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Molecular analysis of the LTR retrotransposon Ylt1 from the genome of dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica

By Andriy Kovalchuk

Abstract

The retrotransposon Ylt1 was described previously from the genome of the dimorphic fungus Yarrowia lipolytica. Remarkably, Ylt1 is currently the largest LTR retrotransposon reported from fungal genomes. However, little was known about its biology and its interactions with host genome. So, the aim of this work was the characterization of properties of Ylt1.Analysis of proteins encoded by Ylt1 (Gag protein and integrase) was carried out during this work. To enable their detection, both proteins were tagged with HA epitopes. The sizes of Gag protein and putative precursors of Gag protein and integrase were estimated, and a model for the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein of Ylt1 was proposed. It was shown that Gag protein of Ylt1 is about 2-fold larger than Gag proteins of other studied yeast retrotransposons. An analysis of Ylt1 expression was also performed. Production of the Ylt1 Gag protein under different conditions was analyzed by Western blotting. Expression of Ylt1 occurred on all tested carbon sources. The amount of Ylt1 decreased rapidly upon transition to stationary growth phase, in the presence of copper sulfate and under heat shock conditions. It is suggested that Ylt1 is expressed in actively growing cells, whereas stress conditions have a negative impact on its expression. Such expression pattern was not previously reported for other yeast retrotransposons. Activity of Ylt1 in vivo was characterized using an Ylt1 elements tagged with SUC2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mobilization of the marked Ylt1 element and its transposition from autonomous plasmid into host genome was observed in performed experiments. Obtained results strongly support the idea that Ylt1 is transpositionally active. Formation of tandem repeats by newly inserted Ylt1 elements was observed in several cases. It is suggested that integrase function was affected in this case, and that the integration was mediated by homologous recombination instead. Analysis of the Ylt1 insertion specificity and of the Ylt1 distribution in the genome of Y. lipolytica E150 was done. The remarkable sequence specificity of Ylt1 insertions, which is unusual for LTR retrotransposons, was revealed during this analysis. Also, it was shown that Ylt1 insertions are found mainly in intergenic regions, often at a significant distance (>500 bp) from the next reading frame. No association of Ylt1 insertions with tRNA genes was observed. Searches for Ylt1-related elements in the Y. lipolytica genome database were performed. The novel Ty3/gypsy element Tyl6 was found in the genome of Y. lipolytica E150. The sequence analysis of this element was carried out. It was shown that structural properties of Tyl6 resemble the properties of the Ty3 element of S. cerevisiae. However, two reading frames of Tyl6 (gag and pol) are separated by -1 frame-shift, which was not previously reported for retrotransposons of hemiascomycetous yeasts. Phylogenetic analysis placed Tyl6 within chromoviruses, and the Tse3 element of S. exiguus was shown to be the closest relative of Tyl6. The distribution of Tyl6 among Y. lipolytica strains was analyzed. Interestingly, the novel element was found only in strains derived from the strain YB423-12. The strains of independent origin included in the analysis were shown to be Tyl6-free. The same distribution was previously reported for the retrotransposon Ylt1 and for the DNA transposon Mutyl. Two models of the evolution of transposable elements in Y. lipolytica genome were proposed based on these results

Topics: info:eu-repo/classification/ddc/570, ddc:570, Molekularbiologie; Retrotransposon; Transponierbares Element; Yarrowia lipolytica, Tyl6, Yarrowia lipolytica, Ylt1, mobile genetische Elemente, retrotransposon, Tyl6, Yarrowia lipolytica, Ylt1, retrotransposon, transposable elements
Publisher: Technische Universit├Ąt Dresden
Year: 2005
OAI identifier: oai:qucosa:de:qucosa:24605
Provided by: Qucosa
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