Skip to main content
Article thumbnail
Location of Repository

HIV Types, Groups, Subtypes and Recombinant Forms: Errors in Replication, Selection Pressure and Quasispecies

By Josef Eberle and Lutz Gürtler


HIV-1 is a chimpanzee virus which was transmitted to humans by several zoonotic events resulting in infection with HIV-1 groups M P, and in parallel transmission events from sooty mangabey monkey viruses leading to infections with HIV-2 groups A H. Both viruses have circulated in the human population for about 80 years. In the infected patient, HIV mutates, and by elimination of some of the viruses by the action of the immune system individual quasispecies are formed. Along with the selection of the fittest viruses, mutation and recombination after superinfection with HIV from different groups or subtypes have resulted in the diversity of their patterns of geographic distribution. Despite the high variability observed, some essential parts of the HIV genome are highly conserved. Viral diversity is further facilitated in some parts of the HIV genome by drug selection pressure and may also be enhanced by different genetic factors, including HLA in patients from different regions of the world. Viral and human genetic factors influence pathogenesis. Viral genetic factors are proteins such as Tat, Vif and Rev. Human genetic factors associated with a better clinical outcome are proteins such as APOBEC, langerin, tetherin and chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and HLA B27, B57, DRB1{*}1303, KIR and PARD3B. Copyright (C) 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel

Topics: Medizin, ddc:610
Publisher: Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München
Year: 2012
OAI identifier:
Provided by: Open Access LMU

Suggested articles


  1. (2010). A novel motif in HIV-1 Nef that regulates MIP-1beta chemokine release in macrophages.
  2. A: Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from naturally infected sooty mangabey monkeys (Cercocebus atys) . Proc Natl Acad Sci
  3. (2011). Ayouba A: Characterization of a new simian immunodeficiency virus strain in a naturally infected Pan troglodytes troglodytes c h i m p a n z e e w i t h A I D S r e l a t e d symptoms. Retrovirology
  4. (2010). B u r g a r d M , J a s s e r o n C , M a t h e r o n S , D a -m o n d F , H a m r e n e K , B l a n c h e S , F a y e A , R o u z i o u x C , W a r s z a w s k i J , M a d e l b r o t L : Mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2 inf e c t i o n f r o m
  5. (2005). BJ: Clinical significance of central nervous system as sanctuary site for HIV.
  6. (2011). Borderia AV, LopezGalindez C: Dynamics of in vitro fitness recovery of HIV-1.
  7. Combined antiretroviral therapy and immune pressure lead to in vivo HIV-1 recombination with ancestral viral genomes.
  8. (2008). DR: Broadly neutralizing antibodies protect against hepatitis C virus quasispecies challenge. Nat Med
  9. (2002). Evidence for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in vivo in CD14+ monocytes and its potential role as a source of virus in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  10. (2010). F: T etherin. Holding on and letting go. Cell
  11. (2010). Geijtenbeek TB: Langerin functions as an antiviral receptor on Langerhans cells. Immunol Cell Biol
  12. (2011). Gorry PR: CD4-binding site alterations in CCR5-using HIV-1 envelopes influencing gp120-CD4 interactions and fusogenicity. Virology
  13. (2009). HIV-1 superinfection in an HIV-2-infected woman with subsequent control of HIV-1 plasma viremia. Clin Infect Dis
  14. Hoshino H: Patterns of nucleotide substitutions and implications for the immunological diversity of human i m m u n o d e fi c i e n c y v i r u s .
  15. (2009). Increased thermostability and fidelity of DNA synthesis of wild-type and mutant HIV-1 group O reverse transcriptases.
  16. (1996). Kaptue L: The prevalence of diverse HIV-1 strains was stable in Cameroonian blood donors from
  17. (2005). Little SJ: HIV drug resistance acquired through superinfection. AIDS
  18. M c C u t c h a n F , W o l i n s k y S , K o r b e r B (eds): HIV Sequence Compendium. Los Alamos National Laboratory,
  19. (2010). Mechanism of viral emergence. Vet Res
  20. (2005). Meyerhans A: A geneticalgorithm approach to simulating human immunodeficiency virus evolution reveals the strong impact of multiple infected cells and recombination.
  21. (2010). Molecular epidemiology of simian immunodeficiency virus infection in wild-living gorillas.
  22. (2011). PR: Deep sequencing to infer HIV-1 co-receptor usage: application to three clinical trials of maraviroc in treatment-experienced patients.
  23. (2004). Recombination following superinfection by HIV-1. AIDS
  24. RNA structures facilitate recombination-mediated gene swapping in HIV-1.
  25. (1994). RNA virus quasispecies: significance for viral disease and epidemiology. Infect Agents Dis
  26. (2010). S: HIV reservoirs, latency and reactivation: prospects for eradication. Antiviral Res
  27. (2002). Salomom H: Origin of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 quasispecies emerging after antiretroviral treatment interruption in patients with therapeutic failure.
  28. (2011). SJ: Genome-wide association study implicates PARD3B-based AIDS restriction.
  29. (2010). Subtype-associated differences in the HIV-1 reverse transcription affect the viral replication. Retrovirology
  30. (1985). t Wout AB: Absence of HIV-1 superinfection 1 year after infection between
  31. (2009). Telesnitzky A: The remarkable frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genetic recombination. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev
  32. (1990). Temin HM: Broad spectrum of in vivo forward mutations, hypermutations, and mutational hotspots in a retroviral shuttle vector after a single replication cycle: deletions and deletions with insertions.
  33. (1990). Temin HW: Broad spectrum of in vivo forward mutations, hypermutations, and mutational hotspots in a retroviral shuttle vector after a single replication cycle: substitutions, frameshifts, and hypermutations.
  34. (2000). Timing the ancestor of the HIV-1 pandemic strains. Science
  35. (2005). Triple HIV-1 infection.
  36. Tumultous relationship between the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) and the human APOBEC-3G and APOBEC-3F restriction factors. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev
  37. (2010). Two distinct epidemics:
  38. (2008). WS: Genetic recombination between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2, two distinct human lentiviruses.

To submit an update or takedown request for this paper, please submit an Update/Correction/Removal Request.