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Biphasic dendritic growth of associative neurons in the human prefrontal cortex is associated with rapid cognitive development during infancy and childhood.

By D. Sedmak, B. Hrvoj-Mihić, N. Habek, D. Džaja, HBM Uylings and Z. Petanjek

Abstract

Aim To analyze postnatal development and life-span changes of apical dendrite side branches (oblique dendrites) from associative layer IIIC magnopyramidal neurons in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and to compare the findings with the previously established pattern of basal dendrite development. Methods We analyzed dendritic morphology from 352 rapid-Golgi impregnated neurons (10-18 neurons per subject) in Brodmann area 9 from the post-mortem tissue of 25 subjects ranging in age from 1 week to 91 years. Data were collected in the period between 1994 and 1996, and the analysis was performed between September 2017 and February 2018. Quantitative dendritic parameters were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Student Newman Keuls posthoc test for multiple comparisons and two-tailed t tests. Results Oblique dendrites grew rapidly during the first postnatal months, and the increase in the dendrite length was accompanied by the outgrowth of new dendritic segments. After a more than one-year-long “dormant” period of only fine dendritic rearrangements (2.5-16 months), oblique dendrites displayed a second period of marked growth, continuing through the third postnatal year. Basal and oblique dendrites displayed roughly the same growth pattern, but had considerably different topological organization in adulthood. Conclusion Our analysis confirmed that a biphasic pattern of postnatal dendritic development, together with a second growth spurt at the age of 2-3 years, represents a unique feature of the associative layer IIIC magnopyramidal neurons in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. We propose that these structural changes relate to rapid cognitive development during early childhood

Topics: Prefrontal cortex, a_open_article_in_open_journal
Year: 2018
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Provided by: NARCIS
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