Full text of this item is not currently available on the LRA. The final published version may be available through the links above.The high latitude ionosphere is a dynamic propagation medium in which HF radio signals associated with each propagation mode may arrive at the receiver over a range of angles in both azimuth and in elevation. Furthermore, ionospheric movements at the reflection points impose Doppler shifts and Doppler spreads onto the signals. Large Doppler spreads and multipath propagation in which the delay spread is large are particularly prevalent at these northerly latitudes and can result in a significant degradation in the performance of digital communication systems. This investigation suggests that the application of spatial filtering from simple antenna arrays comprising pairs or triplets of antennas can significantly reduce the level of apparent Doppler spreading, frequently to levels at which modern, high speed modems are expected to operate satisfactorily. The investigation concentrated on Doppler spread since this was the most significant factor in the data employed in this study; however, it is noted that reductions in effective multipath delay spread are also possible
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