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スラカルタ1919年 : インドネシア民族主義と農民

By 隆 白石


During the early months of 1919, the Soerakarta branch (afdeeling) of Insulinde carried out propaganda activities for the Indies nationalism and reformist Islam in the rural areas of Soerakarta Principality.Peasants were organized into the krings (circles) and the membership of Insulinde in rural Soerakarta reached more that ten thousands within a few months.This highly succesful peasant mobilization by the Insulinde, however, simultaneously generated successive peasant protest actions in which they refused to perform corvee labor for the tobacco plantations and demanded their wage increase.In this paper, I propose to describe and analyze the process of peasant mobilization and to answer why the nationalist mobilization of peasants resulted, though not intended, in generating peasant protest against the plantations.The major points made in this paper are two-fold.First, the afdeeling leadership under Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo and Hadji Mohammad Misbach did not intend to orgaize peasant protest actions against the plantations.They propagated the ideas of the Indies nationalism and Islamic reformism and acted on the ideas of genuine satria and Islamic pradjoerit (soldier) at the propanda rallies.But the kring leaders translated their messages into much more eonomic demands and recruited the peasants into the Insulinde krings while promisingthe mitigation of corvee labor and their wage increase.There-fore, it was investment for the peasants to pay the entrance fee and to join the Insulinde.Once they joined the Insulinde, they pressed kring leaders for quick realization of their promises.Thus kring leaders led the peasants to protest actions and the afdeeling leaders had no way but to approve their actions to maintain their credibility as genuine satria and Islamic pradjoerit.Second, therefore, the issues involved in the peasant protest actions under the banner of Insulinde were similar in content with those in the “traditional” peasant protest movements without any background of nationalist politics.What was new with the peasant protest actions led by the Insulinde was that the prapat, the traditional institutional device for conflict resolution in Java, did not work.The kring leaders boycotted the prapat and instead held Insulinde progapanda rallies.The prapat was the political drama to legitimize the public authority in which the state oficials played the pivotal role as the arbitrator of the conflicting private interests.The propaganda rallies were the political drama of delegitimizing the public authority, in which Indies nationalists and Islamic reformists occupied the pivotal position and the public authority was deprived of its higher moral quality by their appeals to the Truth contained in al Koran.Thus the administration had no way but to resort to arrest afdeeling-and kring-leaders in order to restore the public authority, for the arrests of afdeeling-and kring-leaders meant the disappearance of Insuli de proraganda rallies

Topics: インドネシア, 民族運動, 224.2, 316.8
Publisher: The Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo
Year: 1982
OAI identifier:
Provided by: UT Repository
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