ERPANET held its second experts workshop in October in Urbino. The event offered experts the opportunity to take part in an investigation of key topics in digital preservation. Participants examined XML role in digital preservation. This report is the result of two and a half days of presentations and discussions, and it aims to enable practitioners, their institutions and funding agencies to improve conservation and preservation practices. Speakers came from all over Europe and from diverse fields. They introduced key topics to the expert audience and this report is a blend of the talks and discussions that took place. The report makes some conclusions with reference to the potentials of XML and the risks involved in the lack of awareness about the requirements of the digital resources to be preserved.