Article thumbnail

Susceptibility Status of Malaria Vectors to Insecticides Commonly used for Malaria Control in Tanzania.

By Bilali Kabula, Patrick Tungu, Johnson Matowo, Jovin Kitau, Clement Mweya, Basiliana Emidi, Denis Masue, Calvin Sindato, Robert Malima, Jubilate Minja, Shandala Msangi, Ritha Njau, Franklin Mosha, Stephen Magesa and William Kisinza


The aim of the study was to monitor the insecticide susceptibility status of malaria vectors in 12 sentinel districts of Tanzania. WHO standard methods were used to detect knock-down and mortality in the wild female Anopheles mosquitoes collected in sentinel districts. The WHO diagnostic doses of 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.05% lambdacyhalothrin, 0.75% permethrin and 4% DDT were used. The major malaria vectors in Tanzania, Anopheles gambiae s.l., were susceptible (mortality rate of 98-100%) to permethrin, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin and DDT in most of the surveyed sites. However, some sites recorded marginal susceptibility (mortality rate of 80-97%); Ilala showed resistance to DDT (mortality rate of 65% [95% CI, 54-74]), and Moshi showed resistance to lambdacyhalothrin (mortality rate of 73% [95% CI, 69-76]) and permethrin (mortality rate of 77% [95% CI, 73-80]). The sustained susceptibility of malaria vectors to pyrethroid in Tanzania is encouraging for successful malaria control with Insecticide-treated nets and IRS. However, the emergency of focal points with insecticide resistance is alarming. Continued monitoring is essential to ensure early containment of resistance, particularly in areas that recorded resistance or marginal susceptibility and those with heavy agricultural and public health use of insecticides

Topics: Vector control
Publisher: Blackwell Scientific Publications
Year: 2012
DOI identifier: 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2012.02986.x
OAI identifier:

Suggested articles


  1. (1925). A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide.
  2. (1987). A supplement to the Anophelinae of Africa South of the Sahara. (Afrotropical Region). The South African Institute for
  3. (2000). Aitio A & Nakashima N doi
  4. (2010). Biochemical basis of permethrin resistance in Anopheles arabiensis from Lower Moshi, north-eastern Tanzania. doi
  5. (2008). Comparative efficacies of permethrin- deltamethrin- and alphacypermethrintreated nets, against Anopheles arabiensis and Culex quinquefasciatus in northern Tanzania. doi
  6. (2005). Creating an ‘‘enabling environment’’ for taking insecticide treated nets to national scale: the tanzanian experience.
  7. (1995). DDT resistance in Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Zanzibar, Tanzania, based on increased DDT-dehydrochlorinase activity of glutathione-S-transferases. doi
  8. (2006). Detection of the East and West African kdr mutations in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis from Uganda using a new assay based on FRET⁄Met curve analysis.
  9. (2008). Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and westcentral Africa. doi
  10. (2004). Dynamics of pyrethroid knockdown resistance allele in western Kenyan populations of Anopheles gambiae in response to insecticidetreated bed net trials.
  11. (2007). Efficacy of pyrethroid-treated nets against malaria vectors and nuisancebiting mosquitoes in Tanzania in areas with long-term ITN use. doi
  12. (1999). Elevated oxidase and esterase levels associated with permethrin tolerance in Anopheles gambiae from Kenyan villages using permethrin-impregnated nets. doi
  13. (1999). Evaluation of polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of pyrethroid insecticide resistance in a malaria vector species of the Anopheles gambiae complex.
  14. (2000). Identification of a point mutation in the voltagegated sodium channel gene of Kenyan Anopheles gambiae associated with resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. doi
  15. (2010). Indoor residual spraying for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 4, doi
  16. (2000). Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human diseases. doi
  17. (2003). Insecticide treated nets: impact on vector populations and relevance of initial intensity of transmission and pyrethroid resistance.
  18. (2004). Insecticide-treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2, doi
  19. (2008). Lessons from the past: managing insecticide resistance in malaria control and eradication programmes. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 8, doi
  20. (1996). Long-term use of permethrin-impregnated nets does not increase Anopheles gambiae permethrin tolerance. doi
  21. (2007). Malaria Did they really say eradication?. doi
  22. (1998). Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. doi
  23. (2006). Occurrence of Leucine to phenylalanine knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation in Anopheles Arabiensis populations Tanzania detected by a high throughput SSOP-ELISA method.
  24. (1971). Probit Analysis, 3rd edn.
  25. (2011). Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control? Trends in doi
  26. (1994). Reduced susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to permethrin associated with the use of permethrin impregnated bed nets and curtains in Kenya. doi
  27. (2012). Research, Amani Research Centre,
  28. (1999). Resistance of malaria vectors to pyrethrins used for impregnating mosquito nets
  29. (1999). Status of pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato.
  30. (2012). Susceptibility status of malaria vectors ª 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd 749Mu ¨ller
  31. (1998). Test Procedures for Insecticide Resistance Monitoring in Malaria Vectors, Bio-Efficacy and Persistence of Insecticides on Treated Surfaces: Report of the WHO Informal Consultation.
  32. (1968). The Anophelinae of Africa South of Sahara (Ethiopian zoographical region).
  33. (2002). The role of agricultural use of insecticides in resistance to pyrethroids in Anopheles gambiae s.l in Burkina Faso. doi
  34. (2008). World Malaria Report doi

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.