Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

The discrete dynamics of small-scale spatial events: agent-based models of mobility in carnivals and street parades

By M Batty, J DeSyllas and E Huxbury


Small-scale spatial events are situations in which elements or objects vary in such away that temporal dynamics is intrinsic to their representation and explanation. Someof the clearest examples involve local movement from conventional traffic modelingto disaster evacuation where congestion, crowding, panic, and related safety issue arekey features of such events. We propose that such events can be simulated using newvariants of pedestrian model, which embody ideas about how behavior emerges fromthe accumulated interactions between small-scale objects. We present a model inwhich the event space is first explored by agents using ?swarm intelligence?. Armedwith information about the space, agents then move in an unobstructed fashion to theevent. Congestion and problems over safety are then resolved through introducingcontrols in an iterative fashion and rerunning the model until a ?safe solution? isreached. The model has been developed to simulate the effect of changing the route ofthe Notting Hill Carnival, an annual event held in west central London over 2 days inAugust each year. One of the key issues in using such simulation is how the processof modeling interacts with those who manage and control the event. As such, thischanges the nature of the modeling problem from one where control and optimizationis external to the model to one where this is intrinsic to the simulation

Publisher: Center for Advanced Spatial Analysis (UCL)
Year: 2002
OAI identifier:
Provided by: UCL Discovery

Suggested articles


  1. (1992). A cellular automaton model for freeway traffic.
  2. (1991). A mathematical model for the behavior of pedestrians.
  3. (1986). A model of pedestrian route choice and demand for retail facilities within inner-city shopping areas.
  4. (1974). A Simulation Model of Multidirectional Pedestrian Movement Within Physically Bounded Environments.
  5. (1997). Active Brownian particles: artificial agents in physics.
  6. (1997). Active walker model for the formation of animal and trail systems. Physical Review E,
  7. (2002). Carnival Public Safety Project – Assessment of Route Design for the Notting Hill Carnival (London: Intelligent Space Partnership, Greater London Authority).
  8. (2001). Cellular automata microsimulation for modeling bi-directional pedestrian walkways.
  9. (2000). Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences: Chaos, Fractals, Selforganization and Disorder
  10. (2001). Crowd Dynamics (PhD Thesis,
  11. (1962). Crowds and Power (London:
  12. (2001). Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants,
  13. (1987). Flocks, herds, and schools: a distributed behavioral model.
  14. (1999). Geographical information systems and urban design.
  15. (2001). Interim Report and Public Safety Profile Recommendations for 2001, (London: Carnival Review Group. Greater London Authority), available at
  16. (1980). Microeconomic Theory: A Mathematical Approach, 3 rd Edition (Tokyo:
  17. (2001). Microscopic pedestrian wayfinding and dynamics modeling.
  18. (1994). Modeling inside GIS: Part 2: Selecting and calibrating urban models using ARC-INFO,
  19. (1998). Modeling migration and economic agglomeration with active Brownian particles.
  20. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design (New York: Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental
  21. (2001). Polynucleated urban landscapes.
  22. (2000). Simulating dynamical features of escape panic.
  23. (2001). Simulation of pedestrian crowds in normal and evacuation situations,
  24. (2001). Simulation of pedestrian dynamics using a two-dimensional cellular automaton.
  25. (2001). Spatial units as agents: making the landscape an equal player in agentbased simulations.
  26. (2001). Swarm Intelligence
  27. (1956). The Core of The City: A Pilot Study of Changing Land Uses
  28. (1971). The Geometry of Environment : An Introduction to Spatial Organization in Design (London:
  29. (1971). The statistics of crowd fluids.
  30. (2001). Traffic and related self-driven many-particle systems.
  31. (1975). Urban Space for Pedestrians

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.