Location of Repository

European Strategic Culture: Assessing the ESDP Years (1998-2005)

By Paraschos Lianos

Abstract

The central aim of this thesis is to analyse the distinct elements of a potential European\ud strategic culture and their representation in the rhetoric and strategic actions of the Union, with special emphasis in the years of ESDP existence (1998-2005). The discussion rests on the proposition that a common European Strategic culture exists, albeit it is restricted in scope and depth. It is argued that as such, it is associated with three main pillars: humanitarian intervention, outward orientation and the pursuit of the largest possible consensus, i.e. multilateralism. The final objective of the discussion is to test these pillars\ud against the proposition for the existence of a specific, albeit limited European strategic\ud culture. It has been deemed that the most productive way to determine whether the three\ud pillars of European strategic culture can be considered realistically relevant is to assess them against the rhetoric and strategic actions of the European Union that took place within the period 1998-2005, which is the set timeframe for this thesis. Following an up-to-date literature review on the subject (Chapter II), this thesis makes use of a modified framework by Booth and Macmillan in order to explore those parameters that influence the development of strategic culture, such as geography, history and political structures. The\ud modified framework is outlined and discussed in Chapter III. Chapter IV serves to put the\ud concept of a European strategic culture in its historical context. Important milestones in EEC/EU defence history since the need for a common defence was articulated in the 1950s\ud are analysed. The emphasis lays not so much on the origins of common defence and foreign\ud policy initiatives but on recent developments. Chapter V introduces facets of strategic culture as these can be revealed through the rhetoric of the EU. The focus is on those documents that best describe the strategic concept of the EU after the introduction of the ESDP and more specifically, the European Security Strategy (ESS). Chapter VI focuses on EU actions\ud of strategic importance. In this respect, the three EU military operations that took place between the introduction of the ESDP in 1998 and the year 2005, (Operation Concordia, Artemis and Althea are examined). In conclusion, this thesis demonstrates the existence of a European strategic culture, but also confirms the initial proposition regarding the current nature of this strategic culture, which is limited in scope and in depth. As such, it is shown that it is based on the three pillars outlined in the proposition, i.e. humanitarian intervention, outward orientation and multilateralism

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/8892

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2003). A Common European Foreign Policy",
  2. (1988). A Culturalist Theory of Political Change",
  3. (1991). A European Defence Identity: Challenge and opportunity for NATO, Congressional Research Service- Library of Congress,
  4. (2003). A European Strategic Culture? The ESDP and 21st Century Geopolitics", ECPR workshop no.12 "Conceptualising the EU's Foreign and Security Policy: New Questions adn New Approaches",
  5. (2005). A European Union with Teeth?" in The State of the European Union: With US or against US?
  6. (2004). A European Way of War, Centre for European Reform,
  7. (1996). A History of European Integration since
  8. (1999). A New Generation Draws the Line,
  9. (2002). A New Institutional Balance for the European Foreign Policy?"
  10. (1999). A New Moral Crusade,
  11. (2003). A Secure Europe in a Better World,
  12. (1991). A Theory of Strategic Culture",
  13. (2004). Aide-Memoire Revised Version 2",
  14. (2007). Albanian representatives (2001) "Ohrid Framework Agreement",
  15. (1982). Alternative Treaty drawn by France's five partners (20 January 1962)" in Selection of texts concerning institutional matters of the Community from 1950 to 1982, European Parliament -
  16. Alyson (2005) "The European Security Strategy: An Evolutionary History",
  17. (1990). American National Style and Strategic Culture"
  18. (2002). American Power before and after 11 September: dizzy with success?"
  19. (1985). American Strategic Culture",
  20. (2005). An action plan for European Defence: Implementing the Security Strategy, A joint study ISIS and CeMiSS,
  21. (2002). An Equal Partner: Europe's role in the World Order"
  22. (2007). Analysis: European Diplomacy and the Conflict over Iran's Nuclear Program", Deutsche-aussenpolitik, http://www.deutscheaussenpolitik.de/resources/dossiers/iran06/Dossier-Iran-Introduction.pdf, accessed on 18
  23. (1995). Analyzing social settings : a guide to qualitative observation and analysis 3rd ed.,
  24. (1992). Anarchy is What States Make of it: the social construction of power politics",
  25. (2005). Annual Speech on ESDP: the Agenda of
  26. (1999). Appendix: Strategic Culture - Framework for Analysis "
  27. (2003). Applications of case study research 2nd,
  28. (2001). Are the US and Europe heading for divorce?"
  29. (2002). ASEAN's Diplomatic and Security Culture: origins development and prospects,
  30. (2004). Audit of European Strategy,
  31. (2003). Basic Principles: for an EU strategy against proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction"
  32. (2007). BBC news online (2003) "Bush ditches steel import duties",
  33. (1981). Between peace and war, The Johns Hopkins
  34. (2001). Beyond the EU/NATO dichotomy: the beginnings of a European strategic culture",
  35. (2000). Britain, France and the European Defence Initiative",
  36. (1999). Building a European Defence Capability",
  37. (2005). Center of gravity: what Clausewitz really meant",
  38. (2002). CFSP: Conventions, Constitutions and Consequentiality",
  39. (1974). Chinese Ways in Warfare,
  40. (2003). Civil Military Co-ordination (CMCO)",
  41. (2002). Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) Concept for the EU-Led Crisis Management Operations",
  42. (2006). Civil-Military Co-ordination: Framework paper of possible solutions for the managemnt of EU Crisis management Operations",
  43. (2001). Coherence for European Security Policy: debates, cases and assement, WEU Insitute for Security Studies, 27, Occasional Papers, Paris, http://www.isseu.org/occasion/occ27.pdf, accessed on 25
  44. (2000). Come Together",
  45. (2000). Committees in Common: committee governance and CFSP" in Administering the New Europe: The Role of Committees in
  46. (1984). Comparative Strategic Culture", Parameters-
  47. (2004). Concept for the European Union (EU) Military Operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) - Operation ALTHEA",
  48. (2004). Conceptual Framework on the ESDP dimension of the fight against terrorism"
  49. (2003). Conceptualising the Role of the EU in the World: Civilian Power Europe?,
  50. (2003). Congo Crisis: Military intervention in Ituri,
  51. (1996). Constructing Norms of Humanitarian Intervention"
  52. (2003). Constructing the Common Foreign and Security Policy: The Utility of a Cognitive Approach",
  53. (2004). Continuity in the Face of Upheaval—British Strategic Culture and the Impact of the Blair Government",
  54. (2005). Convergence Towards a European Strategic Culture? A Constructivist Framework for Explaining Chnaging Norms",
  55. (1991). Correspondence: Back to the Future, Part III: Realism and the Realities of European Security",
  56. (2003). Council Common position 2003/203/CFSP concerning EU support for the implementation of the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement and the peace process in the DRC and repealing Common Position 2002/203/CFSP", L115. accessed on 18
  57. (2003). Council Decision 2003/202/CFSP relating to the launch of the European Union military operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia",
  58. (2003). Council Decision 2003/432/CFSP on the launching of EU military operation in the DRC",
  59. (2004). Council Decision 2003/803/CFSP on the launching of EU military operation in Bosnia and Herzegovina",
  60. (2005). Council Joint Action Establishing a European Security and Defence College (ESDC)"
  61. (1995). Council of Ministers
  62. (2004). Crisis management in Sub-Sahara Africa: the role of the EU,
  63. (1996). Cultural Realism and Strategy in Maoist China"
  64. (1995). Cultural Realism: Strategic Culture and Grand Strategy in Chinese History,
  65. (1996). Culture and French Military Doctrine before World War II"
  66. (1995). Culture and Military Doctrine: France Between the Wars",
  67. (1998). Culture and military power",
  68. (1996). Culture and Preferences in the International Cooperation Two-Step",
  69. (1986). Culture in Action: Symbols and Strategies",
  70. (2005). Culture Versus Structure
  71. (1998). Cultures of Antimilitarism: National Security in Germany and Japan,
  72. (1995). Danger and Opportunity: Explaining International Crisis Outcomes,
  73. (1970). Davignon Report,
  74. (2002). Declaration by the Presidency on behalf of the EU on the launch of the EU Police Mission
  75. (1980). Declaration of Venice".
  76. (2004). Declaration on Combating Terrorism"
  77. (2003). Declaration on strengthening European cooperation in security and defence - Le Touquet 4 February" in From Copenhagen to Brussels -
  78. (1973). Declaration on the European Identity",
  79. (2005). Defending Europe: The EU, NATO, and the Quest for European Autonomy,
  80. (2003). Delivering Security in a Changing World: Defence White Paper, The Secretary of State for Defence,
  81. (2002). Democracy and Military Force,
  82. (1994). Designing social inquiry : scientific inference in qualitative research
  83. (1988). Diplomacy and Domestic Politics: The Logic of Two-Level Games",
  84. (1970). Discours et messages : Avec le renouveau (1958-1962), Tome III,
  85. (1999). Doctrine of the International Community", Economic Club,
  86. (2005). Doing your research project : a guide for first-time researchers in education, health and social science, 4th,
  87. (2003). DR of Congo: Annan urges International Response to violence in Bunia",
  88. (2004). Draft Declaration on European Military Capabilities"
  89. (2005). Draft EU Concept for Comprehensive Planning",
  90. (2004). Draft EU Paper for submission to the High Level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change", 9165/04. http://register.consilium.europa.eu/pdf/en/04/st09/st09165.en04.pdf, accessed on 25
  91. (2004). Draft General Concept of an ESDP-Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina, including a military component", 8271/04 ---
  92. (1982). Draft Treaty - Fouchet Plan II (18 January 1962)" in Selection of texts concerning institutional matters of the Community from 1950 to 1982,, European Parliament -Committee on Institutional Affairs, Luxembourg,
  93. (2003). Draft Treaty establishing a constitution for
  94. (2007). E.,supplement no 3. http://www.ena.lu?lang=2&doc=8106, accessed on 13
  95. (2005). Epilogue: Nordic Strategic Culture",
  96. (2004). ESDP and the Structure of World Power",
  97. (2005). ESDP Operations, European Institute for Security Studies,
  98. (2007). ESDP? The view from Central Europe,
  99. (1953). Essays in positive economics,
  100. (1999). EU Defence Plan: Proceed with Caution",
  101. (2006). EU Military C2 Concept",
  102. (2004). EU Military rapid response- Council Conclusions"
  103. (2000). EU Officially Adopts Military Tasks: A Summary of the Nice Conclusions", Centre for European Security and Disarmament Briefing Paper,
  104. (2003). EU operations Update: Past, Present and Future",
  105. (2004). EU Security and Defence Policy: The first five years (1999-2004),
  106. (2003). EU Strategy against proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction "
  107. (2003). EU Strategy Against proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction"
  108. (2004). EU training Concept" in EU Security and Defence: Core Documents
  109. (2004). EU-UN co-operation in Military Crisis Management Operations: Elements of Implementation of the EU-UN Joint Declaration"
  110. (2003). EU: Official Declares Rapid Reaction Force Operational, If Not Rapid", Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
  111. (2001). EU's Bark Still Louder Than its Military Bite",
  112. (2004). EUHR Solana's intervention at the UN Security Council Debate on 'Civilian Crisis Management',
  113. (2003). Europe and America Must Stand United",
  114. (2001). Europe's Military Revolution, Centre for European Reform,
  115. (2004). Europe's New Defence Agency, Centre for European Reform,
  116. (2000). Europe's Strategic ambitions",
  117. (1999). European Common Foreign and Security Policy and Defence Policies -Implications for the Unites States and the Atlantic Alliance,
  118. (2002). European Crisis Management and Defence: The Search for Capabilities", Adelphi Paper,
  119. (2002). European Defence and Changing Politics of the European Union: Hanging Together or Hanging Separately",
  120. (1999). European Defence post-Kosovo", Working Papers,
  121. (2004). European Defence: A proposal for a White Paper,
  122. (2000). European Defence: Making it work"
  123. (2000). European integration and defence: the ultimate challenge?, WEU Institute for Security Studies, 43, Chaillot papers, Paris, http://www.iss-eu.org/chaillot/chai43e.pdf, accessed on 25
  124. (1992). European Political Co-operation,
  125. (1987). European Political Co-operation: Towards a Framework of Supranational Diplomacy?,
  126. (1982). European Political Cooperation: The Historical and Contemporary Background" in European Political Cooperation: Towards a Foreign Policy for Western Europe (Eds,
  127. (2001). European Security and Defence Policy after Nice, The Royal Institute of International Relations, 20, Briefing Papers New Series, April, http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/pdf/briefing_papers/european_security_and_def ence.pdf, accessed on 25
  128. (2002). European Security and Defense Policy: Theoritical approaches, the Nice Summit and hot issues,
  129. (1992). European Security at the time of radical change",
  130. (1991). European Security beyond the Cold War: Four Scenarios for the Year 2010, RIIA,
  131. (1991). European security integration in the 1990s, Institute for Security Studies, 3, Chaillot Papers, Paris, http://www.iss-eu.org/, accessed on 25
  132. (2004). European Security, Strategic Culture and the Use of Force" in Old Europe, New Europe and the New Transatlantic Security Agenda,
  133. (1996). European Security: The End of Architecture and the New NATO",
  134. (1967). European unification in the Sixties: from the veto to the crisis,
  135. (2002). European Union and NATO declaration on ESDP, 16 December"
  136. (2004). European Union Foreign and Security Policy: Towards a Neighbourhood Strategy,
  137. (2004). European Union Procedures and Resources for Crisis Management",
  138. (2003). Fact Sheet on Artemis",
  139. (2007). Fact sheet on Operation EUFOR - Althea",
  140. (2000). Final Declaration",
  141. (2003). Flexible Modes of Governance: Making
  142. (2004). For our eyes only? Shaping an intelligence community within the EU, European Union Institute for Security Studies, no 50, Occasional Papers,
  143. (1963). France and Germany in the Atlantic Community",
  144. (1957). France Defeats EDC,
  145. (2000). French and British Security: Mirror Images in a Globalized World",
  146. (2005). French riots spread beyond Paris ", BBC news online: 25
  147. (2004). Fresh Perspectives on Europe's Security",
  148. (2004). From crisis to catharsis: ESDP after Iraq",
  149. (1997). From Maastricht to Amsterdam: Was it Worth the Journey for CFSP?"
  150. (2000). From the Atlantic to the Bug, from the Arctic to the Tigris? The transformation of the EU and NATO",
  151. (2002). From Weakness to Power with the ESDP?"
  152. (2003). General Affairs and External Relations Council
  153. (2003). General of the European Commission
  154. (1999). German Strategic Culture in Action",
  155. (2000). Germany and European Order: Enlarging NATO and the EU,
  156. (2001). Germany and the Kosovo War: Still a Civilian Power?"
  157. (2004). Germany and the use of force,
  158. (2007). Germany raises EU treaty pressure ", BBC news online,
  159. (2005). Gijs
  160. (2004). Global Europe: Implementing the European Security Strategy,
  161. (2005). Grand Strategy, Strategic Culture, Practice: The Social Roots of Nordic Defence",
  162. (1968). Greek-English lexicon,
  163. (2002). Hard and Soft Power in a Global Information Age"
  164. (2004). Has-Been, Wannabe, or Leader: Europe’s Role in the World After the 2003 European Security Strategy",
  165. (1988). Hegemony and Strategic Culture: American Power Projection and Alliance Defence Politics",
  166. (1998). History, translated by Vlachos,
  167. (2007). http://www.consilium.europa.eu/uedocs/cmsUpload/PSC%20Decision%20setting %20up%20the%20Committee%20of%20Contributors%20for%20the%20EUled%20operation.pdf, accessed on
  168. (1993). Ideas and Foreign Policy: beliefs, institutions and political change,
  169. (2005). Imperial Liberalism", The National Interest: 79,
  170. (2004). Implementing the European Security Strategy"
  171. (2000). In Defence of European Defence: an American perspective",
  172. (2002). In Search of a Strategic Concept for the ESDP",
  173. (2002). In the Shade of Locarno? Why European defence is failing",
  174. (2000). Inaugural Speech, Conference of the Course "Towards a new international morality: the humanitarian interventions"
  175. (1992). Indian strategic culture (India's ambition to be a great power)", The Washington Quarterly, v15: n1,
  176. (1998). Insecurity, security and asecurity in the West European non-war community" in Security Communities,
  177. (2004). Intelligence Cooperation in the European Union" in The Politics of the European
  178. (2000). International Socialization in the New Europe : Rational Action in an Institutional Environment",
  179. (2004). Intervention by Javier Solana at the Istanbul NATO summit,
  180. (2007). interview (2002) Rumsfeld Cites Nexus of Terror and
  181. (2003). Interview by Javier Solana",
  182. (1998). Introduction a la strategie,
  183. (2005). Iran agrees to more nuclear talks",
  184. (2004). Istanbul Summit Communiqué: Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council on 28-29
  185. (2004). Italy's Strategic concept,
  186. (2001). Japan, Asian-Pacific Security, and the Case of Analytical Eclecticism",
  187. (2001). Jean Monnet and the European Defence Community 1950-1954" in
  188. (2003). Joint Action 2003/423/CFSP on the European Union military operation in Democratic Republic of Congo",
  189. (2003). Joint Action 2003/92/CFSP on the European Union military operation in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", L34/26. accessed on.
  190. (2003). Joint Declaration of the United Nations and the EU on cooperation in Crisis Management".
  191. (1998). Joint Declaration on European Defence,
  192. (2006). Just and Unjust Wars: A Moral Argument with Historical Illustrations 3rd, Basic Books,
  193. (2005). Just War Theory: A Reappraisal,
  194. (2000). Keynote article: Two cheers for Mr Blair? The Political Realities of European Defence Co-operation",
  195. (2005). Kofi Annan urges bold UN reform ", BBC news online:
  196. (1954). L'heure de la vérité",
  197. (2004). Learning the Lessons of the European Union's Failed Middle East Policies", no. 510, www.jcpa.org/jl/vp510.htm, accessed on 18
  198. (2005). Lessons learned from Operation Concordia in FYROM",
  199. (1996). Lettre de Jacques Chirac et Helmut Kohl à
  200. (2001). Man the State and War: a Theoretical Analysis,
  201. (2001). Managing Divergence, 47th ATA Central Assembly, Slovenia, http://www.eusec.org/schake.htm, accessed on 25
  202. (2001). Meeting of Defence Ministers of the EU Member States, the Candidate States, Islands and Norway: Roundtable,
  203. (1974). Meeting of the Heads of Government: Communiqué",
  204. (2000). Michael Walzer on Resorting to force",
  205. (1994). Military Culture and Inadvertent Escalation in World War II",
  206. (1995). Military effectiveness: why society matters",
  207. (2007). Miroslav Lajčák To Succeed Schwarz-Schilling As High Representative",
  208. (1999). Modern Strategy,
  209. (2005). Monitoring Mission in Aceh – Council Joint Action"
  210. (2002). More Europe in Foreign and Security Policy: The Institutional Dimension of CFSP",
  211. (2002). Multilateralism, American Style",
  212. (1981). National Style in Strategy: The American Example",
  213. (2001). NATO Handbook", http://www.nato.int/docu/handbook/2001/pdf/handbook.pdf, accessed on 1
  214. (2004). Neorealism vs strategic culture,
  215. (2005). New Terms of Engagement London, The Foreign Policy Centre and the British Council Brussels.
  216. (2004). Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty: the Additional Protocol enters into force in all the Member States", http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/cfsp/npd/ip04_602.htm, accessed on 8
  217. (2002). Normative Power Europe: A Contradiction in terms?"
  218. (2006). Normative' Power Europe: A Realist Critique",
  219. (1996). Norms and Deterrence: the Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Taboos"
  220. (1996). Norms, Identity and National Security in Germany and Japan"
  221. (1996). Norms, Identity, and their limits"
  222. (2005). Norwegian Strategic Culture after World War II: From a Local to a Global Perspective",
  223. (1986). Nuclear Strategy and National Style,
  224. (2001). Nuclear Weapons and Indian Strategic Culture",
  225. (2004). on Europe’s Security Capabilities
  226. (2004). On the identity of NATO",
  227. (1989). On war,
  228. (2004). Operation Artemis: The Shape of Things to Come?"
  229. (2004). Operation Concordia: Developing a 'European' Approach to Crisis Management?"
  230. (2003). Outrage at 'old Europe' remarks", BBC news online, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2687403.stm, accessed on 15
  231. (1995). Overextension, Vulnerability, and Conflict: The "Goldilocks Problem"
  232. (2003). Pacifism or Activism: Towards a Common Strategic Culture with the European Security and Defence Policy, IIS Working papers, 4, Institute for Strategic Studies,
  233. (2003). Paradise and Power - America and Europe in the New World Order,
  234. (2007). Peace Implementation Council
  235. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda
  236. Per (2004) "Forging a Strategic Culture: Putting Policy into ESDP",
  237. (2007). Playing the Brussels Game: Strategic Socialisation in the CFSP Council Working Groups",
  238. (2003). Political and Security Committee decision setting up the Committee of Contributors for the EU-led operation in FYROM",
  239. (1957). Political community and the North Atlantic area : international organization in the light of historical experience,
  240. (2002). Politique de défense, Paris, http://www.defense.gouv.fr/defense_uk/enjeux_defense/politique_de_defense/int roduction/politique_de_defense, accessed on 25
  241. (2002). Power and Weakness",
  242. (2004). Preface" in ESDP the first five years (1999-2004), (Ed, Gnesotto, N.), European Union Institute for Security studies,
  243. (2002). Preparing for European Diplomacy",
  244. (2001). Presidency Conclusions Nice 7-9 December: Annex III to Annex VI: Political and Security Committee" in From St-Malo to Nice:
  245. (2001). Presidency Conclusions Nice 7-9 December: Annex IV to Annex VI: European Union Military Committee" in From St-Malo to Nice:
  246. (2001). Presidency Conclusions Nice 7-9 December: Annex V to Annex VI: European Union Military Staff" in From St-Malo to Nice:
  247. (2005). Presidency Conclusions,
  248. (2002). Presidency Conclusions, Barcelona, 15-16 March" in From Laeken to Copenhagen:
  249. (2003). Presidency Conclusions, Brussels, 12 December" in From Copenhagen to Brussels:
  250. (2004). Presidency Conclusions, Brussels, 12-13 December" in From Copenhagen to Brussels:
  251. (2003). Presidency Conclusions, Brussels, 21-21 March" in From Copenhagen to Brussels: EU Security and Defence -
  252. (1999). Presidency Conclusions, Cologne, 3-4 June" in From St-Malo to Nice: European Defence core documents,
  253. (2002). Presidency Conclusions, Copenhagen, 12-13 December" in From Laeken to Copenhagen:
  254. (2001). Presidency Conclusions, Goteborg, 15-16 June" in From Nice to Laeken: European Defence core documents,
  255. (1999). Presidency Conclusions, Helsinki, 10-11 December" in From St-Malo to Nice: European Defence core documents,
  256. (2001). Presidency Conclusions, Laeken, 14-15 December" in From Nice to Laeken: European Defence core documents, Vol. II, Chaillot Papers no 51,
  257. (2000). Presidency Conclusions, Nice 7-9 December" in From St-Malo to Nice: European Defence core documents,
  258. (2000). Presidency Conclusions, Santa Maria da Feira,
  259. (2002). Presidency Conclusions, Seville, 21-22 June" in From Laeken to Copenhagen:
  260. (2003). Presidency Conclusions, Thessaloniki,
  261. (2004). Presidency Report on ESDP"
  262. (2003). Presidency Report on European Security and Defence"
  263. (1990). président du Conseil italien et président en exercice du Conseil des Communautes
  264. (2001). Press Realease: First Meeting of EU and
  265. (1982). Press release issued by the Paris Summit (10 and 11 February 1961)" in Selection of texts concerning institutional matters of the Community from 1950 to 1982, European Parliament -
  266. (2003). Press statement on DRC by Security Council President - 9 May", Press Statement, http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2003/sc7755.doc.htm, accessed on 4
  267. (2003). Press Statement",
  268. (2006). Public Hearing on "The EU and the use of force: Criteria for intervention",
  269. (2001). Putting Europe first",
  270. (2007). Q&A: Iran and the nuclear issue", BBC news online, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4031603.stm, accessed on 18
  271. (2002). Reacting to America",
  272. (1999). Redefining European Security,
  273. (1988). Regelsberger, Elfriede and Wessels, Wolfgang (Eds.)
  274. (2003). Regions and Powers: The structure of International Security, Cambridge Studies in International Relations,
  275. (1985). Report from the Ad Hoc Committee on Institutional Affairs (Dooge Committee)",
  276. (1981). Report on European Political Cooperation (London Report)",
  277. (1975). Report to the European Council on 'European Union',
  278. (2005). Republican Realism: Finnish Strategic Culture in Historical Perspective",
  279. (2001). Resolution 1371",
  280. (2003). Resolution 1484",
  281. (2004). Resolution 1551",
  282. (2004). Resolution 1575",
  283. (1999). Risking NATO's Future?" In
  284. (1999). Saint Malo and Beyond: Toward European Defence",
  285. (2003). Saint-Malo plus five: An interim assessment of ESDP,
  286. (2000). Saving Strangers: Humanitarian Intervention
  287. (1973). Second report on European political cooperation on Foreign Policy",
  288. (2003). Second special report of the Secretary-General (UNSG) on the United Nations Organization mission in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
  289. (2003). Secretary-General asks Security Council to prevent further deteriation of dire situation
  290. (1999). Security Studies Today,
  291. (2002). Shaping a credible EU foreign policy, Centre for European Reform,
  292. (1986). Single European Act",
  293. (1999). Social Theory of International Politics,
  294. (1996). Societies and Military Power: India and Its Armies,
  295. (1983). Solemn Declaration on European Union",
  296. (1989). Soviet Strategic Culture - The Missing Dimension",
  297. (1990). Soviet Strategic culture"
  298. (2001). Speech by M. Jacques Chirac,
  299. (1998). St-Malo summit" in From St-Malo to Nice: European Defence core documents,
  300. (2003). Statement by NATO's Secretary General- Berlin-Plus" in From Copenhagen to Brussels: EU Security and Defence -
  301. (2003). Statement by the Secretary-General of the
  302. (1972). Statement from the Paris Summit",
  303. (1990). Steps Towards a Stable peace in Europe: a Theory of Coexistance",
  304. (1997). Strategic culture and British grand strategy 1945-1952,
  305. (2002). Strategic Culture and National Security Policy",
  306. (2006). Strategic Culture and Threat assessment", Joint Threat Anticipation Centre Workshop II,
  307. (2006). Strategic Culture and Ways of War, Cass Military Studies,
  308. (1999). Strategic culture as context: the first generation of theory strikes back",
  309. (1993). Strategic Culture in the Asia-Pacific Region",
  310. (2004). Strategic Culture in the Luftwaffe - Did it Exist in World War II and Had it Transitioned into the Air Force?"
  311. (2005). Strategic Culture: From Clausewitz to Constructivism",
  312. (2006). Strategic Culture: Refining the Theoretical construct", Comparative Strategic Cultures,
  313. (2005). Strategic Culture: Reviewing Recent Literature",
  314. (2000). Strategic Culture: the key to understanding German security policy,
  315. (1999). Strategic Cultures in the Asia- Pacific Region,
  316. (1999). Strategic Cultures revisited: reply to Colin Gray",
  317. (1990). Strategic Power:
  318. (1966). Strategic Terminology, A Trilingual Glossary, Praeger: Pall Mall,
  319. (1979). Strategy of Ethnocentrism,
  320. (1967). Strategy, the indirect approach,
  321. (2001). Strategy: The Logic of War and Peace, revised and enlarged edition, revised and enlarged, The Belknap Press of
  322. (2001). Summit Conclusions -
  323. (2005). Swedish Strategic Culture after 1945",
  324. (2005). Technical or political? The working Groups of the EU Council of Ministers ",
  325. (2005). The
  326. (1973). The American way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy,
  327. (2000). The Antinomies of European Security: Dual Enlargment and the Reshaping of European Order",
  328. (2000). The Art of War: War and Military thought, Cassell History of Warfare,
  329. (2003). The Artemis operation in the DRC. Lessons-learned for the future of the EU peacekeeping in Africa,
  330. (2004). The Battlegroups concept - UK/France/Germany, food for thought paper"
  331. (2004). The Berlin Republic, Iraq, and the Use of Force",
  332. (1993). The Capability-Expectations Gap, or Conceptualizing Europe's International Role",
  333. (2006). The Case for a European CIA",
  334. (1990). The Concept of Strategic Culture Affirmed"
  335. (1990). The Concept of Strategic Culture: Caveat Emptor"
  336. (1998). The Constructivist Turn in International Relations Theory",
  337. (2003). The crisis in international relations: some reflections on the European perspective, Grupo de estudios Estrategicos, Analisis No .53, http://www.gees.org/pdf/342, accessed on 5
  338. (1996). The Culture of National Security, norms and identity in world politics,
  339. (2002). The Democratic Deficit of EU Foreign and Security Policy",
  340. (2002). The Democratic Legitimation of European Institutions",
  341. (1997). The development of a European security architecture in the post-Cold War era,
  342. (2000). The Elusive Quest For European Security,
  343. (2005). The EU and Strategic Culture: Virtual Identity vs Uploaded Preferences",
  344. (1999). The EU and the prospect of Common Defence, Finnish Institute of International Affairs, 18/99, UPI working papers, http://www.upifiia.fi/document.php?DOC_ID=67, accessed on 25
  345. (2006). The EU Battlegroups, Directorate -General for External Policies of the Union,
  346. (2001). The EU Rapid Reaction Force: Europe Takes a New Security Challenge,
  347. (2004). The EU's Military Doctrine: an Assessment ",
  348. (2003). The EU's Strategic Objectives: Effective Multilateralism and Extended Security, European Union Insitute for Security Studies, Seminar Series,
  349. (2003). The European Convention and EU Foreign Policy: Learning from Failure",
  350. (2000). The European Defence Community, Lessons for the Future?, Bruxelles, Presses Interuniversitaires Europeenes, Peter Lang S.
  351. (1980). The European Defence Community: A History,
  352. (2003). The European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP)- a Strategic Culture
  353. (2002). The European Security and Defence Policy",
  354. (1990). The European Security Recast: Scenarions for the PostCold War Era,
  355. (2004). The European Security Strategy: a framework for EU security interests?"
  356. (2005). The European Security Strategy: a global agenda for positive power,
  357. (2004). The European Security Strategy: Implementing a Distinctive Approach to Security",
  358. (2006). The European Union as a Global Actor,
  359. (2003). The European Union: Towards a Strategic Culture?"
  360. (2004). The Europeanisation of National Policy?"
  361. (2004). The Future of CFSP,
  362. (2004). The Future of European Security",
  363. (1988). The Geopolitics of
  364. (2004). The Governance of European Security",
  365. (1999). The Government and Politics of the European Union, The European Union, 4th,
  366. (2002). The Heart of War: On power, conflict, and obligation in the twenty-first century,
  367. (2004). The imaginary revolution: Parisian students and workers in 1968, Berghahn Books,
  368. (2005). The institution of ‘consensus’ in the European Union: Formal versus informal decision-making in the Council",
  369. (1997). The Institutional Set-up and Functioning of EPC/CFSP" in Foreign Policy of the European Union: From EPC to CFSP
  370. (2005). The Linchpin COPS: Assessing the workings and institutional relations of the Political and Security Committee, European Institute of Public Administration, Working Papers,
  371. (2003). The many faces of EU committee governance",
  372. (1953). The Methodology of Positive Economics"
  373. (2006). The Morality of War,
  374. (2002). The National Security Strategy of the United
  375. (2000). The NATO Capabilities Gapabilities Gap and the European Union",
  376. (2002). The New CFSP and ESDP Decision-Making System of the European Union",
  377. (2006). The new world puzzle: What world for the EU in 2025?, Paris, European Union Institute for Security Studies.
  378. (1981). The North Atlantic Treaty 1949", NATO-Basic Documents,
  379. (2003). The Politico-Military Structure in Brussels: Capabilities and Limits,
  380. (2002). The Post Modern State"
  381. (2006). The Quest for a European Strategic Culture: Changing
  382. (1988). The Rise and Fall of Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict 1500-2000, Random House,
  383. (2000). The Rise and Fall of the European Defence Community, Anglo-American Relations and the crisis of the European Defence 1950-1955,
  384. (2005). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Sage Publications, London Desch, Michael C.
  385. (1984). The Sources of Military Doctrine: France, Britain, and Germany Between the World Wars,
  386. (1977). The Soviet Strategic Culture: Implications for Limited Nuclear Operations, RAND Corporation,
  387. (2005). The State of the European Union: With US or against US? European trends in American Perspective,
  388. (2005). The Strategic Culture of the European Union: a progress report",
  389. (2000). The United States and European Defence, WEU Institute for Security Studies, 39, Chaillot Papers, Paris, http://www.iss-eu.org/chaillot/chai39e.pdf, accessed on 25
  390. (2002). The US and Europe: a Continental drift?"
  391. (1994). The vulnerability of Empire,
  392. (2003). The World is the Stage - A Global Security Strategy for the European Union, Notre Europe, Policy paper no8, http://www.notreeurope.eu/uploads/tx_publication/Policypaper8.pdf, accessed on 14
  393. (1982). The Years of Upheaval,
  394. (2000). Their Own Army? Making European Defence Work",
  395. (2004). Theorising European Strategic Culture: Between Convergence and the Persistence of National Diversity, Centre for
  396. (1995). Thinking About Strategic Culture",
  397. (2001). Toward a "Euroarmy"", Transatlantic International Politics,
  398. (2000). Towards a common European Security and Defence Policy",
  399. (2006). Towards a European Military Culture?"
  400. (2000). Towards a European Strategic Concept, Netherlands
  401. (1948). Traité d'Alliance entre la France et la Grande-Bretagne, signé le 4 mars
  402. (1952). Traité instituant la Communauté Européenne de Défense"
  403. (2002). Trans-Atlantic trade disputes - From conflict to crisis? "
  404. (2002). Transatlantic relations and peace in Europe",
  405. (1951). Treaty establishing the
  406. (1957). Treaty establishing the European Economic Community and connected documents,
  407. (1997). Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts", Office for Official publications of the European Communities.
  408. (1948). Treaty of economic, social and cultural collaboration and collective self-defence
  409. (1992). Treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty)",
  410. (1994). UK and France Set Up Air Defence Unit",
  411. (2003). United Nations and the EU - Joint declaration on cooperation in crisis management,
  412. (1995). US foreign policy after the Cold War,
  413. (2000). Variable Geography: America's Mental Maps of a Greater Europe",
  414. (2003). Violence Continues in Northeast DR Congo as Rebels Vie for Bunia, 13 May,
  415. (2003). Waging War and Making Peace, Annual Hawke Lecture
  416. (2005). War,
  417. (1988). Washington Talk: Foreign Policy; Sharing the Defense Burden: Allies Are Listening",
  418. (2003). Water for People, Water for Life - Executive summary,
  419. (2003). What is a context? A reply to the Gray-Johnston debate on strategic culture",
  420. (2004). What Is a Just War?" The New York Review of
  421. (1994). What properties of Culture should we measure?"
  422. (2007). What Role for the EU in Security and Defence?
  423. (2005). What's the Use of It?': Danish Strategic Culture and the Utility of Armed Force",
  424. (2006). When Soft Power Turns Hard: Is an EU Strategic Culture Possible?"
  425. (2003). When the gloves of peace come off", BBC news online, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/6542399.stm, accessed on 16
  426. (2006). White Paper on German Security Policy and the Future of the Bundeswehr, Federal Ministry of Defence,
  427. (2002). Why ESDP is necessary and beneficial for the Alliance,
  428. (2001). Why the "militarising" of the EU is strengthening the concept of a 'Civilian power Europe',
  429. (2003). Why the EU’s common foreign and security policy will remain intergovernmental: a rationalist institutional choice analysis of European crisis management policy",
  430. (1999). Wide-awake diplomacy: reconstructing the common foreign and security policy of the European Union",
  431. (2002). Working Group VIII on Defence",
  432. (2006). World Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency,
  433. (2003). World Population Projections,
  434. (1998). World Power Forsaken: political culture, international institutions, and German security policy after unification
  435. (2002). Zimbabwe vote flawed -- observers", CNN,

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.