Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The wasted decade: Israel’s policies towards the Occupied Territories 1967-1977

By R.S. Ranta


This thesis aims to provide a detailed historical narrative of Israel’s relationship with the Occupied Territories between the years 1967 and 1977, using the most up-to-date archival material. The central argument of the thesis is that successive Israeli governments lacked a coherent and comprehensive long-term policy towards the Occupied Territories; it is the contention of this thesis that there is no documentary evidence to support the common belief that successive Israeli governments had a comprehensive long-term territorial policy. It is true that successive Israeli governments made decisions based on several long-term plans and approaches, such as the Allon Plan and the Functional Solution, but, when put into context and viewed as a whole, these decisions were neither coherent nor comprehensive and in any case were never formally adopted by the government. In trying to explain why successive governments failed to put forward a coherent and comprehensive long-term policy, four major contributing factors have been identified: the faction-based politics of the Labour Party, the US position vis-à-vis Israel, New Zionism and the intention of successive Prime Ministers to avoid formulating a clear long-term policy. The need to maintain unity, and avoid a split amongst the factions, ensured that the Labour Party was unable and unwilling to take a clear and unequivocal stand on the issue of the Occupied Territories; the US diplomatic stance vis-à-vis Israel exacerbated existing divisions, while strengthening the positions of those who argued in favour of avoiding taking clear decisions on the Occupied Territories; the rise of New Zionism changed the dynamics and landscape of the Israeli political system in a way that weakened Mapai’s, and later the Labour Party’s, ability to dictate territorial policy; lastly, successive Prime Ministers (Eshkol, Meir and Rabin) made clear choices against the formulation of a coherent and comprehensive long-term policy

Publisher: UCL (University College London)
Year: 2009
OAI identifier:
Provided by: UCL Discovery

Suggested articles


  1. (1981). A Century of Settlement: The History of Jewish Agricultural Settlement in Eretz Israel. Yad Tabenkin, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  2. (1987). A Hostile Partnership: The Secret Relationship between Israel and Jordan. Tel Aviv, Mitam-Yedioth Ahronoth,
  3. (1986). A Jordanian Option: The Yishov and the State of Israel Vis-à-vis the Hashemite Regime and the Palestinian National Movement. Tel Aviv, Yad Tabenkin,
  4. (1990). A New Israel: Democracy In Crisis 1973-1988.
  5. (1991). After Nasser, Arafat and Saddam Hussein: The Last Option, the Quest for Peace in the Middle East. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
  6. (1972). Allon’s Plan. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  7. (1999). Ambiguity, Coping, and Governance: Israeli Experiences in Politics, Religion, and Policymaking.
  8. (1945). American Orientalism: The United States and the Middle East since
  9. (2003). An Overview of the History of the Settlement of Israel.
  10. (1969). and Health Minister from
  11. (1997). and the Peace Process. Syracuse,
  12. (2001). And the Wolf Shall Dwell with the Wolf: The Settlers and the Palestinians. Tel-Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  13. (2002). Ascent to the Mountains: Renewal of Jewish Settlements
  14. (1980). Attrition: Egypt’s Post War Political Strategy 1967-1970. Tel Aviv, Ma'arachot, Ministry of Defence Books,
  15. Behind The Uprising: Israelis, Jordanians and Palestinians.
  16. (1967). Benefits and Burdens: A Report on the West Bank and Gaza Strip Economies since
  17. (2006). Between The Two Wars: The Security and Military Activities to Achieve Readiness and Alert in the I.D.F from the End of the Six Day War to the Yom Kippur War. Tel Aviv, Maarachot,
  18. (2002). Between Vision and Power: The History of Ahdut-Ha'avoda-Poalei-Zion Party .Yad Tabenkin,
  19. (1988). Center for Strategic Studies,
  20. (1995). Civil-Military Relations: The Israeli Case.
  21. (1987). Coalition Politics in Israel. Tel Aviv, Zmora-Bitan,
  22. (1990). Communicating Vessels. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  23. (1990). Contriving Warfare. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  24. (2002). Daddo 48 years and 20 More Days. Or Yehuda, Dvir,
  25. (1999). Days of Renewal.
  26. (1982). Days of Upheaval.
  27. (1974). Decisions in Israel’s Foreign Policy.
  28. (2006). Defending The Holy Land: A Critical Analysis of Israel’s Security & Foreign Policy.
  29. (1977). Democracy in Israel. Ramat
  30. (1981). Destination Peace: Three Decades of Israeli Foreign Policy.
  31. (1977). Director-General of the Foreign Ministry until 1969 and Police Minister from 1969 to
  32. (1971). Dispatch from the White House. Tel Aviv, Otpaz,
  33. (1990). Dor Hakipot Hasrugot.
  34. (2002). Dreams and Missed Opportunities 1967-1973.
  35. Economic development in the Administered areas 1967-1969. Tel Aviv, Maarachot Ministry of Defence.
  36. (1974). Economic Growth in the Administered Areas 1968-1973.
  37. (1976). Economic Growth in the Administered Areas 1974-1975.
  38. (1987). Edanim Publishers,
  39. (2004). Eshkol, Give the Order! Israeli Army Command and Political Leadership on the Road to the Six Day War 1963-1967. Tel Aviv, Ma'arachot, Ministry of Defence Books,
  40. (2002). Eshkol: the Third Prime Minister 1895-1969. Jerusalem, State of Israel National Archive,
  41. (1986). Everyman Whatsoever is Right in his own Eyes: Illegalism in Israeli Society. Tel Aviv, Sifriat Poalim,
  42. (2006). Farsakh, Leila. Palestinian Labour Migration to Israel: Labour, Land and Occupation.
  43. (1986). Fateful Decision. Tel Aviv, Am Oved,
  44. (1998). Fifty Years, from Year to Year (Memories).
  45. (1967). From June to October: The Middle East between
  46. (2002). From War to Peace: The Peace Course between Egypt and Israel 1970-1979. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  47. (2002). Geography of Occupation Judea, Samaria and the Gaza Strip.
  48. (2008). Golda: A Political Biography. Tel Aviv, Yedioth Ahronoth Books,
  49. (2005). Governing Israel: Chosen People, Promised Land & Prophetic Tradition.
  50. (2001). Greater Israel: Theology and politics. Heifa, Heifa
  51. (1995). Gush-emunim: The Story behind the Scenes. Biet-El Library,
  52. (1988). Haber, Eitan. Today War will Break Out: The Reminiscences of Brig.Gen Israel Lior.
  53. (1999). Head On….. Or Yehuda, Hed Artzi,
  54. (1996). Hussein makes Peace.
  55. (1965). Ideology, Party Change, and Electoral Campaigns in Israel,
  56. (1989). In Search of Peace. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  57. (1987). In the Centre of activity and Decision Making. Tel Aviv, Merkaz Israel Galili, Yad Tabenkin, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  58. Interviews: Aloni Shulamit
  59. (1988). Israel and Conventional Deterrence: Border Warfare from 1953 to 1970. London,
  60. (1992). Israel and Jordan in the Shadow of War: Functional Ties and Futile Diplomacy in a Small Place.
  61. (1994). Israel and Syria: Peace and Security on the Golan. Westview Press, Publication of the Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, Tel Aviv,
  62. (1978). Israel and the Territories: A study in Control 1967-1977. Ramat Gan. Turtledove,
  63. (1990). Israel and the World after 40 Years.
  64. (1998). Israel at Fifty: Five Decades of the Struggle for peace. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
  65. (1976). Israel Divided: Ideological Politics in the Jewish State.
  66. (1987). Israel Galili: A Continuous Struggle. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  67. (2005). Israel in 1967. Jerusalem,
  68. (1990). Israel in the Midst of its Struggle for Survival. Tel Aviv, Reshafim,
  69. (1978). Israel: Pluralism and Conflict.
  70. (1978). Israel: The Embattled Ally. Cambridge,
  71. (1986). Israel: The Peaceful Belligerent, 1967-1979. London, Macmillan in association with St Anthony College
  72. (2008). Israel’s Occupation Los Angeles,
  73. (1992). Israeli Democracy: the Middle of the Journey.
  74. (2002). Israeli Diplomacy and the Quest For Peace.
  75. (1992). Israeli News Papers Al Hamishmar Davar Ha’aretz Ma’ariv Yedioth Ahronoth Secondary Sources: Books Admoni, Yehiel. Decade of Discretion: Settlement Policy in the Territories 1967-1977. Tel Aviv, Yad Tabenkin,
  76. (1989). Israeli Visions and Divisions Cultural Change and Political Conflict. New Brunswick, Transaction publishers,
  77. (2005). Itzhak Rabin: Prime Minister of Israel 1977-74/1995-92 Part One 1967-1922. Jerusalem, State of Israel National Archive,
  78. (1973). Jerusalem: City without a Wall.
  79. (1974). Land of the Hart: Israelis, Arabs, the Territories and a Vision of the Future. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America.
  80. (1993). Land of Tradition and Conflict.
  81. (1987). Land or Peace, Whither Israel?. Hoover Institution Press,
  82. (1969). Leve Ishkol: A Biography.
  83. (2002). Life Story. Ministry of Defence,
  84. (2007). Lion of Jordan: The Life of King Hussein in War and Peace.
  85. Living by the Sword: America and Israel
  86. (1997). Living History. Tel Aviv, Miskal-Yedioth Ahronoth Books,
  87. (1981). Lo Betelem (Not in a Furrow). Tel Aviv, Am Oved,
  88. (2007). Loaded Dice: The Foreign Office and Israel.
  89. (2004). Lords of the Land: The Settlers and the State of Israel 1967-2004. Or Yehuda, Kinneret, Zmora-Bitan, Dvir Publishing House,
  90. (1999). Lost Opportunities. Or Yehuda, Ma’ariv Book Guild,
  91. (1972). Mapai in Israel: Political Organisation and Government in a New Society. London,
  92. (2006). Michael Phoenix Shimon Peres – a Political Biography. Tel Aviv,
  93. (1969). Military and Politics in Israel: Nation-Building and Role Expansion.
  94. (1972). Moshe Dayan: The Soldier, the Man, the legend. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
  95. (1989). My Friend the Enemy. Tel Aviv, Bitan,
  96. (1978). My Life. Tel Aviv, Ma’ariv Book Guild,
  97. (1987). National Security Decision-Making: The Israeli Case. Tel Avivm Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  98. (1986). New Zionism and the Foreign Policy System of Israel.
  99. (1973). October Earthquake: Yom Kippur
  100. (1989). On The Razor’s Edge. Tel Aviv, Edanim Publishers,
  101. (1997). One of them.
  102. (1990). Palestinians and the Intifada: Creating facts on the West Bank. London, Kegan Paul International,
  103. (1981). Party and Politics in Israel.
  104. (1983). Party Politics in Israel and the Occupied Territories.
  105. (1985). Peace is in the Eye of the Beholder.
  106. (1967). Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since
  107. (1974). Personal assistant to Pinhas Sapir and a member of the Director’sGeneral Committee until
  108. (1996). Pinchas Sapir: Perforce Ruler.
  109. (1967). Ploughshares into Swords, Israeli Settlement Policy in the Occupied Territories,
  110. (1997). Policy Making in Israel: Routines for Simple Problems and Coping with the Complex.
  111. (1982). Political Crises in Israel.
  112. (1996). Politicians as an Hegemonic Class: The case of Israel. Tel Aviv, Sifriat Hapoalim,
  113. (1994). Politics and Strategy in Israel. Tel Aviv, Sifriat Poalim,
  114. (1978). Politics and The Military in Israel 1967-1977.
  115. (1993). Power and Ritual in the Israel Labour Party: A Study in Political Anthropology.
  116. (1977). Quest for Peace: United States-Israel Relations and the Arab Israeli Conflict. New Brunswick, Transaction Books,
  117. (2006). Rabin – Biography. Tel Aviv, Schocken Publishing House,
  118. (1999). Rabin and Israel’s National Security. Washington, The Woodrow Wilson
  119. (2003). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab conflict 1881-2001 Tel Aviv, Am Oved Publishers,
  120. (1996). Secret Channels: The Inside Story of Arab-Israeli Peace Negotiations.
  121. (1968). Security Legislation in the Occupied Areas. Givat Haviva, Centre for Arab and Afro-Asian Studies,
  122. (1980). Settlements and the Borders of Israel. Tel Aviv, Yad Tabenkin,
  123. (1987). Sharon: An Israeli Caesar.
  124. (1992). Shearing Time/Calaban.
  125. (1967). Six Days of War:
  126. (1992). Stalemate: The War of Attrition and
  127. (1976). Story of My Life.
  128. (1976). Story of My Life. Tel Aviv, Edanim,
  129. (1995). Syria and Israel: From War to Peace-making.
  130. (1980). Taking Root: Israeli Settlements in the West Bank, the Golan Heights and the Gaza Strip 1967-1980.
  131. (2004). Talking Peace. Or Yehuda, Ma’ariv Book Guild,
  132. (1999). Tel Aviv,
  133. (1980). Ten Years of Israeli Rule in Judea and Samaria. Jerusalem, The Magnes Press, The Hebrew University,
  134. (2006). The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements,
  135. (1974). The Arab Israeli Conflict:
  136. (1991). The Ascendance of Israel’s Radical Right.
  137. (1970). The Cursed Blessing: The Story of Israel’s Occupation of the West Bank. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
  138. (1967). The Decline of Statism: The Changing
  139. (1985). The Economics of the West bank and Gaza Strip.
  140. (1977). The Elections in Israel
  141. (1973). The Foreign Policy System of Israel: Settings, Images,
  142. (1990). The Founding of Israeli Democracy 1948-1967.
  143. (1999). The Golan: Between War and Peace. Or Yehuda, Hed Arzi,
  144. (1992). The Gordian Knot Myths
  145. (2002). The Haim Zadok Book. Jerusalem, The Israeli Democracy Institute,
  146. (1986). The Hakibbutz Hameuchad in the
  147. (2000). The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. London,
  148. (1997). The Israeli Labour Party: in the Shadow of the Likud.
  149. (1989). The Israeli State & Society, Boundaries & Frontiers.
  150. (1973). The John Hopkins
  151. (1985). The New Diplomacy.
  152. (1982). The Peace Brokers: Mediators
  153. (1984). The Peace Process (1969-1973). Tel Aviv, Yad Tabenkin,
  154. (1983). The Peace Process 1969-1973: Efforts and Contacts.
  155. (1985). The Price of Unity The History of the Labour Party to the Yom Kippur War. Tel Aviv, Revivim,
  156. (1979). The Rabin Memoirs. London, Weidenfeld and Nicolson,
  157. (1989). The Road to Peace: A Biography of Shimon Peres.
  158. (1991). The Road to Power: Herut Party In Israel.
  159. (1967). The Sandstorm: The Arab-Israeli War of
  160. (1976). The Secret Conversations Of Henry Kissinger: Step-by-step Diplomacy in the Middle.
  161. (1992). The Settlement Project in the Yamit Region: The Lost Dream, 20 Years after the Establishment 10 Years after the Evacuation 1971-1992. Tel Aviv, Yaron Golan Books,
  162. (1999). The Settlers. Or Yehuda, Ma’ariv Book Guild,
  163. (2005). The Seventh Day. MSc,
  164. (1993). The State of Israel, the Land of Israel: The Statist and Ethnonational Dimensions of Foreign Policy.
  165. (1985). The Stick and the Carrot. Tel Aviv, Zmora-Bitan,
  166. (1996). The Triumph of Embarrassment: Israel and the Territories after the Six Day War. Tel Aviv, Yad Tabenkin,
  167. (1987). The West Bank Handbook.
  168. (1985). The West Bank Line of Defence.
  169. (2004). The Yom Kippur War.
  170. Treasurer of the Jewish Agency’s Settlement Department throughout the period researched (6.06.2007 Tel Aviv).
  171. (2005). Twins of the Gazelle. Tel Aviv, Am Oved,
  172. (1977). U.S.A and the Israeli Arab Conflict. Tel Aviv, Ministry of Defence Israel,
  173. (1991). War and Peace in Israeli Politics: Labour Party Position on National Security. London, Lynne Rienner Publishers,
  174. (1989). Warrior: An Autobiography.
  175. (1985). What Makes Israel Tick? How Domestic Policy-Makers Cope with Constraints.
  176. (1984). With Ben Aharon. Tel Aviv, Hakibbutz Hameuchad,
  177. (2005). Yaacov Herzog a Biography.
  178. (1983). Zionism and Territory: The Socio-Territorial Dimensions of Zionist Politics.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.