Location of Repository

A time accurate computational analysis of two-dimensional wakes

By William Paul Bennett


The unsteady transport of large-scale coherent vortices can induce a redistribution\ud in the stagnation temperature and pressure relative to the free stream flow. The\ud time averaged result of this redistribution is the Eckert-Weise effect, by which a\ud cooled region is defined along the wake centre. The time accurate characteristics of\ud this mechanism for bluff body near wake flows are, however, sparsely documented\ud at low transonic Mach numbers. For example, no available published research has,\ud to date, studied the time resolved energy separation characteristics in the transonic\ud near wake flow of a circular cylinder using a time accurate numerical model.\ud A novel time accurate computational analysis is developed of the near wake energy\ud separation characteristics downstream of a circular cylinder in a low transonic crossflow\ud at high Reynolds number. This circular cylinder analysis is extended to a novel\ud time accurate computational study of energy separation in an asymmetric turbine\ud cascade wake at a low transonic exit Mach number. Energy separation is reported\ud to primarily be a convective flow effect. A structured inviscid and turbulent test\ud program examines the extent to which an inviscid model is able to predict energy\ud separation.\ud Results from this study indicate a good correlation of the time accurate and time\ud mean flow statistics with published work. These results demonstrate that an inviscid\ud model is able to capture the basic energy separation mechanism. However,\ud inviscid models are shown to over-predict the stagnation temperature and pressure\ud redistribution. The inviscid prediction suggests that air compressibility modifies\ud the incompressible energy separation mechanism. Turbulence diffusion reduces the\ud stagnation temperature and pressure extrema to demonstrate a better comparison\ud with experimental data. A relationship between the energy separation and vortex\ud strength is highlighted. This is shown in the turbine cascade prediction to be\ud dependent on the boundary layer separation characteristics

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/7362

Suggested articles



  1. (2000). 3-D characteristic-based boundary conditions for CAA,”
  2. (2000). A challenging test case for large eddy simulation: High Reynolds number circular cylinder flow,”
  3. (1990). A comparison of zero and one equation turbulence models for turbomachinery calculations,”
  4. (1982). A contribution to the free stream turbulence effect on the flow past a circular cylinder,”
  5. (1959). A finite difference method for the numerical computation of discontinuous solutions of the equations of fluid dynamics,”
  6. (1972). A first course in turbulence”,
  7. (1996). A k − ω turbulence model for quasi-three-dimensional turbomachinery flows,”
  8. (1952). A method of quadrature for the calculation of laminar and turbulent boundary layers in plane and rotational symmetric flow,”
  9. (1998). A new Strouhal-Reynolds number relationship for the circular cylinder in the range 47
  10. (2001). A numerical investigation of time resolved flows around turbine blades,”
  11. (1995). A review of the research on unsteady turbine blade wake characteristics,” AGARD CP-571.
  12. (1992). A study of the interaction of a normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer at Mach numbers between 1.3 and 1.55,” Eur.
  13. (1978). A survey of several finite difference methods for systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws,”
  14. (1992). A three dimensional high resolution compressible flow solver”,
  15. (1996). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes
  16. (1929). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography
  17. (1985). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography 346
  18. (1976). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography 347
  19. A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography 349 Reynolds, O. (1874), “On the extent and action of the heating surface for steam boilers,”
  20. (2002). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography 350
  21. (1996). A Time Accurate Computational Analysis of Two-Dimensional Wakes Bibliography 353
  22. (1982). A visual study of turbine blade pressure side boundary layer,”
  23. (1993). Aerodynamic performance of a transonic low aspect ratio turbine nozzle,” Trans.
  24. (1991). An adaptive grid algorithm for computational shock hydrodynamics”,
  25. (1992). An examination of the contributions to loss on a transonic turbine blade in cascade,” Trans.
  26. (1983). An experimental study of entrainment and transport in the turbulent near wake of a circular cylinder,”
  27. (2000). An experimental study of the unsteady characteristics of the turbulent near wake of a turbine blade,”
  28. (1995). An introduction to computational fluid dynamics: the finite volume method ”, Longman Scientific & Technical,
  29. (1976). Analytical theory of transonic normal shock-turbulent boundary-layer interaction,”
  30. (1995). Application of low dissipation and dispersion Runge-Kutta schemes to benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics,” ICASE/LaRC workshop on benchmark problems in computational aeroacoustics (CAA), edited by
  31. (1981). Approximate Riemann solvers, parameter vectors, and difference schemes,”
  32. (1992). Aspect ratio and end plate effects on vortex shedding from a circular cylinder,”
  33. (1982). Auto and cross correlation measurements in a turbine cascade using a digital correlator,”
  34. (1992). Boundary conditions for direct simulations of compressible viscous flows,”
  35. (1995). Boundary layer and loss studies on highly loaded turbine cascade,”
  36. (1985). Boundary-layer transition and separation near the leading edge of a high-speed turbine blade,”
  37. (1950). Calcul approche´ de la couche limite laminaire en e´coulement compressible sur une paroi nonconductrice de la chaleur,”
  38. (2001). Calculation of rotor-stator interaction of a transonic turbine stage using an innovative unsteady flow solver,”
  39. (1984). Cascade aerodynamics”,
  40. (1986). Characteristic-based schemes for the Euler equations,”
  41. (1999). Computation of aeroacoustic fields on general geometries using compact differencing and filtering schemes,”
  42. (1995). Computational fluid dynamics for engineers,
  43. (1999). Detached-eddy simulations past a circular cylinder,”
  44. (1978). Detailed measurements on a circular cylinder in cross flow,”
  45. (1977). Determination of the vortex shedding frequency of cascades with different trailing edge thicknesses,” AGARD CP227.
  46. (1992). Dilatation-dissipation corrections for advanced turbulence models,”
  47. (1993). Dispersion-relation-preserving finite difference schemes for computational acoustics,”J.
  48. (1968). Distribution of local pressure and skin friction around a circular cylinder in cross-flow up to Re
  49. (1987). Eduction of large-scale organized structures in a turbulent plane wake,”
  50. (2001). Energy separation in a compressible vortex street,”
  51. (1987). Energy separation in a vortex street,”
  52. (2002). enquoteUnsteady and transitional effects in turbomachinery flows,
  53. (1942). Equations of turbulent motion of an incompressible fluid,”
  54. (1979). Etude d’ecoulements turbulents subsoniques et supercritiques par visualisation ultra rapide,”
  55. (1986). Etude de l’ecoulements subsonique et transonique au bord de fuite epais d’un profile isole,” Rapport N.,
  56. (1976). Experimental studies of the boundary layer on a flat plate at Mach numbers from 2.5 to 4.5,”
  57. (1951). Experiments on aerodynamic cooling”,
  58. (1992). Experiments on flow past rough circular cylinders at large Reynolds numbers,”
  59. (1961). Experiments on the flow past a circular cylinder at very high Reynolds number,”
  60. (1997). Flow around circular cylinders,
  61. (1995). Fluid mechanics”, Longman Scientific & Technical,
  62. (1985). Fundamentals of aerodynamics”,
  63. (1988). Incoherent turbulence structure in the near wake of a normal plate,”
  64. (1981). Interferometric measurements in a turbine cascade using image-plane holography,” Trans.
  65. (2004). Intermittency transport modeling of separated flow transition,” Trans.
  66. (1992). Investigation of boundary conditions for computational aeroacoustics,”
  67. (1997). Investigation of the calmed region behind a turbulent spot,” Trans.
  68. (1989). Investigations of boundary layer transition in an adverse pressure gradient,” Trans.
  69. (1998). Large eddy simulation of the subcritical flow past a circular cylinder: Numerical and modeling aspects,”
  70. (1993). Loss mechanisms in turbomachines,” Trans.
  71. (1996). Loss production in the wake of a simulated subsonic turbine blade,”
  72. (1998). Measurement and computation of energy separation in the vortical wake flow of a turbine nozzle cascade,”
  73. (1999). Measurement and computation of energy separation in the vortical wake flow of a turbine nozzle cascade,” Trans.
  74. (1959). Measurements of the recovery temperature in the wake of a cylinder and of a wedge at Mach numbers between 0.5 and 3,”
  75. (1980). Measurements of unsteady vortex flowfields,”
  76. (1943). Messung der temperaturverteilung auf der oberfla¨che schnell angestro¨mter unbeheizter ko¨rper,”
  77. (1980). Natural transition of boundary layers -the effect of turbulence, pressure gradient and flow history,”
  78. (1922). New data on the laws of fluid resistance,”
  79. (1990). Nonreflecting boundary conditions for Euler equations calculations,”
  80. (1990). Numerical computation of internal and external flows”,
  81. (1989). Numerical prediction of trailing edge wake shedding,”
  82. (1998). Numerical simulation of turbulent flows for turbine blade heat transfer applications,”
  83. (1976). Numerical solution of multi-dimensional problems in gas dynamics,”
  84. (1997). Numerically nonreflecting boundary and interface conditions for compressible flow and aeroacoustic computations,”
  85. (1998). Numerically nonreflecting boundary conditions for multidimensional aeroacoustic computations,”
  86. (1994). Observations of vortex shedding in the wake from transonic turbine nozzle vanes,”
  87. (1996). On absorbing boundary conditions for linearized Euler equations by a perfectly matched layer,”
  88. (1957). On the distribution of intermittency in the transition region of a boundary layer,”
  89. (1955). On the laminar boundary layer separation from the leading edge of a thin aerofoil,”
  90. (2003). On the role of intermittency in the closure of laminar separation bubbles,”
  91. (1969). On vortex shedding from a circular cylinder in the critical Reynolds number region,”
  92. (1982). Oscillatory compressible flow around a cylinder,” Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories
  93. (1992). Performance of popular turbulence models for attached and separated adverse pressure gradient flows,”
  94. (2002). Periodically unsteady separation and transition of a boundary layer with pressure gradient”, Colloqium on periodically unsteady flows in turbomachinery , Technische Universita¨t
  95. (2001). Prediction of high Reynolds number flow over a circular cylinder using
  96. (1999). Prefactored compact filters for computational aeroacoustics,”
  97. (1972). Properties of the Karman vortex street”, Sulzer research,
  98. (1997). Proposed inflow/outflow boundary condition for direct computation of aerodynamic sound,”
  99. (1988). Reassessment of the scale determining equation for advanced turbulence models,”
  100. (1983). Recent developments in transonic Euler flow over a circular cylinder,” Math. and Comp.
  101. (2000). Resolving the dependence on freestream values for the k − ω turbulence model,”
  102. (1999). Riemann solvers and numerical methods for fluid dynamics: a practical introduction”,
  103. (1998). Simulation of trailing edge vortex shedding in a transonic turbine cascade,” Trans.
  104. (1994). Simulation of transition with a two-equation turbulence model,”
  105. (1990). Simulation of vortex-shedding flow about a circular cylinder at high Reynolds numbers,” Trans.
  106. (2002). Some Reynolds number effects on separating 2-D and attached 3-D turbulent boundary layers,”
  107. (1980). Study of viscous crossflow effects on circular cylinders at high Reynolds numbers,”
  108. (1983). The base pressure problem in transonic turbine cascades,” Paper 83-GT-50 , ASME,
  109. (1964). The drag of a compressible turbulent boundary layer on a smooth flat plate with and without heat transfer,”
  110. (1953). The dynamics and thermodynamics of compressible fluid flow -
  111. (1986). The effect of a downstream rotor on the measured performance of a transonic turbine nozzle,” Trans.
  112. (1982). The effect of coolant flow on the efficiency of a transonic HP turbine profile suitable for a small engine,”
  113. (1989). The effect of secondary flow on the redistribution of the total temperature field downstream of a stationary turbine cascade,” AGARD CP-469.
  114. (1996). The effect of vortex shedding on the unsteady pressure distribution around the trailing edge of a turbine blade,”
  115. (1997). The effect of vortex shedding on the unsteady pressure distribution around the trailing edge of a turbine blade,” Trans.
  116. (1969). The effects of curvature on the turbulent boundary layer,”
  117. (2002). The effects of wakes on separating boundary layers in low pressure turbines,” PhD thesis,
  118. (1989). The influence of boundary layer state on vortex shedding from flat plates and turbine cascades,”
  119. (1990). The influence of boundary layer state on vortex shedding from flat plates and turbine cascades,” Trans.
  120. (1995). The inviscid transonic flow about a cylinder,”
  121. (1966). The mechanics of the formation region of vortices behind bluff bodies,”
  122. (1993). The modelling of turbulent flow around stationary and vibrating square cylinders,”
  123. (1997). The path to predicting bypass transition,”Trans.
  124. (2000). The physics of shock wave/boundary layer interaction control: last lessons learned,”
  125. (1991). The role of laminar-turbulent transition in gas turbine engines,”Trans.
  126. (1989). The trailing edge loss of transonic turbine blades,”
  127. (2003). The use of dynamic grid adaption algorithms for the modelling of flow around a circular cylinder in subcritical flow regime,”
  128. (1987). Time dependent boundary conditions for hyperbolic systems,”
  129. (1990). Time-resolved measurements of total temperature and pressure in the vortex street behind a cylinder,” Phys.
  130. (2002). Toward improved prediction of heat transfer on turbine blades,” Trans.
  131. (1979). Towards the ultimate conservative difference scheme V. A second-order sequel to Godunov’s method,”
  132. (1989). Transonic flow about a circular cylinder,”
  133. (1996). Transonic turbine vane wake flows,”
  134. (1997). Turbine blade heat transfer calculations using two-equation turbulence models,”
  135. (2002). Turbulence modelling for CFD”,
  136. (1997). Turbulence modelling validation, testing and development,”
  137. (1989). Turbulent boundary separation,”
  138. (2001). Turbulent spot in strong adverse pressure gradients, Part I - Spot
  139. (2001). Turbulent spot in strong adverse pressure gradients, Part II - Spot propagation and spreading rates,”
  140. (1951). Turbulenter wa¨rmedurchgang im zentrifugalfeld,”
  141. (1994). Two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models for engineering applications,”
  142. (1954). U¨ber die temperaturverteilung hinter angestro¨mten Zylindern”,
  143. (2005). Unsteady energy separation and base pressure distributions in subsonic crossflow around a circular cylinder,” PhD thesis,
  144. (2003). Unsteady turbine blade wake characteristics,”
  145. (1991). Viscous fluid flow”,
  146. (1976). von Ka´rma´n vortex streets in the wakes of subsonic and transonic cascades,” AGARD CP-177.
  147. (1976). Vortex shedding from a blunt trailing edge with equal and unequal external mean velocities,”
  148. (1993). Vortex-induced energy separation in shear flows,”
  149. (1991). Whole-field measurement of gas density from two simultaneously recorded interferograms,” Exp.
  150. (1997). Wide bandwidth stagnation temperature measurements in vortical flows behind turbine vanes,” ICIASF ’97,
  151. (1993). Zonal two-equation k−ω turbulence models for aerodynamic flows,”

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.