Splitting a large software system into smaller and more manageable units has become an important problem for many organizations. The basic structure of a software system is given by a directed graph with vertices representing the programs of the system and arcs representing calls from one program to another. Generating a good partitioning into smaller modules becomes a minimization problem for the number of programs being called by external programs. First, we formulate an equivalent integer linear programming problem with 0–1 variables. theoretically, with this approach the problem can be solved to optimality, but this becomes very costly with increasing size of the software system. Second, we formulate the problem as a hypergraph partitioning problem. This is a heuristic method using a multilevel strategy, but it turns out to be very fast and to deliver solutions that are close to optimal
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