Nuclear and radiochemical techniques: a powerful tool for nanotoxicological studies
AbstractNanotechnology, perceived as one of the key technologies of this century, is expected to have a strong impact on economy creating new jobs and arising welfare. Despite the term \u201cnanotechnology\u201d is synonymous with things that are innovative and highly promising, little attention has been dedicated to the other side of the coin, i.e. the research on toxic effects on human health and on the environment.
In particular, research on the biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) as scientific basis for health risk assessment require a systematic approach to generating basic data not only on the toxicological effects, but also on the relations with factors that can affect their nanotoxicity.
Research on the impact of engineered nanoparticles is strongly hampered by a lack of reliable tools to detect, visualize and quantitatively trace particles movement and transfer in complex environmental and biological systems. A few methods, such as labelling with fluorescent probes, may overcome some of the detection problems; however, they also lead to a significant modification of the particles to be traced and, thus, modify engineered NPs behavior. Conversely, isotopic tracers can make possible to distinguish the endogenous and exogenous source of elements of interest in various kinds of samples. Radiolabelling of particles or radioactivate the NPs to make them distinctive and thus easily detectable is one very smart way to resolve the problem of their uptake and distribution. In comparison with other analytical methods, radiotracer techniques have many advantages, such as high sensitivity, good accuracy and are suitable for nanotoxicological studies because after neutron or proton activation the physicochemical characteristics of NPs in terms of size distribution and Z potential are maintained as the \u201ccold\u201d ones.
One of the debated themes is related to the influence of NPs on the human reproductive system.
In this contest a way to have experimental evidence is the study of the gold and silver nanoparticles (AuNPs and Ag NPs) transit passage through the emato blood-testicular barrier (BTB) in vivo.
In this work we will be presented some preliminary results obtained by NAA technique irradiating of the sperma(seminal liquid plus sperms) of from selected strain of rabbits, developed as a model of spermiotoxicity studies of chemicals. Samples were taken from the animals exposed for at different delay time (3 and 7 days) after the to 5mg AgNPs and AuNPs Kg-1b.w. assumption