Characterisation of a monolithic active pixel sensor for electron detection in the energy range 10-20 keV


As part of a feasibility study into the use of novel electron detectors for X-ray photoelectron emission microscopes (XPEEM), we have characterised the imaging performance of a back-illuminated monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) operating under both integrating and counting modes for electrons in the energy range 10-20 keV. For integrating mode, we present the detective quantum efficiency (DQE), which shows marked improvements over conventional indirect detectors based on microchannel plates. We also present the modulation transfer function (MTF) and noise power spectrum (NPS), again demonstrating significantly improved performance. For counting mode, we present the quantum efficiency (QE) as a function of incident electron energy. We have evaluated the charge collection efficiency (CCE) and we thereby demonstrate the presence of a ~200 nm thick dead layer that is linked with reduced CCE at low electron energies. Based on our findings, we believe that the MAPS technology is well matched to future XPEEM instruments using aberration correction. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

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