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Śikşāsamuccayaにおける菩薩の学処整理法とそのヴィクラマシーラの学僧への影響について

By 一憲 佐々木

Abstract

古来,インド・チベットでは「経典集」と呼ばれる,諸経典の要点を抜粋・整理した著作が数多く作り続けられてきた.本稿ではそのような「経典集」のうちでも最大のものである,インド中後期の論師シャーンティデーヴァ(Śāntideva,C.690-750)によってまとめられたŚikşāsamuccaya (SS)を取り上げ,そこに見られる菩薩の学処の整理法とそれが後世に与えた影響とを検証する.The Śikşāsamuccaya one of the authentic works of Śāntideva, is thought to have had a great influence on the monks living in Vikramaśīla monastery, the centre of later Indian Buddhism. This work is composed of over 100 quotations from Mahāyāna scriptures, most of which are introduced by the author's own short comments. These quotations are systematically arranged by the author with the insertion of 27 explanatory verses (kārikā). In verse 4 Śāntideva gives an important key to understanding the framework of this work, which presents the following 7 crucial points (marmasthāna) of the Bodhisattva's practice, that is, (1) body (ātmabhāva), (2) possessions (bhoga), (3) goodness (śubha), (4) renunciation (utsarga), (5) preservation (rakşā), (6) purification (śuddhi), and (7) enhancement (vardhana). Combining each of the former 3 points with the latter 4, the author gives 12 topics, which explain the outline of the whole work. The present paper has two aims. The first is to determine the number of "topics" as 12, mainly on the basis of internal evidence in the Śikşāsamuccaya. Modern scholars differ in their understanding of the arrangement of this work, especially in regard to the number of topics, although they equally emphasize its importance for analyzing the structure of the Śikşāsamuccaya. The second aim is to discuss the influence of this system on three eminent monks of Vikramaśīla monastery, i.e., Prajñākaramati, Vairocanarakşita and Dīpamkaraśrījñāna (Atiśa). In his Bodhicaryāvatārapañjikā Prajñākaramati, one of the best-known successors of Śāntideva, explains 5 pāramitās exactly in the light of the above system. Vairocanarakşita, the author of the Śikşāsakusumamañjalī, gives a tribute to both Śāntideva and the Śikşāsamuccaya at the start of his work and mentions verse 4 of the Śikşāsamuccaya as a crucial key to understanding the entire work. Dīpamkaraśrījñāna, renowned as a leading figure in the second transmission of Buddhism to Tibet, cites in his Bodhicaryāvatārapañjikā far more passages from Śāntideva's works than from works by any other writers. In the section where he explains the restraint (samvara) of Bodhisattvas, Dīpamkara quotes the above-mentioned verses 3 and 4 from the Śikşāsamuccaya, saying that Śāntideva presents the restraint of three kinds of Bodhisattvas. From the above discussion, we may possibly draw the conclusion that Buddhist monks at Vikramaśīla monastery from the late 10th to early 12th centuries recognized the system of Bodhisattvas'discipline in the Śikşāsamuccaya as an authoritative criterion for understanding the teachings of Mahāyāna scriptures

Topics: 126
Publisher: 東京大学大学院
Year: 2002
OAI identifier: oai:repository.dl.itc.u-tokyo.ac.jp:2261/6532
Provided by: UT Repository
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