This study sought to explore how Swedish parents who had commissioned surrogacy abroad experienced the process of parenthood recognition. The study consisted of in-depth interviews with five couples and 10 individuals representing 10 additional couples who had used surrogacy abroad, mainly in India. The construction of motherhood and fatherhood in the Swedish system contradicts how parenthood is defined in the surrogacy process. This study found that the formal recognition of parenthood involved a complex and frustrating process where the presumption of fatherhood and step-child adoption as grounds for parenthood make people feel questioned as parents, negatively affecting parental welfare. Policy makers need to take into account the consequences of an unregulated situation regarding surrogacy, and focus more on the child–parent relationship when regulating surrogacy
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