Location of Repository

Autonomic modulation of ventricular repolarization in Long QT syndrome

By Rajkumar Mantravadi


Arrhythmias in Long QT syndrome are known to occur during autonomic activity. The changes in repolarization of the myocardium under autonomic activity are thought to influence arrhythmia mechanisms. Although autonomic modulation of the ventricle is modulated by both humoral and nervous components, yet, due to technical difficulties a detailed understanding of\ud the underlying mechanisms of the neuronal modulation is still elusive. This work is a description of the evolution of a novel model and early results of studies pertaining to the effects of the autonomic nerve stimulation on ventricular repolarization, in the context of long QT\ud pathophysiology. These neuro-cardiology studies were performed using a combination of isolated innervated heart preparation and optical mapping for the first time. Two important repolarization characteristics namely physiological restitution and dispersion of repolarization were studied. The early results suggest that during sympathetic nerve stimulation, physiological\ud restitution curve show unique characteristics of a negative slope at peak heart rates, not reported by classical restitution studies. Also, the action potential duration adaptation at peak heart rates showed heterogeneity over the surface of the myocardium and in addition, exhibited some features of a possible reduction of repolarization reserve, especially during ion channel inhibition. Another set of data obtained using this novel model revealed the autonomic nerve\ud stimulation modulated the dispersion of repolarization in a unique way, and differed from pharmacological autonomic stimulation significantly. Interestingly, preliminary data evaluating the myocardial substrate suggests heterogeneity to be at more than one level i.e. key ion channel\ud distributions, nerve terminal distribution over the myocardium and a possible interaction between them. When the hearts were treated with key repolarization inhibitors, the dispersion of repolarization showed a generically similar response rather than a characteristic response of individual ion currents. In these studies, the substrate changes of repolarization seem to dominate that of neuromodulation of the ventricle

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2008
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/4025

Suggested articles



  1. (1960). [Contribution to the theory of the ventricular gradient.]."
  2. (2002). 14-3-3 amplifies and prolongs adrenergic stimulation of HERG K+ channel activity."
  3. (2000). A common polymorphism associated with antibioticinduced cardiac arrhythmia."
  4. (1994). A dynamic model of the cardiac ventricular action potential.
  5. (1968). A graphic method for the study of alternation in cardiac action potentials."
  6. (1967). A method of stimulating the complete sympathetic outflow from the spinal cord to blood vessels in the pithed rat."
  7. (1995). A molecular basis for cardiac arrhythmia: HERG mutations cause long QT syndrome."
  8. (1969). A muscarinic inhibition of the noradrenaline release evoked by postganglionic sympathetic nerve stimulation."
  9. (1992). A naphthyl analog of the aminostyryl pyridinium class of potentiometric membrane dyes shows consistent sensitivity in a variety of tissue, cell, and model membrane preparations."
  10. (1964). A New Familial Cardiac Syndrome In Children."
  11. (1981). A new laser scanning system for measuring action potential propagation in the heart."
  12. (2003). A novel approach to identifying antiarrhythmic drug targets."
  13. (1998). A recessive variant of the Romano-Ward long-QT syndrome?"
  14. A study of 10 patients."
  15. (1991). A tandem-lens epifluorescence macroscope: hundredfold brightness advantage for wide-field imaging."
  16. (1994). Acetylcholine-sensitive muscarinic K+ channels in mammalian ventricular myocytes."
  17. (2005). Action potential duration restitution and alternans in rabbit ventricular myocytes: the key role of intracellular calcium cycling."
  18. (1997). Activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels by muscarinic receptor-linked G protein in isolated human ventricular myocytes."
  19. (2004). Adaptation of cardiac action potential durations to stimulation history with random diastolic intervals."
  20. (1964). Adrenergic Effects on Ventricular Vulnerability."
  21. (2004). Altered connexin43 expression produces arrhythmia substrate in heart failure."
  22. (1980). Analysis of the effects of changes in rate and rhythm upon electrical activity in the heart."
  23. (2001). Angiotensin II modulates catecholamine release into interstitial fluid of canine myocardium in vivo."
  24. (2003). Ankyrin-B mutation causes type 4 long-QT cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death."
  25. (2005). Apico-basal inhomogeneity in distribution of ion channels in canine and human ventricular myocardium."
  26. (2007). Application of blebbistatin as an excitationcontraction uncoupler for electrophysiologic study of rat and rabbit hearts."
  27. (1963). Aritmie cardiache rare dell'eta’ pediatrica." Clin Pediatr(45):
  28. (2007). Autonomic modulation of electrical restitution, alternans and ventricular fibrillation initiation in the isolated heart."
  29. (2007). Autonomic nerve stimulation reverses ventricular repolarization sequence in rabbit hearts."
  30. (1998). Baroreflex sensitivity and heart-rate variability in prediction of total cardiac mortality after myocardial infarction. ATRAMI (Autonomic Tone and Reflexes After Myocardial Infarction) Investigators."
  31. (1990). Biophysical and molecular mechanisms of Shaker potassium channel inactivation."
  32. (2006). C-terminal HERG (LQT2) mutations disrupt IKr channel regulation through 14-3-3epsilon."
  33. (1996). Ca2+-induced current oscillations in rabbit ventricular myocytes."
  34. (2002). Calmodulin inhibitor W-7 unmasks a novel electrocardiographic parameter that predicts initiation of torsade de pointes."
  35. (2003). Canine ventricular KCNE2 expression resides predominantly in Purkinje fibers."
  36. (1999). Cardiac electrical restitution properties and stability of reentrant spiral waves: a simulation study."
  37. (1995). Cardiac Electrophysioogy,Cell to Bedside.
  38. (2004). Cardiac neuronal hierarchy in health and disease."
  39. (2001). Cellular basis for complex T waves and arrhythmic activity following combined I(Kr) and I(Ks) block."
  40. (2004). Cellular basis for the monophasic action potential. Which electrode is the recording electrode?"
  41. (1989). Characteristics of L- and T-type Ca2+ currents in canine cardiac Purkinje cells."
  42. (1995). Characteristics of the delayed rectifier current (IKr and IKs) in canine ventricular epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes. A weaker IKs contributes to the longer action potential of the M cell."
  43. (1981). Charge-shift probes of membrane potential: a probable electrochromic mechanism for p-aminostyrylpyridinium probes on a hemispherical lipid bilayer."
  44. (1985). Charge-shift probes of membrane potential. Characterization of aminostyrylpyridinium dyes on the squid giant axon."
  45. (2008). Clinical practice. Long-QT syndrome."
  46. (1959). Comparison of cardiac monophasic action potentials recorded by intracellular and suction electrodes."
  47. (1997). Computer model of electrophysiological instability in very small heterogeneous ventricular syncytia."
  48. (2004). Congenital and acquired long QT syndrome. Current concepts and management."
  49. (1957). Congenital deaf-mutism, functional heart disease with prolongation of the Q-T interval and sudden death."
  50. (2003). Contribution of sodium channel mutations to bradycardia and sinus node dysfunction in LQT3 families."
  51. (2005). Correction of motion artifact in cardiac optical mapping using image registration."
  52. (2004). Correction of motion artifact in transmembrane voltagesensitive fluorescent dye emission in hearts."
  53. (1990). Correlation between in vivo transmembrane action potential durations and activation-recovery intervals from electrograms. Effects of interventions that alter repolarization time."
  54. (1985). Correlation between refractory periods and activationrecovery intervals from electrograms: effects of rate and adrenergic interventions."
  55. (2007). Current concepts in the mechanisms and management of drug-induced QT prolongation and torsade de pointes."
  56. (1999). Current status of monophasic action potential recording: theories, measurements and interpretations."
  57. (1987). Cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate regulates the calcium current in single cells from frog ventricle."
  58. (2002). Cytosolic Ca2+ triggers early afterdepolarizations and Torsade de Pointes in rabbit hearts with type 2 long QT syndrome."
  59. (1993). Delayed rectifier Potassium channels of Cardiac muscle.
  60. (1999). Deletion of protein kinase A phosphorylation sites in the HERG potassium channel inhibits activation shift by protein kinase A."
  61. (1986). Determination of activation and recovery sequences and local repolarization durations from distant electrocardiographic leads."
  62. (1993). Diagnostic criteria for the long QT syndrome. An update."
  63. (2007). Diagnostic miscues in congenital long-QT syndrome."
  64. (1997). Differences in the binding sites of two site-3 sodium channel toxins."
  65. (2000). Differential effects of beta-adrenergic agonists and antagonists in LQT1, LQT2 and LQT3 models of the long QT syndrome."
  66. (1998). Differential effects of cytochalasin D and 2,3 butanedione monoxime on isometric twitch force and transmembrane action potential in isolated ventricular muscle: implications for optical measurements of cardiac repolarization."
  67. (1987). Direct evidence that pancuronium and gallamine enhance the release of norepinephrine from the atrial sympathetic nerve by inhibiting prejunctional muscarinic receptors."
  68. (1989). Direct measurement of changes in intracellular calcium transients during hypoxia, ischemia, and reperfusion of the intact mammalian heart."
  69. (1991). Dispersion of refractoriness in canine ventricular myocardium. Effects of sympathetic stimulation."
  70. (2007). Dispersion of repolarization and refractoriness are determinants of arrhythmia phenotype in transgenic mice with long QT."
  71. (1995). Distinct patterns of calcium transients during early and delayed afterdepolarizations induced by isoproterenol in ventricular myocytes."
  72. (1995). Diversity of early afterdepolarizations in guinea pig myocytes: spatial characteristics of intracellular Ca2+ concentration."
  73. (1998). Dynamic restitution of action potential duration during electrical alternans and ventricular fibrillation."
  74. (1989). Early afterdepolarizations: mechanism of induction and block. A role for L-type Ca2+ current."
  75. (2003). Effect of adrenergic stimulation on action potential duration restitution in humans."
  76. (1993). Effects of cardiac work on electrical potential gradient across mitochondrial membrane in perfused rat hearts."
  77. (1987). Effects of cytochalasin and phalloidin on actin."
  78. (2003). Effects of cytochalasin D on electrical restitution and the dynamics of ventricular fibrillation in isolated rabbit heart."
  79. (2001). Effects of diacetyl monoxime and cytochalasin D on ventricular fibrillation in swine right ventricles."
  80. (1993). Effects of diacetyl monoxime on the electrical properties of sheep and guinea pig ventricular muscle."
  81. (2001). Effects of direct sympathetic and vagus nerve stimulation on the physiology of the whole heart--a novel model of isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit heart with intact dual autonomic innervation."
  82. (2007). Effects of rapid and slow potassium repolarization currents and calcium dynamics on hysteresis in restitution of action potential duration."
  83. (1993). Efimov IR
  84. (1994). Electrical alternans and spiral wave breakup in cardiac tissue."
  85. (2004). Electrical restitution hysteresis: good memory or delayed response?"
  86. (1999). Electrical restitution, critical mass, and the riddle of fibrillation."
  87. (1975). Electrophysiologic correlates of the inotropic effects of isoproterenol in canine myocardium."
  88. (2006). Electrophysiologic Testing.
  89. (1979). Electrophysiology of torsade de pointes.
  90. (1987). Elevation in cytosolic free calcium concentration early in myocardial ischemia in perfused rat heart."
  91. (1998). Enhanced susceptibility for acquired torsade de pointes arrhythmias in the dog with chronic, complete AV block is related to cardiac hypertrophy and electrical remodeling."
  92. (2003). ERG K+ channel blockade enhances firing and epinephrine secretion in rat chromaffin cells: the missing link to LQT2-related sudden death?"
  93. (1981). Etiology, warning signs and therapy of torsade de pointes.
  94. (1998). Fluorescence measurement of calcium transients in perfused rabbit heart using rhod 2."
  95. (2006). Frequency-dependent modulation of KCNQ1 and HERG1 potassium channels."
  96. (2002). Functional and clinical characterization of KCNJ2 mutations associated with LQT7 (Andersen syndrome)."
  97. (2007). Genetic modulation of cardiac repolarization reserve."
  98. (2001). Genotype-phenotype correlation in the long-QT syndrome: gene-specific triggers for life-threatening arrhythmias."
  99. (1998). Goldmit M,Kass RS
  100. (1997). Gross and microscopic anatomy of the human intrinsic nervous system." Anat Rec(247):
  101. (2007). Heterogeneity and cardiac arrhythmias: an overview."
  102. (2004). Heterogeneous connexin43 expression produces electrophysiological heterogeneities across ventricular wall."
  103. (1999). Heterogeneous distribution of the two components of delayed rectifier K+ current: a potential mechanism of the proarrhythmic effects of methanesulfonanilideclass III agents."
  104. (2003). Histological study on the distribution of autonomic nerves in the human heart."
  105. (2001). Historical perspective of optical mapping.
  106. (2003). HMR 1556, a potent and selective blocker of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current."
  107. (1999). Homozygous premature truncation of the HERG protein : the human HERG knockout."
  108. (2001). Homozygous SCN5A mutation in long-QT syndrome with functional two-to-one atrioventricular block."
  109. (2000). I(NaCa) contributes to electrical heterogeneity within the canine ventricle."
  110. (2000). Images of Action Potential Propagation in Heart."
  111. (1986). In vitro validation of a new cardiac catheter technique for recording monophasic action potentials."
  112. (2007). Increasing Gap Junction Coupling Reduces Transmural Dispersion of Repolarization and Prevents Torsade de Pointes in Rabbit LQT3 Model."
  113. (1990). Interplay between adrenaline and interbeat interval on ventricular repolarisation in intact heart in vivo."
  114. (1990). Interval dependence of force and twitch duration in rat heart explained by Ca2+ pump inactivation in sarcoplasmic reticulum."
  115. (2004). Intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and rate adaptation of the cardiac action potential."
  116. (1987). Intracellular Ca2+ and protein kinase C modulate K+ current in guinea pig heart cells."
  117. (1987). Intracellular free calcium concentration measured with 19F NMR spectroscopy in intact ferret hearts."
  118. (1996). Inward rectification and implications for cardiac excitability."
  119. (2003). Ion adventure in the Heartland.
  120. (2000). Ion channels and disease.
  121. (1992). Ionic channels of Excitable Membranes.
  122. (1983). Isolated atrial myocytes: adenosine and acetylcholine increase potassium conductance."
  123. (1991). Isoproterenol antagonizes prolongation of refractory period by the class III antiarrhythmic agent E-4031 in guinea pig myocytes. Mechanism of action."
  124. (1990). Isoproterenol increases the cardiac sodium current in the presence of buffered Ca++." Circulation 82((suppl III):III-522).
  125. (1961). La tachycardie ventriculaire à deux foyers opposés variables."
  126. (2001). Local response of L-type Ca(2+) current to nitric oxide in frog ventricular myocytes."
  127. (2007). Long QT syndrome revisited."
  128. (2006). Long QT syndrome: reduced repolarization reserve and the genetic link."
  129. (1999). Long QT syndromes and torsade de pointes."
  130. (1983). Long-term recording of monophasic action potentials from human endocardium."
  131. (1997). Lopatin
  132. (2006). Macroscopic optical mapping of excitation in cardiac cell networks with ultra-high spatiotemporal resolution."
  133. (2005). Management of long QT syndrome."
  134. (2001). Mapping of Arrhythmia Substrates Related to Repolarization. Armonk NY, Futura publishing company.
  135. (1987). Maps of optical action potentials and NADH fluorescence in intact working hearts."
  136. (2001). Mechanisms and Principles of Voltage sensitive Fluorescence.
  137. (2007). Mechanisms of human arrhythmia syndromes: abnormal cardiac macromolecular interactions."
  138. (2005). Mechanisms underlying arrhythmogenesis in long QT syndrome."
  139. (2001). Mechnisms underlying LongQT related arrhythmias. Gaduate school of
  140. (1997). Memory and complex dynamics in cardiac Purkinje fibers."
  141. (1976). Merocyanine 540 as an optical probe of transmembrane electrical activity in the heart."
  142. (1991). Method and theory of monophasic action potential recording."
  143. (1999). MiRP1 forms IKr potassium channels with HERG and is associated with cardiac arrhythmia."
  144. (2001). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias."
  145. (2001). Molecular mechanism of cAMP modulation of HCN pacemaker channels."
  146. (2005). Molecular physiology of cardiac repolarization."
  147. (1989). Monophasic action potential recording by contact electrode technique: In vitro validation and clinical applications.
  148. (2007). Monophasic action potential recordings in humans."
  149. (2000). Morphology,distribution,and variability of epicardiac neural ganglionated subplexus in the human heart." Anat Rec(259):
  150. (1985). Muscarinic cholinergic inhibition of betaadrenergic stimulation of phospholamban phosphorylation and Ca2+ transport in guinea pig ventricles."
  151. (1987). Muscarinic receptor regulation of cardiac adenylate cyclase activity."
  152. (2006). Mutant caveolin-3 induces persistent late sodium current and is associated with long-QT syndrome."
  153. (2000). NO is involved in MCh-induced accentuated antagonism via type II PDE in the canine blood-perfused SA node."
  154. (2004). Novel therapeutic approaches for heart failure by normalizing calcium cycling."
  155. (1880). On the Time-Relations of the Excitatory Process in the Ventricle of the Heart of the Frog."
  156. (2004). Optical imaging of the heart."
  157. (2001). Optical Mapping of Cardiac Excitation and Arrhythmias.
  158. (1994). Optical mapping of repolarization and refractoriness from intact hearts."
  159. (1998). Optical recording system based on a fiber optic image conduit: assessment of microscopic activation patterns in cardiac tissue."
  160. (2001). Optics and detectors used in Optical mapping.
  161. (2004). Oxford university press
  162. (1999). Pause induced early afterdepolarizations in the long QT syndrome: a simulation study."
  163. (2001). Phase 2 early afterdepolarization as a trigger of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in acquired long-QT syndrome : direct evidence from intracellular recordings in the intact left ventricular wall."
  164. (2005). Phenotypic variability and unusual clinical severity of congenital long-QT syndrome in a founder population."
  165. (1992). Physiology of the Heart.
  166. (2003). Porcine intrinsic cardiac ganglia." Anat Rec(271):
  167. (1994). Potassium channel block by cytoplasmic polyamines as the mechanism of intrinsic rectification."
  168. (2001). Potassium channel receptor site for the inactivation gate and quaternary amine inhibitors."
  169. (1978). Potassium efflux in heart muscle during activity: extracellular accumulation and its implications."
  170. (1991). Potentiation by cyclic GMP of beta-adrenergic effect on Ca2+ current in guinea-pig ventricular cells."
  171. (2007). Proarrhythmic electrical remodelling is associated with increased beat-to-beat variability of repolarisation."
  172. (2003). Probing the contribution of IKs to canine ventricular repolarization: key role for beta-adrenergic receptor stimulation."
  173. (2002). Prominent I(Ks) in epicardium and endocardium contributes to development of transmural dispersion of repolarization but protects against development of early afterdepolarizations."
  174. (1998). Properties of HERG channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells studied at physiological temperature."
  175. (1998). Prospective study of heart rate variability and mortality in chronic heart failure: results of the United Kingdom heart failure evaluation and assessment of risk trial (UK-heart)."
  176. (2000). Protein kinase C enhances the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr, through a reduction in C-type inactivation in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes."
  177. (1993). Protein phosphorylation and cardiac function: cholinergic-adrenergic interaction."
  178. (2000). Ratiometry of transmembrane voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye emission in hearts."
  179. (1996). Regional differences in the negative inotropic effect of acetylcholine within the canine ventricle."
  180. (1994). Regulation and modulation of calcium channels in cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle cells."
  181. (1988). Regulation of a heart potassium channel by protein kinase A and C."
  182. (2007). Regulation of Ca2+ and electrical alternans in cardiac myocytes: role of CAMKII and repolarizing currents."
  183. (1988). Regulation of cardiac ion channels by catecholamines, acetylcholine and second messenger systems."
  184. (1995). Regulation of phospholamban and troponin-I phosphorylation in the intact rat cardiomyocytes by adrenergic and cholinergic stimuli: roles of cyclic nucleotides, calcium, protein kinases and phosphatases and depolarization."
  185. (1996). Regulation of the slow Ca++ channels of myocardial cells."
  186. (1988). Relation of monophasic action potential recorded with contact electrode to underlying transmembrane action potential properties in isolated cardiac tissues: a systematic microelectrode validation study."
  187. (1995). Reproducible induction of early afterdepolarizations and torsade de pointes arrhythmias by d-sotalol and pacing in dogs with chronic atrioventricular block."
  188. (2002). Requirement of a macromolecular signaling complex for beta adrenergic receptor modulation of the KCNQ1-KCNE1 potassium channel."
  189. (2004). Restitution of action potential duration during sequential changes in diastolic intervals shows multimodal behavior."
  190. (1975). Restitution of the action potential in cat papillary muscle."
  191. (1997). Reversible blockade of gap junctional communication by 2,3-butanedione monoxime in rat cardiac myocytes."
  192. (2001). Rhod-2 based measurements of intracellular calcium in the perfused mouse heart: cellular and subcellular localization and response to positive inotropy."
  193. (2003). Risk stratification in the long-QT syndrome."
  194. (1997). Role of intracellular sodium overload in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias."
  195. (1998). Role of the NO-cGMP pathway in the muscarinic regulation of the L-type Ca2+ current in human atrial myocytes."
  196. (2007). SCN4B-encoded sodium channel beta4 subunit in congenital long-QT syndrome."
  197. (1973). Selective in situ parasympathetic control of the canine sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes." Circ Res(32):
  198. (1985). Selective parasympathetectomy of automatic and conductile tissues of the canine heart."
  199. (1986). Selective vagal innervation of sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes in the canine heart."
  200. (1975). Sequence of repolarization on the ventricular surface
  201. (2005). Severe arrhythmia disorder caused by cardiac L-type calcium channel mutations."
  202. (1997). Similarities between early and delayed afterdepolarizations induced by isoproterenol in canine ventricular myocytes."
  203. (2007). Simulation of Ca/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II on rabbit ventricular myocyte ion currents and action potentials."
  204. (2001). Simultaneous maps of optical action potentials (APs) and intracellular Ca2+ transients (Cai) in a rabbit model of LQT3: Role of Cai handling in the initiation of early afterdepolarization and arrhythmias." Circulation 104(SUPPLS):
  205. (1980). Simultaneous recording of monophasic action potentials and contractile force from the human heart."
  206. (2004). Spatial dispersion of repolarization is a key factor in the arrhythmogenicity of long QT syndrome."
  207. (1993). Spatial features of calcium transients during early and delayed afterdepolarizations."
  208. (1998). Spatiotemporal evolution of ventricular fibrillation."
  209. (1999). Spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the induction of ventricular fibrillation by rapid pacing: importance of cardiac restitution properties."
  210. (2002). Spatiotemporal transition to conduction block in canine ventricle."
  211. (1998). Spiral breakup as a model of ventricular fibrillation."
  212. (1957). Studies on the nature of the repolarization process."
  213. (2005). Subunit interaction determines IKs participation in cardiac repolarization and repolarization reserve."
  214. (1998). The autonomic nervous system and sudden death."
  215. (1990). The effects of 2,3-butanedione monoxime on initial heat, tension, and aequorin light output of ferret papillary muscles."
  216. (2003). The electrical restitution curve revisited: steep or flat slope--which is better?"
  217. (2004). The electrophysiological and mechanical effects of 2,3-butane-dione monoxime and cytochalasin-D in the Langendorff perfused rabbit heart."
  218. (1992). The Heart and Cardiovascular system:Scientific Foundations.
  219. (1985). The long QT syndrome: a prospective international study."
  220. (1991). The long QT syndrome. Prospective longitudinal study of 328 families."
  221. (2005). The mechanism of pause-induced torsade de pointes in long QT syndrome."
  222. (1989). The Mg2+ block and intrinsic gating underlying inward rectification of the K+ current in guinea-pig cardiac myocytes."
  223. (1995). The molecular basis of anisotropy: role of gap junctions."
  224. (1998). The molecular genetics of the long QT syndrome: genes causing fainting and sudden death."
  225. (1935). The Monophasic Electrogram obtained from the Mamlian Heart "
  226. (1972). The sequence of normal ventricular recovery."
  227. (2005). The structural basis of blebbistatin inhibition and specificity for myosin II."
  228. (2003). Torsade de pointes."
  229. (1995). Transmembrane voltage changes during unipolar stimulation of rabbit ventricle."
  230. triggered activity, and potentiation."
  231. (1966). Un chapitre nouveau d’electrocardiographie:les variations progressives de l’amplitude de l’électrocardiogramme."
  232. (1996). Unique properties of cardiac action potentials recorded with voltage-sensitive dyes."
  233. (2006). Ventricular repolarization: an overview of (patho)physiology, sympathetic effects and genetic aspects."
  234. Verduyn SC "Chronic Amiodarone evokes no Torsade de Pointes arrhythmias despite QT lengthening in an animal model of acquired Long-QT Syndrome."
  235. Viswanathan P.C.,Colflesh D.,Reisenweber,S.,Walker W.,Salama,G (2007). "Sex,Age,and regional differences in ICaL modualtes EAD vulnerability in a rabbit Model of LQT2." Heart Rhythm 4(5S):

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.