Choanoflagellates are unicellular filter-feeding protozoa distributed universally in aquatic habitats. Cells are ovoid in shape with a single anterior flagellum encircled by a funnel-shaped collar of microvilli. Movement of the flagellum creates water currents from which food particles are entrapped on the outer surface of the collar and ingested by pseudopodia. One group of marine choanoflagellates has evolved an elaborate basket-like exoskeleton, the lorica, comprising two layers of siliceous costae made up of costal strips. A computer graphic model has been developed for generating three-dimensional images of choanoflagellate loricae based on a universal set of 'rules' derived from electron microscopical observations. This model has proved seminal in understanding how complex costal patterns can be assembled in a single continuous movement. The lorica, which provides a rigid framework around the cell, is multifunctional. It resists the locomotory forces generated by flagellar movement, directs and enhances water flow over the collar and, for planktonic species, contributes towards maintaining cells in suspension. Since the functional morphology of choanoflagellate cells is so effective and has been highly conserved within the group, the ecological and evolutionary radiation of choanoflagellates is almost entirely dependent on the ability of the external coverings, particularly the lorica, to diversify
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