Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

Space and ground based studies of transpolar arcs

By Atousa Goudarzi


This thesis presents a study of the formation and dynamics of 6 transpolar arcs.\ud This work was undertaken primarily using auroral emission data from the Imager\ud Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft along with the\ud ionospheric convection flow patterns from the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network\ud HF radars located in the auroral regions of both hemispheres. Particle precipitation data from Defence Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and\ud National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration (NOAA) satellites were also\ud used, together with Field Aligned Current data from the Iridium satellite constellation. A detailed study is first presented concerning the nature of the\ud ionospheric convection flows on the nightside during an isolated transpolar arc.\ud The results of this study demonstrated: a) the occurrence of cross midnight azimuthal flows, which are thought to be associated with the formation of the\ud transpolar arc; and b) that ionospheric flows caused by dayside reconnection were\ud responsible for the motion of the transpolar arcs. Five further case studies of transpolar arcs, which exist during intervals of northward but different IMF By\ud components, are also discussed. The flows during a number of transpolar arc events have been studied, which confirm that the excitation of flow appears to accompany transpolar arc dynamics in general. Also, a detailed study of particle\ud precipitation data suggests that the particles associated with the transpolar arcs are located on closed field lines. Evidence presented in this thesis suggests that the\ud transpolar arcs mentioned above lie on closed field lines. Finally, a discussion of\ud possible future work is given, suggested by the results of the studies described above

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1998). A comparison of a model for the theta aurora with observations from Polar, Wind and SuperDARN,
  2. (2000). A continuous view of the dawn-dusk polar cap,
  3. (1983). A dual bistatic auroral radar system for the study of electric field in the Canadian sector of the auroral zone,
  4. (1983). A first comparison of STARE and EISCAT electron drift velocity measurements,
  5. (1983). A new radar auroral backscatter experiment,
  6. (1931). A new theory of magnetic storms,
  7. A quantitative empirical model of the magnetospheric flux transfer process,
  8. (2004). A statistical comparison of SuperDARN spectral width boundaries and DMSP particle precipitation boundaries in the nightside ionosphere,
  9. (1985). A sun-aligned arc observed by DMSP and AE-C.
  10. (1983). A test of the cosine relationship using three-radar velocity measurements,
  11. (1993). A time-dependent model of polar cap arcs,
  12. (1961). A unifying theory of high-latitude geophysical phenomena,
  13. (1993). Akebono (EXOS D) observations of small-scale electromagnetic signatures relating to polar cap precipitation,
  14. (1963). Alfvén and C-G. Fälthammar , Cosmical Electrodynamics. In:
  15. (1916). Auroral observations at the Cape Royds Station,
  16. (1997). Basic Space Plasma Physics,
  17. (1988). Coherent mesoscale convection patterns during northward interplanetary magnetic field,
  18. (2004). Conditions governing localized high-latitude dayside aurora,
  19. (1951). Cosmic Radiation and Cosmic Magnetic Fields.
  20. (1995). DARN/SuperDARN: A global view of the dynamics of high-latitude convection,
  21. Dayside and nightside contributions to the cross polar cap potential: Placing an upper limit on a viscous-like interaction,
  22. (2000). Dayside convection and auroral morphology during an interval of northward interplanetary magnetic field,
  23. (1987). DE 1 observations of theta aurora plasma source regions and Birkeland current charge carries,
  24. (1991). Dependence of convective flows and particle precipitation in the high latitude dayside ionosphere on the Xand Y -components of the interplanetary magnetic field,
  25. (1981). Dependence of polar cap potential drop on interplanetary parameters,
  26. (2005). Dependencies of high-latitude plasma convection: Consideration of interplanetary magnetic field, seasonal, and universal time factors in statistical patterns,
  27. (1995). Direct determination of large-scale magnetospheric field-aligned currents with SuperDARN,
  28. DMSP optical and electron measurements in the vicinity of polar cap arcs.
  29. Drift motions of small-scale irregularities in the high-latitude F region: An experimental comparison with plasma drift motions,
  30. (1958). Dynamics of the interplanetary gas and magnetic fields,
  31. (2004). Electrodynamics of transpolar aurorae,
  32. (1997). Energetics during the main phase of geomagnetic superstorms,
  33. (2001). Estimation of global field aligned currents using the Iridium System magnetometer data,
  34. (2000). Evolution of ionospheric multicell convection during northward interplanetary magnetic field with ׀Bz/By׀
  35. (1997). Evolution of the global aurora during positive IMF Bz and varying IMF By Bibliography conditions,
  36. (1992). Excitation and decay of solar wind-driven flows in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system,
  37. Far ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 1. System design,
  38. Field-aligned currents in the dayside cusp observed by Traid,
  39. (1967). Field-aligned currents in the magnetosphere,
  40. Field-aligned currents in the south polar cusp and their relationship to the interplanetary magnetic field,
  41. (1987). Filamentary structures in the magnetotail lobes,
  42. (1991). Flux transfer events at the dayside magnetopause: transient reconnection or magnetosheat pressure pulses?,
  43. (1994). Formation and eruption of sun-aligned arcs at the polar cap-auroral oval boundary,
  44. (2005). Formation and motion of a transpolar arc in response to dayside and nightside reconnection,
  45. (1989). Formation of polar cap arcs configurations.
  46. (1991). Global aurora morphology,
  47. (1986). Global auroral responses to magnetospheric compressions by shocks in the solar wind: Two case studies, in Solar Wind-Magnetosphere Coupling,
  48. (2003). Global cooling and densification of the plasma sheet during an extended period of purely Northward IMF on
  49. (2005). High latitude electromagnetic and particle energy flux during an event with sustained strongly northward IMF,
  50. (2004). High Latitude Poynting Flux From Combined Iridium and SuperDARN Data,
  51. (1993). High-latitude electrodynamics and aurorae during northward IMF, in:
  52. (1985). IMF By dependent plasma flow and Birkeland currents in the dayside magnetosphere 1. Dynamics Explorer Observations
  53. (1985). IMF By-dependent plasma flow and Birkeland currents in the dayside magnetosphere 2: A global model for northward and southward IMF,
  54. (2007). Impacts of climate warming and permafrost thaw on the riverine transport of nitrogen and phosphorus to the Kara Sea,
  55. (2005). Interhemispheric observations of the ionospheric signature of tail reconnection during IMFnorthward non-substorm intervals,
  56. (1961). Interplanetary magnetic field and the auroral zones,
  57. (2002). Interplanetary magnetic field control of theta aurora development,
  58. (1994). Interplanetary magnetic field dependency of stable Sun-aligned polar cap arcs,
  59. (1993). Interpretation of HF radar ionospheric Doppler spectra by collective wave scattering theory,
  60. (1995). Introduction to Space Physics,
  61. (1991). Ion acceleration at the equatorward edge of the cusp - Low altitude observations of patchy merging,
  62. (2000). Ionospheric Electrodynamics: A Tutorial, in Magnetospheric Current Systems,
  63. (1982). Ionospheric evidence for irregular reconnection and turbulent plasma flows in the magnetotail during periods of northward interplanetary magnetic field,
  64. (2003). Ionospheric flow during extended intervals of the northward but By-dominated IMF,
  65. (1990). Ionospheric flows associated with a transpolar arc,
  66. (2001). Ionospheric Signatures of Dayside Reconnection Processes,
  67. (1994). Large-scale convection patterns observed by DMSP,
  68. (1995). Magnetic-flux ropes at the highlatitude magnetopause,
  69. (1981). Magnetospheric asymmetries associated with the
  70. (1975). Mathematical representation of the auroral oval,
  71. (2003). Measuring the reconnection rate in the dayside ionosphere during an interval of due northward IMF,
  72. (1996). Mesoscale dayside convection Bibliography vortices and their relation to substorm phase,
  73. (1995). Midnight velocity shear zone and the concept of Harang discontinuity,
  74. (1992). Model of the formation of low-latitude boundary layer for strongly northward interplanetary magnetic field,
  75. (2008). Multi-instrumentation observations of a transpolar arc in the northern hemisphere,
  76. (2003). Observations of non-conjugate theta aurora,
  77. (1999). observations of the response time of high latitude ionospheric convection to variations in the interplanetary magnetic field using EISCAT and IMP-8 data,
  78. (1987). On the conjugacy of the aurora: High and low latitudes.
  79. (1991). On the electrodynamical state of the auroral ionosphere during northward IMF: A transpolar arc case study,
  80. (1991). On the influence of localized electric fields and field-aligned currents associated with polar arcs on the global potential distribution,
  81. (1984). Origin of the plasma in a cross-polar cap auroral feature (theta aurora),
  82. (1984). Plasma characteristics of polar cap F-layer arcs,
  83. (1988). plasma drifts associated with a system of sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap,
  84. (1968). Polar and Magnetospheric Substorms,
  85. (1997). Polar cap arcs: A review,
  86. (1985). Polar cap inflation and deflation,
  87. (1973). Polar cap magnetic variations and their relationship with the interplanetary magnetic sector structure,
  88. (2000). Polar orbiting environmental satellite space environment monitor, 2, Instrument descriptions and archive data documentation,
  89. Polar view of the Earth’s aurora with dynamic explorer,
  90. (1984). Precipitating electron and ion detectors (SSJ/4) for the block 5D/Flights 6-10 DMSP satellites: Calibration and data presentation, Rep. AFGL-TR-84-0317, Air Force Geophys. Lab., Hanscom Air Force Base,
  91. (1989). Properties of 6300-A auroral emission at south pole,
  92. (2004). Quantitative modeling of the magnetic field configuration associated with the theta aurora,
  93. (1978). Quiet time pattern of auroral arcs for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field in the yz-plane,
  94. (2002). Radar Observations of Convection in the Nightside High-Latitude Ionosphere, PhD Thesis,
  95. (1989). Recent ionospheric observations relating to solar wind-magnetosphere coupling,
  96. (2004). Relation of polar auroral arcs to magnetotail twisting and IMF rotation: A systematic MHD simulation study,
  97. (1984). Relationships between field-aligned currents, electric fields, and and particle precipitation as observed by Dynamics
  98. (1998). Relationships between large-, meso-, and small-scale field-aligned currents and their current carriers, in Polar Cap Boundary Phenomena, edited by:
  99. Response of the magnetotail to changes in the open flux content of the magnetosphere,
  100. (1988). Response time of the high-latitude dayside ionosphere to sudden changes in the north-south component of the IMF,
  101. (1992). Reverse convection,
  102. (1983). SABRE: A new radar auroral backscatter experiment,
  103. (2000). Sensing global Birkeland currents with Iridium engineering magnetometer data,
  104. (2003). Simultaneous Cluster and IMAGE observations of cusp reconnection and auroral proton spot for northward IMF,
  105. (1989). Simultaneous observations of a theta aurora and associated magnetotail plasma,
  106. (1988). Simultaneous observations of sun-aligned polar cap arcs in both hemispheres by EXOS-C and Viking,
  107. (1991). Simultaneous optical observations of transpolar arc in the two polar caps,
  108. (1982). Simultaneous relativistic electron and auroral particle access to the polar caps during interplanetary magnetic field Bz northward: A scenario for an open field line source of auroral particles,
  109. (1998). Solar Wind Proton Alpha Monitor (SWEPAM) for the Advance Composition Explorer, Space Sci.
  110. (1984). Stahara,: Patterns of potential magnetic field merging sites on the dayside magnetopause,
  111. (1978). STARE: A new radar aurora backscatter experiment in northern Scandinavian,
  112. (2008). Statistical Birkeland current distributions from magnetic field observations by the Iridium constellation,
  113. (1998). Strong flow bursts in the nightside ionosphere during extremely quiet solar wind conditions,
  114. (2002). Strong sunward propagation flow bursts in the night sector during quiet solar wind conditions, SuperDARN and satellite observations,
  115. (1996). Synthesis models of dayside fieldaligned currents for strong interplanetary magnetic field By,
  116. The amplitude distribution of field-aligned currents at northern high latitudes observed by TRAID,
  117. (2006). The auroral and ionospheric flow signatures of dual lobe reconnection:
  118. (1972). The configuration of the magnetosphere, in Critical Problems of Magnetospheric Physics,
  119. (2000). The connection between transpolar arcs and magnetotail rotation,
  120. (2001). The dayside ultraviolet aurora and convection responses to a southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field,
  121. (1988). The dependence of high-latitude dayside ionospheric flows on the north-south component of the IMF: A high-time resolution correlation analysis using
  122. (1964). The development of the auroral substorm,
  123. (1991). The electrodynamics, thermal and energetic character of intense sun-aligned arcs in the polar cap,
  124. (2004). The influence of IMF By on the nature of the nightside high-latitude ionospheric flow during intervals of positive
  125. (1902). The Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition,
  126. (1991). The physics of the Harang discontinuity,
  127. (1994). The population of the magnetosphere by solar winds ions when the interplanetary magnetic field is northward,
  128. (1982). The relationship between interplanetary quantities and Birkeland current densities,
  129. (1993). The response of the high-latitude dayside ionosphere to a sudden southward IMF turning,
  130. (1990). The response of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system to solar wind dynamic pressure variations,
  131. (1963). The structure of the exosphere, or adventures in velocity space, in Geophysics: The Earth’s environment, edited by
  132. (1986). The theta aurora,
  133. (2004). transpolar arc evolution and associated potential patterns,
  134. (1991). Transpolar auroras, their particle precipitation, and IMF By component,
  135. (1966). Transverse magnetic disturbances at 1100 km in the aurora region,
  136. (1994). Use of FUV auroral emissions as diagnostic indicators,
  137. (2003). Variations in polar cap area during two substorm cycles,
  138. (1993). Viking investigations of auroral electrodynamical parameters,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.