This paper was published as Annals of Geophysics, 2004, 47 (2/3), supplement, pp. 1161-1177. It is available from http://www.earth-prints.org/handle/2122/820.Large deviations in the direction of arrival of ionospherically propagating radio signals from the Great Circle Path (GCP) have serious implications for the planning and operation of communications and radiolocation systems operating within the HF-band. Very large deviations are particularly prevalent in the polar and sub-auroral regions where signals often arrive at the receiver with bearings displaced from the great circle direction by up to ±100° or more. Measurements made over several paths are presented in this paper, and the principle causes of off-great circle propagation outlined. Significant progress has been made in modelling the propagation effects and work is now in hand to incorporate the results into tools to aid the planning and operation of HF radio systems operating at northerly latitudes
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