Purpose Bowel function may be disturbed after intestinal segments are transposed into the urinary tract to reconstruct or replace the bladder. In 1997, our group were the first to report major bowel dysfunction in a cohort of such patients: up to 42% of those who were asymptomatic preoperatively describing new bowel symptoms postoperatively including explosive diarrhoea, nocturnal diarrhoea, faecal urgency, faecal incontinence and flatus leakage . We now describe bowel symptoms in this same cohort eight years later (2005). Materials and Methods 116 patients were evaluable. Of the remaining 37 from the original report: 30 had died, five no longer wished to be involved, and two could not be traced. Patients were asked to complete postal questionnaires identical to those used in the first follow-up, assessing the severity of bowel symptoms and quality of life using two validated instruments. Responses were compared with those from the original study. The Nottingham Health Profile quality of life scores were also compared to age and sex matched norms. Results 96 (83%) completed eight-year follow-up questionnaires: 43 after ileal conduit diversion (Group 1), 17 after clam enterocystoplasty for overactive bladder (Group 2), 18 after reconstructed bladder for neurogenic bladder dysfunction (Group 3), and 18 with bladder replacement for non-neurogenic causes (Group 4). High prevalence rates of bowel symptoms persisted with no statistically significant differences between the two time points. Of those with symptoms in 2005, around 50% had reported similar symptoms in 1997. Clam enterocystoplasty patients (Group 2) still reported the highest prevalence (59%) of troublesome diarrhoea with one in two on regular anti-diarrhoeal medication. They also had high rates of faecal incontinence (47%), faecal urgency (41%) and nocturnal bowel movement (18%); with high proportions reporting a moderate or severe adverse effect on work (36%), social life (50%) and sex life (43%). High rates were also reported by neurogenic bladder dysfunction patients, including 50% with troublesome diarrhoea. This symptom was reported by 19% after ileal conduit and by 17% after bladder replacement for non-neurogenic causes. The impact of bowel symptoms on every-day activities and quality of life persisted, remaining most severe after clam enterocystoplasty, with 24% regretting undergoing the procedure because of subsequent bowel symptoms. Conclusions: After more than eight years, operations involving transposition of intestinal segments continue to be associated with high rates of bowel symptoms, which impact on everyday activities. These are particularly troublesome following enterocystoplasty for overactive bladder and bladder reconstruction for neurogenic bladder dysfunction. These risks should influence patient selection and potential patients should be warned prior to surgery
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