The inability of proteins to potently penetrate mammalian cells limits their usefulness as tools and therapeutics. When fused to superpositively charged GFP, proteins rapidly (within minutes) entered five different types of mammalian cells with potency up to ∼100-fold greater than that of corresponding fusions with known protein transduction domains (PTDs) including Tat, oligoarginine, and penetratin. Ubiquitin-fused supercharged GFP when incubated with human cells was partially deubiquitinated, suggesting that proteins delivered with supercharged GFP can access the cytosol. Likewise, supercharged GFP delivered functional, nonendosomal recombinase enzyme with greater efficiencies than PTDs in vitro and also delivered functional recombinase enzyme to the retinae of mice when injected in vivo.Chemistry and Chemical Biolog
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