(2002). Can human disturbance create nestedness? A case study with breeding birds in urban habitat fragments.
(2000). Changes in coyote activity patterns due to reduced exposure to human persecution.
(1999). Changes in sheep numbers in Britain: implications for bird populations.
(1989). Characteristics of bald eagle nest sites in Oregon.
(1994). Characteristics of white-tailed sea eagle nest sites in Hokkaido,
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(2003). Commission for Scotland.
(2004). Comparative fecundity and survival of bald eagles fledged from suburban and rural natal areas in Florida.
(2001). Competition between a large ruminant and a small fermentor: the case of the roe deer and mountain hare.
(2007). Complex effects of habitat loss on golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos.
Concordance Range Status Region agree disagree All % agree National active
(2002). Conservation of the golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) in the European Alps – a combination of education, cooperation, and modern techniques.
(1982). Correlation coefficients between areas of 34 LCS88 single and mosaic habitat classes and three measures of range productivity. Data are presented separately for the 1982 and 1992 national surveys and for
(1994). Current population levels of diurnal raptors in Britain.
(2005). Data in SWAP had a number of origins, similar to those behind CRS and were collated to 9
(1997). Demography and conservation of western European Bonelli’s eagle populations.
Density (1000 km -2) of all known and active ranges in each NHZ. 1The area for ‘All’ excludes NHZ that have no eagle ranges.
(2001). Density, productivity, diet, and human persecution of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the central-eastern Italian Alps.
(1994). Der Steinadler Aquila chrysaetos als Brutvögel im schweizerischen Alpenvorland: Ausbreitungstendenzen und ihre populationsökologischen Grundlagen.
(1981). Detailed analysis. Evidence at the Lurcher’s Gully Public Inquiry.
(2002). Details of the structure of the model are given by O’Toole
(2004). Developing methods to reduce bird mortality in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area. Final Report by BioResource Consultants to the California Energy Commission,
(1981). Diet of the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos during the breeding season in Sweden. Holarctic Ecology,
(1984). Dispersal and migration of southwestern Idaho raptors.
(1999). Dispersal of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland.
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(1998). Ecology and Conservation of Raptors in Forests. Forestry Commission Bulletin 118. London: The Stationary Office.
(2006). Effect of human activities on the behaviour of breeding Spanish imperial eagles (Aquila adalberti): management implications for the conservation of a threatened species.
(1993). Effect of the viral haemorrhagic pneumonia of the wild rabbit on the diet and breeding success of the Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos (L.).
(2001). Effects of an attractive sink leading into maladaptive habitat selection.
(1999). Effects of fire on Golden Eagle territory occupancy and reproductive success.
(1999). Effects of helicopter noise on Mexican Spotted Owls.
(2004). Effects of management practices on grassland birds:
(1996). Effects of reducing sheep grazing in the Scottish Highlands.
(1991). Electrocution of raptors on power lines in southwestern Spain.
(2005). Environmental stochasticity in dispersal areas can explain the mysterious disappearance of breeding populations.
(2001). Evaluating presence-absence models in ecology: the need to account for prevalence.
(1991). Evaluation of management techniques for the Spanish Imperial Eagle.
(2005). Executive Development Department Environment Statistics Branch).
(2007). Factors constraining the distribution of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland.
(2002). Factors influencing nest-site selection by Spanish Imperial Eagles.
(2002). Factors influencing the decline of a Bonelli’s eagle Hieraaetus fasciatus population in southeastern Spain: demography, habitat or competition?
(1990). Factors influencing the present-day distribution of the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti.
Feature Natural Heritage Zone1 3 km General trend with increasing production (only for those NHZ marked by an asterisk)
(2005). Floater survival affects population persistence. The role of prey availability and environmental stochasticity.
(2002). Flow chart illustrating the steps in the prediction of range use by golden eagles using the PAT model (from McLeod et al.
(1987). Following various studies such as
(1999). Foraging behaviour of sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics.
(1992). Frequency of young fledged in 1982 and
(1981). Further results of excluding sheep from high-level grasslands in the north Pennines.
(1998). Global dispersion of nesting hen harriers (Circus cyaneus): implications for grouse moors in the UK.
(1998). Golden and White-tailed Eagle in Scotland and Norway: co-existence, competition and environmental degradation.
(1992). Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos breeding success and afforestation in Argyll.
(2001). Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos density and productivity in relation to land abandonment and forest expansion in the Alps.
(2000). Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos ecology and conservation issues.
(2003). Golden eagle breeding performance in relation to climate in western Scotland during the period 1981-2000.
(1990). Golden eagle surveys,
(1989). Golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos: land use and food in northeast Scotland.
(1999). Good Practice for Grouse Moor Management.
(1991). Grazers Production Status Calves Cattle Sheep Stags Offtake Produce Equity Western Seaboard vacant
(1993). Grazing ecology and the conservation of heather moorland: the development of models as aids to management.
(1989). Grazing preferences of mountain hares on heather moorland and hill pastures.
(1992). Grouse in Space and Time: the Population Biology of a Managed Gamebird. Fordingbridge: The Game Conservancy.
(1983). Habitat and nest site features of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos (L.) in Sweden.
(2007). Habitat feature F p Mean sd Mean sd Largest mean Slope sd 215.
(1982). Habitat features in which mean values for different production classes (0, 1 and 2+ young fledged in
(1996). Habitat utilization in a stratified upland landscape by two lagomorphs with different feeding strategies.
(1995). Heaths and moorland: an overview of ecological change.
(2006). Home range count (HR) Estimate of the number of occupied home ranges (territories) (default start point for each NHZ, see Whitfield et al.
(1990). Home-range changes in raptors exposed to increasing human activity levels in southeastern Colorado.
(1999). How should accuracy be measured? In: Fielding, A. (Ed.) Ecological Applications of Machine Learning Methods.
(2002). Human-caused disturbance stimuli as a form of predation risk.
(2005). Humans act against the natural process of breeder selection: a modern sickness for animal populations?
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(2002). Improving prediction of golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) ranging in western Scotland, using GIS and terrain modelling.
(2001). Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behaviour.
(2003). Influences of persecution have been dealt with in greater detail by Whitfield
(1992). INFORMATION National surveys Estimates of productivity were available through the national censuses for the years 1982, 1992 and 2003. The
(1998). Inter-and intra-specific dominance relationships and feeding behaviour of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos and sea eagles Haliaeetus albicilla at carcasses.
(1991). Interactions of humans and bald eagles on the Columbia river system. Wildlife Monographs No.
(1997). Interactive effects of prey and weather on golden eagle reproduction.
(1988). Interrelationships within a raptor guild in the central Canadian arctic.
(1999). Ireland’s Lost Birds.
(1999). Island Eagles: 20 Years Observing Golden Eagles on the Isle of Skye. Glenbrittle, Isle of Skye:
(1993). Juvenile dispersal behaviour and natal philopatry in a long-lived raptor: the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti.
km General trend with increasing production (only for those NHZ marked by an asterisk)
(1993). Land Use Research Institute).
(2001). Life path analysis: scaling indicates priming effects of social and habitat factors on dispersal distances.
(1990). Long-term changes in nest defence intensity of the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti.
(1994). Machine learning, neural and statistical classification.
(1982). Mean fledged Total fledged fledged per 100 km 2 eagle habitat
(1982). Mean fledged Total fledged fledged per 100 km2 eagle habitat
(1982). Mean productivity (±s.e.) for each NHZ in
(1982). Mean productivity for each NHZ* for the 1982 and 1992 national surveys. These means exclude unoccupied territories and those in which only immature singles or groups were seen. Total is number of young fledged in each NHZ.
(1995). Model uncertainty, data mining and statistical inference.
(2004). Modelling the effects of persecution on the population dynamics of golden eagles in Scotland.
(2003). Modelling the impact of land use change on Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). In:
(2001). Molt and sequence of plumages of golden eagles and a technique for in-hand ageing.
(2002). Natural Heritage Futures: Coll, Tiree and the Western Isles.
(1999). Natural Heritage Zones Programme - Mountain and Moorland: National Prospectus.
(2000). Natural Heritage Zones.
(1992). Nest site selection by Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland.
(1992). Nesting density and breeding success of Golden Eagles Aquila chrysaetos in relation to food supply in Scotland.
(1992). Nesting habitat selection by the Spanish imperial eagle Aquila adalberti.
(1998). NevProp software, version 3.
(1993). NHZ boundaries were supplied, by SNH, as an Arcview shapefile. LCS88 Vegetation type descriptions were obtained from land cover data generated from the LCS88 data set (Land Cover of Scotland 1988: MLURI,
(1998). Nine decision tree (six Quest and 3 Exhaustive CHAID) models were tested using SPSS AnswerTree (Release 2.0.1,
(2003). Occupancy as a measure of territory quality.
(1979). Population Ecology of Raptors.
(1995). Positive effects on game species of top predators by controlling smaller predator populations: an example with lynx, mongooses and rabbits.
(2003). Potential impacts of native woodland expansion on golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in Scotland. In:
(2004). Potential impacts of new native woodland expansion on golden eagles
(1977). Power lines and birds of prey. In:
(2002). Predicting home range use by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland.
(1983). Prey abundance and reproductive success of the golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in Sweden.
(2007). Productivity across Scotland in 2003 was 0.36 young fledged per occupied territory (Eaton et al.,
(1997). Range expansion of raptors in Britain and the Netherlands since the 1960s: testing an individual-based diffusion model.
(1988). Range management and nature conservation in the British uplands.
(2006). Ranging behaviour of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland according to season and breeding status.
(1975). Raptor electrocutions.
(1998). Raptor floaters at Moffat’s equilibrium.
(2003). Raptor persecution in England at the end of the twentieth century. In:
(2000). Raptors and red grouse: conservation conflicts and management solutions.
(1996). Raptors in Human Landscapes: Adaptations to Built and Cultivated Environments.
(1982). Raumorganisation und dynamik einer population des Steinadlers Aquila chrysaetos in den zentralalpen.
(2002). Re-establishment of a breeding population of white-tailed eagles in
(2002). Re-introduction of the golden eagle into the Republic of Ireland.
(2003). Re-introduction of white-tailed eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) to Scotland.
(1993). Receiver operating characteristic laboratory (ROCLAB): software for developing decision strategies that account for uncertainty. In:
(1997). Recommendations for protecting raptors from human disturbance: a review.
(2002). Recreation in the uplands. Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) Information Note Series, Natural Heritage Trends.
(1992). Recreation: Munros Golden eagles appear to be intolerant of repeated and frequent human presence
(1994). Red Deer and the Natural Heritage.
(2002). Red deer management and vegetation on the Isle of Rum.
Region Checked Occupy Ranges % surveyed Success Fledged Twins Mean fledged per occupied range Mean fledged per successful range
Region Checked Occupy Ranges 1 % surveyed Success Fledged Twins Mean fledged per occupied range Mean fledged per successful range
Region Checked Occupy Ranges1 % surveyed Success Fledged Twins Mean fledged per occupied range Mean fledged per successful range
(1990). Region Source Period Ranges Occupied Success Fledge Interference Fledged per pair Fledged per success Adjusted Fledged per pair Caithness
(1990). Region Source Period Ranges OccupiedSuccessFledge Interference Fledged per pair Fledged per success Adjusted Fledged per pair Caithness
(2006). Regional and temporal variations in prey taken by golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos during the nestling period in Japan.
(2002). Regional conservation priorities for a large predator: golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) in the Alpine range.
(2005). Relationship between demographics and diet specificity of Imperial Eagles Aquila heliaca in Kazakhstan.
(2004). Renewables Trends in Scotland. Statistics & Analysis.
(1985). Reproduction of ferruginous hawks exposed to controlled disturbance.
(1989). Resampling methods for evaluating classification accuracy of wildlife habitat models.
(2005). Resident Golden Eagle ranging behaviour before and after construction of a windfarm in Argyll.
(1993). Responses of wintering grassland raptors to human disturbance.
(2003). Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
(1996). Sample sizes Ranges predicted active Training data NHZ active random all active random All Sensitivity Specificity
(2002). Scotland's Moorland: The Nature of Change. Battleby: Scottish Natural Heritage.
(1998). Seasonal differences in pellet remains from Golden Eagles in the Isle of Harris.
(2002). Should data be partitioned spatially before building large-scale distribution models?
(2003). Skye and Lochaber) were also collated between 1982 and 1999 inclusive (e.g.
(1985). Spacing of Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos nests in relation to nest site and food availability.
(2006). Spatial association as an indicator of the potential for future interactions between wind energy developments and golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland.
(2003). Spatial refugia and the coexistence of a diurnal raptor with its intraguild owl predator.
(1997). Split selection methods for Classification trees.
(1982). Starting population = 12 pairs, population cap = 26 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.83 (2003) and 0.47 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 12 pairs, population cap = 27 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.50 (2003) and 0.50 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 18 pairs, population cap = 31 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.39 (2003) and 0.32 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 25 pairs, population cap = 36 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.16 (2003) and 0.30 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 28 pairs, population cap = 71 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.68 (2003) and 0.78 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 43 pairs, population cap = 90 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.28 (2003) and 0.37 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 44 pairs, population cap = 60 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.54 (2003) and 0.46 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 46 pairs, population cap = 72 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.33 (2003) and 0.39 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 51 pairs, population cap = 70 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.16 (2003) and 0.20 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 74 pairs, population cap = 100 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.46 (2003) and 0.44 (mean
(1982). Starting population = 81 pairs, population cap = 95 pairs. The fledging rates were 0.35 (2003) and 0.33 (mean
(1969). Status and breeding success of golden eagles in north-west Sutherland in
Status ArgillaceousIntermediate Igneous Metamorphic Sedimentary Miscellaneous Sedimentary Sandstones Western Seaboard vacant
(1981). Suggested practices for raptor protection on power lines. The state of the art in
(1997). Summary of performance indicators, using training data, for six neural models of golden eagle range distribution: (a) F statistics; (b) prediction accuracy (with 0.5 threshold). The C-index (area under the ROC curve, Fielding and Bell
(1987). Territorial behaviour of Golden Eagles in western Norway.
(2003). The association of grouse moor in Scotland with the illegal use of poisons to control predators.
(1957). The breeding success of golden eagles in the southern Grampians.
(1997). The changing pattern of environmental regulation: British forestry and the environmental agenda.
(1997). The contribution of game management to biodiversity: a review of the importance of grouse moors for upland birds.
(2003). The decline of common kestrels Falco tinnunculus in a forested area of northern England: the role of predation by northern goshawks Accipiter gentilis.
(1993). The diet of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos in Scotland.
(1992). The diet of the sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla and golden eagle Aquila chrysaetos in western Scotland.
(1989). The Ecology of Bird Communities. Volume 2: processes and variations. Cambridge:
(2001). The effects of forestry on golden eagles on the island of Mull,
(1994). The Effects of Future Changes in Land Use on Upland Birds in Britain. Edinburgh: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
(1997). The effects of illegal killing and destruction of nests by humans on the population dynamics of the hen harrier Circus cyaneus in Scotland.
(2004). The effects of persecution on age of breeding and territory occupation in golden eagles in Scotland.
(2000). The GEPM is constructed in an Excel
(2002). The GEPM was used to simulate the response of the NHZ ‘populations’ to estimates of demographic parameters (O’Toole et al.,
(1964). The golden eagle in relation to its food supply.
(1971). The golden eagle survey in Scotland 1964-1968.
(1997). The Golden Eagle.
(1996). The Historical Atlas of Breeding Birds
(1997). The illegal persecution of raptors in Scotland.
(2003). The impact of golden eagles on a diverse bird of prey assemblage.
(1985). The impact of human activities on breeding bald eagles in north-central Minnesota.
(1987). The impact of land-use changes on golden eagles in the Scottish Highlands.
(2004). The importance of interspecific interactions for breeding-site selection: peregrine falcons seek proximity to ravens nests.
(1995). The influence of vegetation pattern on the grazing of heather moorland by red deer and sheep. II. The impact on heather.
(1991). The Munros: Scottish Mountaineering Club Hillwalkers Guide. Volume one. Second edition. Edinburgh: Scottish Mountaineering Club.
(1985). The numbers, breeding success and diet of Golden Eagles in southern Scotland in relation to changes in land use.
(1993). The Peregrine Falcon. 2 nd edition.
(1993). The Peregrine Falcon. 2nd edition.
(2003). The perils of having tasty neighbors: grazing impacts of large herbivores at vegetation boundaries.
(1996). The possible effects of landscape change on diet composition and body weight of mountain hares Lepus timidus.
(1981). The responses of heather-dominated vegetation in north-east Scotland to grazing by red deer.
(1983). The Return of the Sea Eagle.
(2005). The second data source was the Gazetteer of Wind Power in Scotland (SWAP,
(1998). The software used (NEVPROP3; Goodman,
(2001). The Spanish Imperial Eagle. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
(1996). The status of the Golden Eagle
(1961). The White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla albicilla (L.) in Norway.
(2002). This data partitioning strategy was recently shown to be the best when building large-scale distribution models (Osborne & Suárez-Seoane,
Threshold status n mean s.e. 95% C.L. for difference t p 6 km vacant
(2005). Top predators and biodiversity.
(2003). Towards resolving raptorhuman conflicts. In:
Tree Cost Priors active sensitivity random specificity Training data
(1999). Tree-based methods. In: Fielding, A. (Ed.) Ecological Applications of Machine Learning Methods.
(2003). Undesirable evolutionary consequences of trophy hunting
(1991). Using long-term ornithological studies in setting targets for conservation in Britain.
(2005). Using naturally shed feathers for individual identification, genetic parentage analyses and population monitoring in an endangered eastern imperial eagle (Aquila heliaca) population from Kazakhstan.
Vacant Active All Buffer Variable mean sd mean sd mean sd
vacant active All Buffer Variable mean sd mean sd mean sd F Sig. Larger 3 km Woodland (n = 195, 430, 625) Closed canopy
vacant active All Buffer Variable mean sd mean sd mean sd F Sig. Larger Heathland (n = 195, 430, 625)
vacant active unknown single all ALL mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd mean sd F Sig.
(2003). Variations in the age of mates as an early warning signal of changes in population trends? The case of Bonelli’s eagle in Andalusia.
(1987). Vegetation, fire and herbivore interactions in heathland.
(1982). We used the results of the three national censuses of golden eagles in Scotland, from
(2001). We used two data sets relating to incidence of persecution. The first encompassed all records of illegal poisoning in Scotland collated annually by the Royal Society for the 75 Protection of Birds (e.g. RSPB,
(2002). What are the appropriate characteristics of an accuracy measure? In: