Location of Repository

The internationalising of universities: a comparative case study of a British university and a Hong Kong university

By Wendy Woon-Yin Chan

Abstract

This study aims to clarify the role played by internationalisation in the functioning of universities in different institutional, national and cultural contexts. It examines the meanings and concepts of internationalisation, why and how universities internationalise, whether there are barriers and associated disadvantages and risks, and what are the perceived outcomes of internationalisation.\ud The study uses a case study approach, involving the selection of two contrasting universities, namely, the University of Leicester and Hong Kong Baptist University. The choice of these two case universities was based on maximising differences in culture, geographical location, institutional type, and function, as well as feasibility of access. Guided by a literature review and five specific research questions, in-depth interviews and documentary analysis were carried out in Hong Kong and Leicester between July 2005 and April 2006. Data were open coded in accordance with the first stage of the grounded theory method of data analysis and subsequently compared and grouped on a thematic basis.\ud Four major findings and two models emerged. First, university internationalisation as a concept is complex, multifaceted and value-laden. Second, the contrasting characters of the two case universities explain the diverse responses that each makes to the call for internationalisation in terms of purposes, strategies, processes, and practices. Third, the origin of the present emphasis on internationalisation at the two case universities is anything but planned. Having begun the process, however, internationalisation has become an entrenched and integral part in the institutional life of both universities. Fourth, some positive evidence of intercultural learning is apparent in both universities indicating that the efforts to internationalise in an otherwise globalising world of higher education have born fruition. Finally, two tentative models of internationalisation, the “internationalist” and “translocalist,” are presented for further theoretical investigation

Publisher: University of Leicester
Year: 2006
OAI identifier: oai:lra.le.ac.uk:2381/848

Suggested articles

Preview

Citations

  1. (2006a) The Economic Impact of UK Higher Education Institutions: A Report for Universities UK. London:
  2. (1997). (eds.) Internationalisation of Higher Education in Asia Pacific Countries.
  3. (2001). A Debate about Our Canon.
  4. (2002). A Grief Observed: Grief Experiences of East Asian International Students Returning to Their Countries of Origin.
  5. (2002). A Micro-Level Approach to Internationalising the Accounting Curriculum.
  6. (1996). A President’s View, paper presented at the Second Annual Conference of the David C. Lam Institute for East-West Studies. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  7. (1997). A Shared Vision? Stakeholders’ Perspectives on the Internationalisation of Higher Education in Canada.
  8. (2003). Academic Standards, Internationalisation, and the Discursive Construction
  9. (1997). Active Interviewing. In
  10. (2003). Alice (2003a) Study Abroad Programmes Offer Lifelong Benefits, Survey Suggests. The Chronicle of Higher Education,
  11. Alice (2003b) Colleges Make Limited Progress in `Internationalising’ the Undergraduate Experience, Study Finds. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
  12. (2003). An Introduction: Internationalisation at Home in Context.
  13. (2001). An Overview of Title VI.
  14. (2000). Being international: student and teacher perception from international schools.
  15. (2005). Borderless, Offshore, Transnational and Cross-border Education: Definition and Data Dilemmas.
  16. (2005). Bring in the Foreign Legion. The Times Higher Education Supplement, 22 November (http://www.thes.co.uk/story.aspx?story_id =2025785; accessed 22/11/05).
  17. (2004). Broadening Our Horizons: International Students in U.K. Universities and Colleges. London: The Council for International Education (UKCOSA).
  18. (2005). Calendar/Bulletin 2005-2006. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Baptist University HKBU (2005a)
  19. (2000). Case Study and Generalisation.
  20. (2000). Case Study and Theory.
  21. (1999). Case Study Research in Educational Settings.
  22. (1997). Certification Manuel. Global Alliance for Transnational Education (quoted in Knight,
  23. (1972). Cheser, and Razavieh Asghar
  24. (2005). China’s Global Bridging: The Transformation of University Mobility between Hong Kong and the United States.
  25. (1996). Comparative Higher Education: Potentials and Limits.
  26. (2004). Computer-assisted Qualitative Data Analysis. In
  27. (1996). Consortium Collaboration in Teacher Education: The ERTYEC Experience. In
  28. (1998). Contemporary Transformation of Time and Space.
  29. (1954). Content Analysis.
  30. (2005). Creating the Interviewer: Identity Work in the Management Research Process.
  31. (1994). Criteria for Assessing Interpretive Validity in Qualitative Research.
  32. (2002). Cross-cultural Differences in Interpreting and Doing Research.
  33. (2002). Cross-Cultural Partnerships between Home and International Students.
  34. (1989). Culture and University.
  35. (2005). Curriculum Review as a Strategic Driver: Developing Awareness and Transforming the Student Experience, paper presented at the
  36. (2001). Data Analysis and ‘Theorizing as Ideology’.
  37. (1997). Definitely, Maybe Not? The Normalisation of Recreational Drug Use among Young People.
  38. (1998). Democracy Is a Cultural Hothouse.
  39. (2004). Determinants of HKBU Student Participation in Study Abroad Programme, unpublished master’s degree dissertation,
  40. (2001). Economic Austerity in the South, paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Research into
  41. (2005). Effective strategic management of internationalisation.
  42. (2000). English Not Such a Class Act at SAR’s Universities. South China Morning Post, Hong Kong,
  43. (1989). Ethics of Case Study in Educational Research and Evaluation.
  44. (1983). Ethnography: Principles in Practice.
  45. (2003). Exposing Failures, Unsettling Accommodations: Tensions in Interview Practice.
  46. (2005). Extending the Stay: Using Community-Based Research and Service Learning to Enhance Short-Term Study Abroad.
  47. First-Year Student Survey in Capsule 2003-04. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  48. (2001). Forty Years of the Title VI and Fulbright-Hays International Education Programs: Building the Nation’s International Expertise for a Global Future. In
  49. (1996). From Copy Watch to Rolex Original: Incorporating International Best Practices
  50. (2003). from the Director of Student Affairs regarding the Joint University Graduate Survey
  51. (2001). Global Learning in a New Age.
  52. (1995). Global Modernities.
  53. (2000). Globalisation and Its Impact on International University Cooperation, paper presented at the Organisation for
  54. (2004). Globalisation and the University: Myths and Realities in an Unequal World.
  55. (2005). Globalisation, Internationalisation and the Knowledge Economy in Higher Education: A Case Study of China and New Zealand, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  56. (2002). Going Global? Internationalising Australian Universities in a Time of Global Crisis.
  57. (1994). Higher Education Cannot Escape History: Issues for the Twenty-First Century.
  58. (1996). Higher Education in Hong Kong: The External Dimension, paper presented at the
  59. (2000). Higher Education Internationalisation Strategies: of Marginal Significance or All-pervasive?
  60. (2006). Higher Education Statistics (www.ukcosa.org.uk/pages/ hestats.htm; accessed 10/09/06).
  61. (2006). Higher Education Statistics Agency Press Release,
  62. (2002). Higher Education: Engine of Change or Adherence to Trends? An Inventory of Views.
  63. (1994). Historical Research.
  64. HKBU (2003d) New Horizon,
  65. HKBU (2006d) United International College Website (http://www.uic.bnuep.com/ en/print.php/28; accessed 08/06/06).
  66. (2003). Home, but not Alone: Information and Communication Technology and Internationalisation at Home.
  67. (2000). Hong Kong 's School Reform: Importing Western Policy into an Asian Culture.
  68. Hong Kong Baptist Annual Report 2004-2005. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  69. Hong Kong Baptist University Strategic Plan 2005-2010 (Draft). Hong Kong: Hong Kong Baptist University (http://www.hkbu.edu.hk; accessed 15/06/06).
  70. Hong Kong Baptist University Study Abroad/Student Exchange Programme (1998-2006): Total Number of Incoming and Outgoing Students by Country/Zone. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  71. (2004). Hong Kong Baptist University: Performance and Role-related Funding Scheme Self-assessment Document,
  72. (2002). How To Assure Learning Outcomes of Study Abroad, paper presented at the
  73. (2000). Humanism in the Globalist Age: Towards a Critique of the Discourses of International Educational Exchange.
  74. (2005). IAU
  75. (1994). Idealism or a Marriage of Convenience? An Examination of Internal Relationships
  76. (2006). Immigration (2006) Statistics on Number of Visas Approved under General Employment Policy. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Immigration Department (email dated 10
  77. (2002). Implementing Internationalisation Strategy.
  78. (2005). Intercultural Attitudes Predict Favourable Study Abroad Expectations of U.S. College Students.
  79. (2004). International Cooperation in Higher Education: Theory and Practice.
  80. (2003). International Students and Internationalisation of Higher Education in Japan: Interpretative Study of Policy Makers and International Educators, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  81. (2005). International Students in Higher Education – Comparison of Major English Speaking Destinations for the Top Five Source Markets. Australian Education International (http://www.aei.dest.gov.au; accessed 19/11/05).
  82. (2006). Internationalisation and Leadership: What are the Issues? paper presented at the Leadership Summit: The Leadership and Development Challenge of Globalisation and Internationalisation, Leadership Foundation for Higher Education,
  83. (1999). Internationalisation as a Challenge for Higher Education
  84. (2003). Internationalisation at Home from a Swedish Perspective: The Case of Malmo.
  85. (2006). Internationalisation of Academic Programmes and the Learning and Teaching Process (Scoping Study): Final Report.
  86. (2004). Internationalisation of American Universities and the Changing Ideology of International Student Recruitment: A Case Analysis of Four Midwest Colleges and Universities, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  87. (2004). Internationalisation of Curricula: An Alternative to the Taylorisation of Academic Work.
  88. (1995). Internationalisation of Higher Education
  89. (1997). Internationalisation of Higher Education: A Conceptual Framework.
  90. (1998). Internationalisation of Higher Education: a Participatory Research Study, unpublished doctoral Thesis,
  91. (1999). Internationalisation of Higher Education.
  92. (2003). Internationalisation of Higher Education. Practices and Priorities:
  93. (2003). Internationalisation of Universities: A University CultureBased Framework.
  94. (2004). Internationalisation Outcomes for All Students Using Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).
  95. (2004). Internationalisation Remodelled: Definition, Approaches, and Rationales.
  96. (1998). Internationalising British Higher Education: Policy Perspectives.
  97. (1998). Internationalising British Higher Education: Students and Institutions.
  98. (2003). Internationalising Higher Education: a Case Study of a Midwest Comprehensive University, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  99. (2005). Internationalising Tai Higher Education: Examining Policy Implementation, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  100. (1996). Internationalising the Curriculum in Higher Education.
  101. (2004). Internationalism and globalisation as contexts for international education.
  102. (1993). Interpreting Qualitative Data: Methods for Analysing Talk, Text, and Interaction.
  103. (1998). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches.
  104. (2006). Introduction,
  105. (2004). Introduction.
  106. (2004). Keynote Speech presented at the International Workshop on Internationalising the Curriculum and Learning Environment with a Special Focus on East-West Studies,
  107. (2003). Kong (2004b) Non-local Student Enrolment (Headcount) of UGCfunded Programmes by Institution,
  108. Kong (2005a) Average Annual Student Unit Cost of UGC-funded Programmes for 2001-2004 Triennium by Level of Study. Hong Kong: University Grants Committee (http://www.ugc.edu.hk/eng/doc/ugc/stat/unitcost.pdf; accessed 03/07/06).
  109. (1998). Kong (2005b) Amount of Approved Grants for UGC-funded Institutions,
  110. (2005). L (2005e) Development Matters. The Newsletter and Programme of the Staff Development Centre,
  111. (2000). L (2006g) News - Press Release: Leicester Breaks into Top 20 of the Times League Table
  112. (2000). Lam Institute for East-West Studies: FiveYear Review 1995-2000. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  113. (2002). Learning from Experience: Psycho-social Research Methods in Social Sciences.
  114. (2003). Linking Distance and International Education: A Strategy for Developing Multicultural Competence Among Distance Learner.
  115. (2001). Managing Internationalisation in Higher Education Institutions: Strategies, Systems and Entrepreneurs, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  116. (1995). Managing the Curriculum. London: Financial Times Management.
  117. (2003). Mapping Internationalisation on U.S. Campuses:
  118. (1998). Massification, Internationalisation and Globalisation. In
  119. (2002). Neither International Nor Educative: Study Abroad in the Time of Globalisation.
  120. (2000). On White Researchers and Black Respondents.
  121. (1988). Organisational Culture in Higher Education. Defining the Essentials.
  122. (2002). Overseas Student Teaching: Affecting Personal, Professional, and Global Competencies in an Age of Globalisation.
  123. Paw
  124. (2005). Perceptions of European Higher Education in Third Countries: A Study Carried Out by the Academic Cooperation Association –
  125. (1995). Perceptions of International Education: A Preliminary Study.
  126. (2006). Plans to Open a Full Campus in China in 2007. The Chronicle of Higher Education,
  127. (2000). Prime Minister Launches Drive to Attract More International Students. London: British Council (www.britishcouncil.org/ecs/news/ 1999/0618/index.htm; accessed 23/11/05).
  128. (1993). Professional Federation of Hong Kong
  129. (2002). Reuters (2006) Bad Air Clouds Hong Kong’s Image. Hong Kong: China (Reuters) (http://edition.cnn.com/2006/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/hk.pollution.reut; accessed 30/05/06) Rinehart,
  130. (2001). Review of Internationalisation. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  131. (2003). Senior Management Committee (SECO)
  132. (2004). Something New in Old Europe? Innovations in EUfunded
  133. (1995). Strategies for internationalisation of
  134. (1995). Strategies for Internationalisation of Higher Education: Historical and Conceptual Perspectives.
  135. (2003). Student perceptions of international education: A comparison by course of study undertaken.
  136. (1997). Student Perspectives on International Education: a European dimension.
  137. (2006). Supplement Daily
  138. (2000). Teaching and Learning in the International Classroom. In
  139. (1997). The
  140. (1999). The Analysis of Documentary Evidence.
  141. (1995). The Art of Case Study Research. London: Sage (quoted in Bassey, Michael
  142. (2001). The Art(fullness) of Open-ended Interview: Some Consideration on Analysing Interviews.
  143. (1996). The Clash of Civilization and the Remaking of World Order.
  144. (1997). The Commodification of British Higher Education: International Student Curriculum Initiative, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  145. (2003). The Consequences of European Integration for Higher Education.
  146. (2002). The Development of International Policy U.K. Higher Education, unpublished doctoral thesis,
  147. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory.
  148. (2005). The Education U.K. Global Strategy. London: British Council (http://www.britishcouncil.org/ecs/global_strategy/index.htm; accessed 23/11/05).
  149. (2002). The Effect of Institutional Culture on Change Strategies in Higher Education.
  150. (1979). The Ethnographic Interview.
  151. (1992). The Four Cultures of the Academy.
  152. (1996). The Future of the Hong Kong Academic Profession in a Period of Profound Change.
  153. (1998). The Good Research Guide for Small-Scale Social Research Projects.
  154. (2005). The Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-border Higher Education. Paris: Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
  155. (1999). The Hong Kong Seven: Changing Context and
  156. (2001). The Impact of International Students on Domestic Students and Host Institutions. New Zealand: Ministry of Education (http://www.minedu.govt.nz; accessed 11/11/05).
  157. (2002). The Impact of National Developments on Institutional Practice.
  158. (2002). The International Context for UK Higher Education.
  159. (2006). The International Student Experience Report
  160. (2006). The Internationalisation of Higher Education: Motivations and Realities.
  161. (1996). The Internationalisation of Higher Education: Stakeholder Views in North America.
  162. (2000). The Only Generalisation is: There is No Generalisation.
  163. (1994). The Philosophy of Research Design.
  164. (2002). The Practice of International Education in the Context of Globalisation: A Critique.
  165. (2001). The Reflexive Interview and a Performative Social Science.
  166. (2003). The Requirement to Develop Specific Skills for Teaching in an Intercultural Setting.
  167. (2004). The Researcher/Interviewer in Intercultural Context: A Social Intruder.
  168. (1999). The Response of Higher Education Institutions to Regional Needs. Paris:
  169. (1970). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
  170. (2001). The UNESCO-CEPES of Europe Code of Good Practice for the Provision of Transnational Education. Paris: UNESCO (quoted in Knight,
  171. (1975). The Volunteer Subject.
  172. (1996). Theories of Association: The Social Psychology of Working Together in Educational Consortia. In
  173. (2005). Trade Development Council
  174. (2006). Trajectories of Adjustment of International Students: Ucurve, Learning Curve, or Third Space.
  175. (2000). Tridhos School Village: Lessons from Importing a Western Model of School Design into Thailand.
  176. (1975). Truth and Method. London: Sheed and Ward.
  177. U of L (2005a) E-learning Strategy (http://www.le.ac.uk/committees/learnteach elearning/elearningstrategy.html; accessed 02/05/06).
  178. U of L (2006b) Graduate School Website (http://www.le.ac.uk/gradschool/roles. html; accessed 07/02/06).
  179. U of L (2006d) Mission Statement (http://www.le.ac.uk/portals/missionstat.html; accessed 10/04/06).
  180. U of L (2006e) Students Union Website (http://www.leicesterstudent.org/main/ about/sabbs/vpi; accessed 30/4/06).
  181. U of L (2006f) The University (http://www.le.ac.uk/portals/university.html; accessed 10/04/06).
  182. (1999). Universities and Regional Development: An Overview.
  183. (1995). University Calendar/Bulletin 1995-1996. Hong Kong: Hong Kong
  184. (1995). University Strategies for Internationalisation in Different Institutional and Cultural Settings: A Conceptual Framework. Policy and Policy Implementation
  185. (1993). Unobtrusive Measures and Other Approaches. Real World Research.
  186. (2000). What Really Do We Mean by ‘Internationalisation?’
  187. (2002). What Students Don’t Learn Abroad. The Chronicle Review,
  188. (1992). What’s Wrong with Ethnography? Methodological Exploration.
  189. (2005). Wine is for Drinking, Water is for Washing: Student Opinions about International Exchange Programmes.
  190. (1995). World Class: Thriving Locally in the Global Economy. New York: Simon and Schuster (quoted in OECD

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.