This is the version as published in Journal of Bacteriology. http://jb.asm.org/Norepinephrine stimulates the growth of a range of bacterial species in nutritionally poor SAPI minimal salts medium containing 30% serum. Addition of size-fractionated serum components to SAPI medium indicated\ud that transferrin was required for norepinephrine stimulation of growth of Escherichia coli. Since bacteriostasis\ud by serum is primarily due to the iron-withholding capacity of transferrin, we considered the possibility that norepinephrine can overcome this effect by supplying transferrin-bound iron for growth. Incubation with concentrations of norepinephrine that stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium resulted in loss of bound iron from iron-saturated transferrin, as indicated by the appearance of monoferric and apo- isoforms upon electrophoresis in denaturing gels. Norepinephrine also caused the loss of iron from lactoferrin. The pharmacologically inactive metabolite norepinephrine 3-O-sulfate, by contrast, did not result in iron loss from transferrin or lactoferrin and did not stimulate bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium. Norepinephrine formed stable complexes with transferrin, lactoferrin, and serum albumin. Norepinephrine-transferrin and\ud norepinephrine-lactoferrin complexes, but not norepinephrine-apotransferrin or norepinephrine-albumin complexes,\ud stimulated bacterial growth in serum-SAPI medium in the absence of additional norepinephrine. Norepinephrine-\ud stimulated growth in medium containing 55Fe complexed with transferrin or lactoferrin resulted in uptake of radioactivity by bacterial cells. Moreover, norepinephrine-stimulated growth in medium containing\ud [3H]norepinephrine indicated concomitant uptake of norepinephrine. In each case, addition of excess iron did not affect growth but significantly reduced levels of radioactivity (55Fe or 3H) associated with bacterial cells. A role for catecholamine-mediated iron supply in the pathophysiology of infectious diseases is proposed
To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.