand for Lifelong Learning Will Re-Create Higher Education.
  387. (1998). Strengthening Practice with Theory.
  388. (2001). Structural reforms in higher education: private higher education in Georgia.
  389. (1988). Student Achievement Through Staff Development.
  390. (2001). Student expectations of distance education: Instructor roles in an interactive television classroom.
  391. (2003). Student Leadership: How to Start and Support a Student Council at Your Program.
  392. (2006). Student perceptions of asynchronous computer-mediated communication in face-to-face courses.
  393. (2001). Student Perceptions of Educational Technology Tools.
  394. (2002). Student perceptions of online versus on campus instruction.
  395. (2003). Student perceptions of the use of online learning technology in their courses.
  396. (2001). Student perceptions of webct in a web supported instructional environment: Distance education technologies for the classroom.
  397. (2001). Student survey says: Schools are probably not using educational technology as wisely or effectively as they could.
  398. (1997). Student-friendly classrooms in a not very child-friendly world.
  399. (2000). Students as Consumers.
  400. (2003). Successful Classroom Discussions with Adult Korean ESL/EFL Learners. The University of Texas.
  401. (2004). Successful ICT integration strategies: Can we learn from others?
  402. (1999). Support for Decisions by E-mail. Department of computer and systems sciences.
  403. (1998). Supporting teachers‘ professional development in a developing country through practice-based inquiry and distance learning: some key issues.
  404. (2006). Taking a Distributed Perspective
  405. (2005). Taxonomy for the Technology Domain.
  406. (2002). Teacher Leadership: Principles and Practice.
  407. (1994). Teachers and Classes: a Marxist Analysis (trans.
  408. (1994). Teachers as change agents: Implications of how teachers use curriculum knowledge. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association,
  409. (1992). Teachers beliefs about teaching and learning: A constructivist perspective.
  410. (2003). Teaching and learning at a distance. New Jersey:Merrill
  411. (1995). Teaching and Learning in the Next Century. Online: http://www.ntlf.com /html/sf/teaching.htm. Accessed
  412. (2003). Teaching and learning online for the first time: Student and coordinator perspectives. Teaching and learning Forum
  413. (2004). Teaching and Learning: Experiential Learning On-line: http://www.learning andteaching.info/learning/experience.htm. Accessed
  414. (2004). Teaching as community property:
  415. (2002). Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.
  416. (2003). Teaching for Quality Learning at University. Second edition.
  417. (1999). Teaching for Supercomplexity: A pedagogy for higher education. In P. Mortimore (eds), Understanding pedagogy and its impact on learning. London :
  418. (2001). Teaching online: A practical guide.
  419. (2002). Teaching to the Brain‘s Natural Learning Systems. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
  420. (1995). Teaching with technology. In
  421. (2004). Technocratizing Lebanon? Why not start with the tech sector. Daily Star. Online: http://www.menafn.com. Accessed
  422. (2002). Technological and structural characteristics, student learning and satisfaction with web-based courses: An exploratory study of two on-line MBA programs.
  423. (2000). Technological change, virtual learning, and higher education.
  424. (2004). Technologies supporting curriculum access for students with disabilities.
  425. (1994). Technology and Education Reform: The Reality Behind the Promise.
  426. (2001). Technology and Multiculturalism in the Classroom.
  427. (1996). Technology and whole-school educational restructuring: the Co-NECT experience. In
  428. (2002). Technology dissemination and economic growth: some lessons for the new economy.
  429. (2001). Technology integrated learning, staff development: It‘s a total package.
  430. (1998). Technology-based Learning: maximizing: Human Performance and Corporate Success. American Society for Training and Development (ASTD).USA:
  431. (1999). Technology: To Use or Infuse. The Technology Source:
  432. (1999). Telecommunication in the Classroom: Rhetoric versus Reality.
  433. (1998). Telematic teaching of adults via the World Wide Web: A university case study.
  434. (1997). Telling stories: a productive but problematic vein of practical knowledge
  435. (2002). The ―Other‖ Participants: Dilemmas Faced by Middle School Service-Learning Teachers.
  436. (1999). The Age of spiritual machines: When computers exceed human intelligence.
  437. (1990). The alignment of technology and structure through roles and networks,
  438. (1999). The Americas: Educational Reform, External Forces, and Internal Challenges.
  439. (1994). The authority of experience in learning to teach: Messages from a physics method class.
  440. (1998). The Challenge of Transformation. Convocation address,
  441. (2005). The Changing Face of E-pedagogy.
  442. (1999). The continuing challenge of instructional integration and user support. The Campus Computing Project. Online: http://www.campuscomputing .net /summaries/1999/index.html. Accessed
  443. (1996). The Creation of Theory: A recent Application of the Grounded Theory Method,
  444. (1999). The Dance of Change: The Challenges of Sustaining Momentum in Learning Organizations,
  445. (2001). The Deep Blue Sea:Rethinking the Source of Leadership.
  446. (2003). The development of institutional strategies.
  447. (1999). The development of professional developers: Learning to assist teachers in new settings in new ways.
  448. (1995). The Digital Economy. Promise and Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence.
  449. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research.
  450. (2002). The E-Interview Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum:
  451. (2002). The E-Marketing Mix: A Contribution of the ETailing Wars.
  452. (2001). The E-University: What have we learned?
  453. (2003). The Effects of Rapid Prototyping Versus Dick and Carey‘s
  454. (2000). the Effects of student behaviour and preferred learning style on performance.
  455. (1998). The emergence of on-line community.
  456. (1991). The enlightened eye: Qualitative inquiry and the enhancement of educational practice.
  457. (2003). The Environment of American Higher Education: A Constellation of Changes. In
  458. (1994). The Fifth Discipline Fieldbook: Strategies and Tools for Building a Learning Organization,
  459. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization,
  460. (1999). The Global Grid of Chaos.
  461. (2000). The Globalisation of Higher Education.
  462. (1998). The Human Factor and Economic Development.
  463. (1998). The Human Factor Approach to Development in Africa.
  464. (1999). The impact of education technology on student achievement.
  465. (2002). The Impact of Globalization on
  466. (2002). The integration of instructional technology into public education: Promises and challenges.
  467. (2001). The Internet Matters: Exploring the Use of the Internet as a Research Tool.
  468. (1995). The Leadership Challenge. Jossey-Bass,
  469. (2003). The Learner-centred Curriculum Model: A structure framework for technology planning.
  470. (1999). The Learning Revolution: To Change the Way the World Learns.
  471. (2003). The M-Learning Paradigm: an Overview Mobilearn. Online: http://www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ltg/reports/mlearning.rtf . Accessed
  472. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information.
  473. (1994). The methodology of focus groups: the importance of interaction between research participants.
  474. (1991). The New Meaning of Educational Change.
  475. (2003). the New Science of Learning: Active learning, metacognition, and transfer of knowledge in e-learning applications.
  476. (1999). The New Technologies and the Future of Residential Undergraduate Education.
  477. (2001). The Pedagogy of technology Enhanced Learning Environments.
  478. (2000). The Performance of the 1990s Canadian Labour Markets.
  479. (2003). The professional development schools handbook: Starting, sustaining and assessing partnerships that improve student learning. Thousand Oaks,
  480. (2000). The promise - and potential pitfalls - of cyberlearning. In
  481. (1998). The pursuit of useable knowledge in instructional technology.
  482. (2003). The Quality Dilemma in Online Education.
  483. (1999). The quality of learning in accounting education: The impact of approaches to learning on academic performance. Accounting Education,
  484. (2004). The real story behind the failure of U.K.
  485. (1996). The real value of on-line communities.
  486. (1997). The relation between leadership style and empowerment on job satisfaction of nurses.
  487. (1994). The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning.
  488. (1999). The role of distance learning in chemical education.
  489. (2000). The sharp edge of educational change.
  490. (2000). The Social Life of Information.
  491. (1999). The student WebQuest: A productive and thought-provoking use of the Internet.
  492. (2004). The Teacher’s Internet Companion.
  493. (2000). The Use of technology in the delivery of instruction: implications for educators and education researchers.
  494. (1997). The Virtual Professor: A Personal Case Study. Online http://home.sprynet.com /~gkearsley/virtual.htm. Accessed
  495. (2000). The Virtual University.
  496. (2001). The Web Questionnaire Challenge to Survey Methodologists.Online:http://survey.sesrc.wsu.edu/dillman/zuma_paper_dillman_ bowker.pdf. Accessed
  497. (1997). The World Wide Web: A technology to enhance teaching and learning?
  498. (1978). Theoretical Sensitivity. Mill Valley,
  499. (1998). Theory and Practice of Transformative Learning,
  500. (2000). Theses and dissertations: a guide to planning, research, and writing. West Port: CT:
  501. (1999). They keep asking questions and want to know more: Enhancing students‘ (and teachers‘) learning through curriculum integration. Paper presented at the Australian Association for Research in Education.
  502. (1994). Thirty Years of Learning: International development research centre.
  503. (2002). To Chat or not to Chat in the EFL Classroom, that is the question! Paper presented at the Language-Communication-Culture International Conference,
  504. (2000). Toward a design theory of problem solving.
  505. (2003). Towards an Information Society In Western Asia. Western Asia Preparatory Conference for the World Summit on the Information Society.
  506. (2002). Towards Establishing the Best Ways to Teach and Learn about IT.
  507. (2004). Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems.
  508. (2002). Transforming the Curriculum: Preparing Students for a Changing World:
  509. (2003). Undemocratic Schooling. Melbourne:
  510. (2006). Undergraduate perceptions of information use: The basis for creating user-centred student information literacy instruction.
  511. (1998). University Curriculum Project-Professors Reflect on Impact. Paper presented at the California State
  512. (2003). Urban universities: Meeting the needs of students. In
  513. (2004). Using E-mail as a Site for Constructing Narratives through Interview.
  514. (1995). Using e-mail, gopher, and other internet tools to enhance your teaching.
  515. (1995). Using Electronic Mail to Conduct Survey.
  516. (2002). Using electronic surveys: advice from survey professionals.
  517. (1998). Using email as a research tool.
  518. (1995). Using IT to Reengineer Business Education: An Exploratory Investigation of Collaborative Telelearning,
  519. (1996). Using Language.
  520. (1995). Using Observation in Small-scale Research. Glasgow: Scottish Council for Research in Education.
  521. (2002). Using qualitative processes in computer technology research, Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung,
  522. (2001). Using research to improve literacy practice and practice to improve literacy research.
  523. (2003). Using Standards-Led Policy to Align Assessment and Accountability Systems. Pacific Resources for Education and Learning.
  524. (2003). Using Systems Thinking To Improve Education. Office of Quality Improvement University of Wisconsin-Madison. Online: http://www.wisc .edu /improve /strplan/systhinked.htm. Accessed
  525. (1997). Using the Internet for Survey Research.
  526. (2003). Using virtual learning environments to facilitate new learning relationships.
  527. (1992). Validating a degree: Subject relevance and assessment issues in the development of a new degree.
  528. (2004). Valuing and using web supported teaching: A staff development role in closing the gaps.
  529. (2000). Varying expectations of online students and the implications for teachers: Findings from a journal study.
  530. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research.
  531. (2006). Virtual and traditional feedback-seeking behaviours: Underlying competitive attitudes and consequent grade performance.
  532. (2004). Virtual behavior settings: An application of behavior setting theories to virtual communities.
  533. (2005). Visual data in applied qualitative research: lessons from experience.
  534. (1999). Voices from the Field: Using Technology in Adult Literacy Education. Summary of National Literacy Advocacy Electronic List Discussion.
  535. (1997). Vygotsky's Zone of Proximal Development as a Theoretical Foundation for Cooperative Learning.
  536. (2002). Weaving the literacy Web: Changes in reading from page to screen. The Reading Teacher,
  537. (2000). Web-based surveys: A review of issues and approaches.
  538. (2001). Welcome to the world of virtual reality.
  539. (1999). What the evaluation of ICT really evaluates. In:
  540. (1999). What‘s the difference?
  541. (1999). When revising a curriculum, strategy may trump pedagogy: How Duke pulled off an overhaul while Rice saw its plans collapse. The Chronicle of Higher Education,
  542. (1993). When to use focus groups and why.
  543. (2004). Why ICT needs Emotionally Intelligent team leaders.
  544. (1998). Why Learning Communities? Why Now?
  545. (1992). Why whole language is today‘s agenda in education.
  546. (2004). Will colleges Miss the next Big Thing?
  547. (1995). Windows of opportunity in electronic classrooms,
  548. (1997). World-Wide Web survey research: Benefits, potential problems, and solutions.
  549. (2003). Writing Measurable Learning Outcomes.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.