10.1002/aelm.201700018

Negative Isotope Effect on Field-Effect Hole Transport in Fully Substituted 13 C-Rubrene

Abstract

International audiencehave revealed the simultaneous presence of both high room temperature hole mobility above 10 cm 2 V −1 s −1[5] and, crucially , a negative temperature exponent for the mobility, i.e., mobility increases as temperature decreases down to about 180 K. [6] These observations and others, including mobility anisotropy [7,8] and a robust Hall effect, [9,10] are strong evidence for band-like transport in rubrene (band-width ≈0.5 eV), [11] where many features of classical band transport are observed. However, the estimated carrier mean free paths remain on the order of the unit cell dimension (≈1 nm), thus precluding the typical band picture in conventional semiconductors. The precise nature of band-like transport in organic semiconductor crystals is still being explored. [12] Currently, a consistent picture of charge transport in high mobility crystals is offered by the dynamic disorder model (DDM, also known as transient localization), in which the carrier transient localization length l loc and the propagation rate ω are determined by a competition between intermolecular electronic coupling and charge-phonon interaction ; in this scenario the carrier mobility μ can be evaluated as [13] µ ω = B loc 2 e k T l (1) Isotopic substitution is a useful method to study the influence of nuclear motion on the kinetics of charge transport in semiconductors. However, in organic semiconductors, no observable isotope effect on field-effect mobility has been reported. To understand the charge transport mechanism in rubrene, the benchmark organic semiconductor, crystals of fully isotopically substituted rubrene, 13 C-rubrene (13 C 42 H 28), are synthesized and characterized. Vapor-grown 13 C-rubrene single crystals have the same crystal structure and quality as native rubrene crystals (i.e., rubrene with a natural abundance of carbon isotopes). The characteristic transport signatures of rubrene, including room temperature hole mobility over 10 cm 2 V −1 s −1 , intrinsic band-like transport, and clear Hall behavior in the accumulation layer of air-gap transistors, are also observed for 13 C-rubrene crystals. The field-effect mobility distributions based on 74 rubrene and 13 C-rubrene devices, respectively, reveal that 13 C isotopic substitution produces a 13% reduction in the hole mobility of rubrene. The origin of the negative isotope effect is linked to the redshift of vibrational frequencies after 13 C-substitution, as demonstrated by computer simulations based on the transient localization (dynamic disorder) scenario. Overall, the data and analysis provide an important benchmark for ongoing efforts to understand transport in ordered organic semiconductors

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oai:HAL:hal-02000708v1Last time updated on 2/3/2019

This paper was published in HAL-Polytechnique.

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