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Redox metals homeostasis in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review

By Sahar Sheykhansari, Kristen Kozielski, Joachim Bill, Metin Sitti, Donato Gemmati, Paolo Zamboni and Ajay Vikram Singh

Abstract

The effect of redox metals such as iron and copper on multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been intensively studied. However, the origin of these disorders remains uncertain. This review article critically describes the physiology of redox metals that produce oxidative stress, which in turn leads to cascades of immunomodulatory alteration of neurons in multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Iron and copper overload has been well established in motor neurons of these diseases' lesions. On the other hand, the role of other metals like cadmium participating indirectly in the redox cascade of neurobiological mechanism is less studied. In the second part of this review, we focus on this less conspicuous correlation between cadmium as an inactive-redox metal and multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, providing novel treatment modalities and approaches as future prospects

Year: 2018
DOI identifier: 10.1038/s41419-018-0379-2
OAI identifier: oai:iris.unife.it:11392/2384330
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