A Basic Study on National Competency Standard Systems

Abstract

이 연구는 산업현장의 변화와 요구에 부응할 수 있는 자격검정의 출제 기준과 교육훈련기관의 교육과정 및 훈련 기준의 개발에 필요한 국가표준직무능력 체제를 우리 나라에 도입하는 것이 타당한지를 분석하는 데 목적이 있다. 구체적인 목적을 제시하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 표준의 개요를 살펴보고 아울러 주요 선진국의 국가표준직무능력 체제를 검토하여 이러한 체제의 개발 배경과 운영 방식, 활용 방안 등을 분석하고자 한다. 둘째, 현재 우리 나라에서 국가표준직무능력 체제와 유사하게 시행되고 있는 제도는 무엇이 있으며, 운영상의 문제점은 무엇인지를 알아보고자 한다. 셋째, 국가표준직무능력 체제 도입 타당성 여부를 분석 준거에 의해서 검토하고 향후 추진되어야 할 과제를 제언하고자 한다.1. Overview The purpose of this study is to analyze the viability of adopting a national competency standard (NCS) system, which is currently being used in other advanced economies in order to provide a quality labor force equipped with vocational skills that are consistent with industry needs. The structure of this study is threefold. First, the motives, operational details, and various applications of NCS systems of other countries were examined. Next, an analysis of Korean standards of qualification, in short similar policies to the NCS system that are existing in Korea, was carried out. Third, analytical frameworks were drawn from the comparative analysis of advanced economies and Korea as well as the results of survey conducted on the companies and labor-related organizations. In conclusion, recommendations were made for the further development of the NCS system in Korea. 2. Explaining the Rationale for Adopting a National Competency Standard In order to verify the credence of a NCS, four analytical frameworks were created based on related theories and previous studies. 1) Efficiency in the Labor Market Although the possibility exists that the NCS system carries negative aspects such as the homogenization of the vocational education curriculum and training standard, and also constituting another system separated from the existing vocational education curriculum, training standards, and exam questions, the adoption of an NCS system is critical to actively pursue links between the vocational education curriculum, training standards, and qualification exams based on the demands from industries. 2) Consistency between the Qualification System and Various Vocational Education and Training Systems A NCS system is needed for the operation of a consistent vocational education and training and qualification system in Korea, where in-firm occupational standards, association occupational standards, and related NCSs are run separately, leading to a vertical and horizontal disconnection in occupational standards as well as several cases of overlapping. 3) International Transferability The recent trend of enacting international standards of workers' vocational abilities, led by the European Community (EC) and the International Standard Organization (ISO), further necessitates the development of an occupational standard at the national level that is internationally competitive and credible. 4) Economic Viability of Various Vocational Training and Qualification Systems Despite the large amount of time and costs expected to incur in developing and implementing a NCS, in the long-term, the integrated management of the currently separated systems of vocational education curriculum, training standards, and qualification exams will lead to budget cuts. In addition, costs of human resource management can be saved in the labor market, and the overlapping of various vocational training is eliminated. 3. Basic Directives for the Future Implementation of a National Competency Standard Based on the above findings, the directives for implementing a NCS are laid out as follows: 1) Stakeholders For the effective development and implementation of the NCS system, the main actors in vocational education and training, for instance the government, industry, labor-related organizations, vocational training and qualification institutions, should be heavily involved from the initial stages. The enactment of National Competency Standard Act, concurrent with the creation of National Competency Standard Board, is recommended. 2) Managing Institution While the main decisions regarding the NCS system are to be made by the members of the National Competency Standard Board, an institution to oversee and coordinate related activities throughout the country should be either newly created or designated. It should be noted that since the influence of non-governmental stakeholders on vocational training and qualification systems are relatively weak, a government-level or government-related institution is needed at the preliminary stages. 3) Operation Costs To enhance the applicability of the NCS in firms, a system of joint financing among the involved stakeholders is recommended to cover the costs of NCS development. As adjustments are certain to follow with the various changes in industry, a fund should be created for further securing future budgets. 4) Development Method Instead of simply linking the Education Ministry operations of developing curricula for vocational high schools and junior colleges and the Labor Ministry's overseeing of training standards in vocational training institutions, and national qualification exams, a new and integrated NCS needs to be developed. First of all, the work of NCS development has to be required the employee, employer and government cooperation system. Second, it is necessary to make the cooperation regulation between Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labor and other Ministries in order to guarantee harmonious work. 5) Applicability With respect to the range of actually utilizing a NCS, public institutions such as public schools, public vocational training institutions, and national qualification centers can use the NCS system voluntarily, and also private training institutions consisting of in-firm training and authorized vocational training in the private sector may or may not choose to utilize the NCS. 4. Recommendations In order to fully implement a NCS system, the following studies need to be carried out in the next two years, in addition to the preliminary study on adopting a NCS in Korea. First, a model of NCS needs to be designed on the basis of a comprehensive study of internationally-competitive occupational standards in other countries. Furthermore, areas in which NCSs are needed should be selected, supplemented by an elaborate plan consisting of a timeline of events, schedule of activities, and budget for their development. Second, two areas of NCS development should be chosen for a trial implementation at the workplace, in vocational education and training, and qualification certification to test their viability and to develop a suitable model for Korea. Third, various methods of strengthening the linkage with other relevant policies should be considered for the wide application of the NCS.Ⅰ. 서 론 1 1. 연구의 필요성 및 목적 1 2. 연구 방법 4 3. 용어의 정의 9 Ⅱ. 표준의 개요 11 1. 표준의 정의 11 2. 표준의 종류 14 3. 표준의 효과 16 4. 표준제정에 따른 정부의 역할 19 Ⅲ. 주요국의 국가표준직무능력 23 1. 주요국의 국가표준직무능력 도입 배경 23 2. 미 국 31 3. 영 국 43 4. 호 주 55 Ⅳ. 국내의 유사 표준직무능력개발 및 적용 실태 71 1. 국가 수준에서의 유사 표준직무능력 71 2. 기업 및 업종별, 직종별 단체 수준에서의 유사 표준직무능력 84 3. 국가표준직무능력 도입에 관한 설문조사 결과 106 Ⅴ. 국가표준직무능력 도입 타당성분석 및 활용 방안 119 1. 국가표준직무능력 도입 타당성 분석 119 2. 국가표준직무능력의 활용 방향 141 Ⅵ. 요약 및 제언 154 1. 요약 154 2. 제언 158 【참 고 문 헌】 161 ABSTRACT 165 【부 록】 17

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Korea Research Institute for Vocational Education & Training

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oai:www.krivet.re.kr/repository:201303/11735Last time updated on 1/9/2019

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